Crotone

Crotone (Italian: [kroˈtoːne] listen ; Crotonese: Cutrone or Cutruni) is a city and comune in Calabria. Founded c. 710 BC as the Achaean colony of Kroton (Ancient Greek: Κρότων or Ϙρότων, Latin: Crotona), it was known as Cotrone from the Middle Ages until 1928, when its name was changed to the current one. In 1992, it became the capital of the newly established Province of Crotone. As of August 2018, its population was about 65,000.

Coordinates: 39°05′N 17°07′E / 39.083°N 17.117°E

Crotone
Città di Crotone
Panorama of Crotone
Panorama of Crotone
Coat of arms of Crotone

Coat of arms
Location of Crotone
Crotone is located in Italy
Crotone
Crotone
Location of Crotone in Italy
Crotone is located in Calabria
Crotone
Crotone
Crotone (Calabria)
Coordinates: 39°05′N 17°07′E / 39.083°N 17.117°E
CountryItaly
RegionCalabria
ProvinceCrotone (KR)
FrazioniPapanice, Apriglianello, Carpentieri, Cipolla, Farina, Gabella Grande, Iannello, Maiorano, Margherita
Government
 • MayorUgo Pugliese
Area
 • Total179.8 km2 (69.4 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
(31 August 2018)
 • Total64,603
 • Density360/km2 (930/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Crotonesi
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
88900
Dialing code0962
Patron saintDionysius the Areopagite
Saint dayOctober 9
WebsiteOfficial website
CastelloCrotone
The Castle of Charles V.

History

Croton's oikistes (founder) was Myscellus who came from the city of Rhypes in Achaea in the northern Peloponnese. He established the city in c. 710 BC and it soon became one of the most flourishing cities of Magna Graecia with a population between 50,000 and 80,000 around 500 BC.[1] Its inhabitants were famous for their physical strength and for the simple sobriety of their lives. From 588 BC onwards, Croton produced many generations of victors in the Olympics and the other Panhellenic Games, the most famous of whom was Milo of Croton. According to Herodotus (3.131), the physicians of Croton were considered the foremost among the Greeks, and among them Democedes, son of Calliphon, was the most prominent in the 6th century BC. Accordingly, he traveled around Greece and ended up working in the court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. After the tyrant was murdered, Democedes was captured by the Persians and brought to King Darius, curing him of a dislocated ankle. Democedes' fame was, according to Herodotus, the basis for the prestige of Croton's physicians.[2] Pythagoras founded his school, the Pythagoreans, at Croton c. 530 BC. Among his pupils were the early medical theorist Alcmaeon of Croton and the philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer Philolaus. The Pythagoreans acquired considerable influence with the supreme council of one thousand by which the city was ruled. Sybaris was the rival of Croton until 510 BC, when Croton sent an army of one hundred thousand men, commanded by the wrestler Milo, against Sybaris and destroyed it. Shortly afterwards, however, an insurrection took place, led by a prominent citizen, Cylon, by which the Pythagoreans were driven out and a democracy established.

SNGANS 259ff
Coin of Croton, c. 480-460 BC.

In 480 BC, Croton sent a ship in support of the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis (Herodotus 8.47), but the victory of Locri and Rhegium over Croton in the same year marked the beginning of its decline. It was replaced by Heraclea as headquarters of the Italiote League. Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, aiming at hegemony in Magna Graecia, captured Croton in 379 BC and held it for twelve years. Croton was then occupied by the Bruttii, with the exception of the citadel, in which the chief inhabitants had taken refuge; these soon after surrendered, and were allowed to withdraw to Locri.

In 295 BC, Croton fell to another Syracusan tyrant, Agathocles. When Pyrrhus invaded Italy (280-278, 275 BC), it was still a considerable city, with twelve miles (19 km) of walls, but after the Pyrrhic War, half the town was deserted (Livy 24.3). What was left of its population submitted to Rome in 277 BC. After the Battle of Cannae in the Second Punic War (216 BC), Croton was betrayed to the Brutii by a democratic leader named Aristomachus, who defected to the Roman side. Hannibal made it his winter quarters for three years and the city was not recaptured until 205 or 204 BC. In 194 BC, it became the site of a Roman colony. Little more is heard of it during the Republican and Imperial periods, though the action of one of the more significant surviving fragments of the Satyricon of Petronius is set in Croton.

Around 550, the city was unsuccessfully besieged by Totila, king of the Ostrogoths. At a later date it became a part of the Byzantine Empire. Around 841, the Republic of Venice sent a fleet of 60 galleys (each carrying 200 men) to assist the Byzantines in driving the Arabs from Crotone, but it failed.[3] About 870, it was sacked by the Saracens, who put to death the bishop and many people who had taken refuge in the cathedral but were not able to occupy the city. Over a hundred years later, Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor, mounted a campaign in southern Italy to reduce the power of the Byzantines. Later on Crotone was conquered by the Normans. In 1806, it was occupied and sacked by the English, and later on by the French. Thereafter it shared the fate of the Kingdom of Naples—including the period of Spanish rule of which the 16th-century castle of Charles V, overlooking modern Crotone, serves as a reminder—and its successor, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which was conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 and incorporated into the new Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

Crotone's location between the ports of Taranto and Messina, as well as its proximity to a source of hydroelectric power, favored industrial development during the period between the two World Wars. In the 1930s its population doubled. However, after the two main employers, Pertusola Sud and Montedison, collapsed by the late 1980s, Crotone was in economic crisis, with many residents losing their jobs and leaving to find work elsewhere. In 1996, the river Esaro flooded the city, which dealt a further blow to the city's morale. Since that low point, the city has undergone urban renewal and risen in quality-of-life rankings.

Geography

Climate

Crotone enjoys a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa).

Climate data for Crotone Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.0
(69.8)
22.0
(71.6)
25.2
(77.4)
26.2
(79.2)
33.0
(91.4)
43.0
(109.4)
42.2
(108.0)
42.0
(107.6)
38.6
(101.5)
31.8
(89.2)
25.4
(77.7)
22.4
(72.3)
43.0
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.0
(55.4)
14.9
(58.8)
17.4
(63.3)
22.6
(72.7)
27.5
(81.5)
30.6
(87.1)
30.4
(86.7)
26.6
(79.9)
21.6
(70.9)
16.9
(62.4)
13.8
(56.8)
20.7
(69.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.2
(48.6)
9.2
(48.6)
10.8
(51.4)
12.9
(55.2)
17.4
(63.3)
21.8
(71.2)
25.0
(77.0)
25.1
(77.2)
21.9
(71.4)
17.7
(63.9)
13.3
(55.9)
10.3
(50.5)
16.2
(61.2)
Average low °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
5.5
(41.9)
6.7
(44.1)
8.4
(47.1)
12.2
(54.0)
16.1
(61.0)
19.4
(66.9)
19.9
(67.8)
17.2
(63.0)
13.8
(56.8)
9.6
(49.3)
6.7
(44.1)
11.8
(53.2)
Record low °C (°F) −6.2
(20.8)
−2.8
(27.0)
−1.6
(29.1)
0.8
(33.4)
3.6
(38.5)
8.2
(46.8)
10.0
(50.0)
11.6
(52.9)
9.0
(48.2)
4.0
(39.2)
1.0
(33.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 96.2
(3.79)
87.1
(3.43)
94.1
(3.70)
52.7
(2.07)
24.7
(0.97)
5.2
(0.20)
11.9
(0.47)
24.0
(0.94)
53.9
(2.12)
115.8
(4.56)
116.2
(4.57)
109.8
(4.32)
791.6
(31.14)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 8.0 7.4 7.0 5.8 4.0 1.3 1.1 2.2 3.8 6.5 7.4 8.5 63
Average relative humidity (%) 75 73 72 72 68 62 57 62 64 74 78 75 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.2 138.3 170.5 195.0 251.1 279.0 313.1 291.4 231.0 189.1 144.0 117.8 2,450.5
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico (1971–2000 data)[4]
Source #2: Servizio Meteorologico (1961–1990 data on humidity and sunshine)[5]

Main sights

  • The Cathedral, originally from the 9th to 11th centuries, but largely rebuilt. It has a neo-classical façade, while the interior has a nave with two aisles, with Baroque decorations. Noteworthy are a baptismal font (12th century) and the Madonna di Capo Colonna, the icon of the Black Madonna which, according to the tradition, was brought from East in the first years of the Christian era.
  • The 16th-century Castle of Charles V. It houses the Town Museum, with findings excavated in the ancient site of Kroton. Notable are also the remnants of the walls, of the same century, and of various watchtowers.
  • The ancient castle built on an island, with accessibility on foot limited to a narrow strip of land, is referred to as Le Castella.

Transportation

Crotone Airport (Sant'Anna Airport) is served by Italiatour.it and other charter airlines. Crotone also has a railway station, although much of the tourism traffic is served by the Salerno-Reggio Calabria highway and the National Road (called 106 Ionica) leading all the Jonic (eastern) coast from Taranto to Reggio Calabria. In recent time Crotone Port has been used by visitors on yacht charter cruising vacations.

Culture

Museums

Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Crotone
The National Archaeological Museum.

Crotone hosts a national archaeological museum, a municipal museum, a municipal art gallery, and a provincial museum of contemporary art, as well as the Antiquarium di Torre Nao.

Sport

F.C. Crotone is a football club in Serie B. The team was promoted to top flight Serie A, for the 2016–17 season for the first time in its history. However, they are now competing in Serie B for their 2018-2019 season.

Achei Crotone is an american football club in Italy's 3rd division. It was established in 1989 and is considered one of the most storied teams in Italy.

Notable people

Literary reference

Crotone appears in the Philippine national epic Florante at Laura as the Kingdom of Krotona. The poem narrates this as the homeland of the protagonist Florante's mother, Princess Floresca.

In Petronius' Satyricon, which survives in fragments, the narrator and his friends arrive at Croton, famous for its legacy hunters. The narrator's companion, the manic poet Eumolpus, poses as a childless, rich old man. Upon arrival to the city, Philomela, a citizen of Croton, seduces Eumolpus by means of her children. The extant portion of the Satyricon ends with Eumolpus explaining that the people of Croton must agree to eat his dead body if they wish to claim his inheritance.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Crotone is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ Jarde, A. (2013). The Formation of the Greek People. Routledge. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-136-19586-0.
  2. ^ Herodotus, The Histories, p. 226, Penguin Classics
  3. ^ J. Norwich, A History of Venice, 32
  4. ^ "Crotone (KR) 161 m. s.l.m. (a.s.l.)" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  5. ^ "Stazione 350 Crotone medie mensili periodo 61 - 90". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  6. ^ Grecia e Magna Grecia: incontro Giannitsa e Crotone Archived November 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine(in Italian)
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Crotona" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 510–511.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Cotrone" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  • J. Banaszkiewicz, "Ein Ritter flieht oder wie Kaiser Otto II. sich vom Schlachtfeld bei Cotrone rettete," Frühmittelalterliche Studien, 40 (2006), 145-166.

External links

2016–17 Serie A

The 2016–17 Serie A (known as the Serie A TIM for sponsorship reasons) was the 115th season of top-tier Italian football, the 85th in a round-robin tournament, and the 7th since its organization under a league committee separate from Serie B. Juventus were the defending champions. The season ran from 20 August 2016 to 28 May 2017.On 21 May, Juventus won a record sixth consecutive title and 33rd title overall with a game in hand following their 3–0 win over Crotone.

2017–18 Serie A

The 2017–18 Serie A (known as the Serie A TIM for sponsorship reasons) was the 116th season of top-tier Italian football, the 86th in a round-robin tournament and the 8th since its organization under a league committee separate from Serie B. Juventus were the six-time defending champions. The season ran from 19 August 2017 to 20 May 2018.The season was marred by the death of Davide Astori, the captain of Fiorentina, due to heart problems.

Angelo Ogbonna

Obinze Angelo Ogbonna (born 23 May 1988), known as Angelo Ogbonna, is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a centre back for English Premier League West Ham United and the Italian national team.

He signed for Torino in 2002, having previously been a member of Nuova Cassino's youth set-up. Ogbonna made his debut in Serie A at the age of 18 under Alberto Zaccheroni. After a loan spell at Crotone in Serie C1, he returned to Torino, with whom he played for a further five seasons. In July 2013, he transferred to city rivals, Juventus, winning the Scudetto in

2013–14 and 2014–15, as well as the 2013 Supercoppa Italiana and the 2014–15 Coppa Italia.

He was a member of the Italian side which finished runners-up at UEFA Euro 2012, and also represented his nation at UEFA Euro 2016.

Casabona

Casabona (Calabrian: Casivonu) is a comune and town with a population of about 4,000 people in the province of Crotone, in Calabria, southern Italy.

Crotone Airport

Crotone-Sant'Anna Airport (Italian: Aeroporto di Crotone-Sant'Anna) (IATA: CRV, ICAO: LIBC) is a minor Italian domestic airport serving Crotone in Calabria.

Dante López

Dante Rafael López Fariña (born 16 August 1983 in Asunción) is a retired football player from Paraguay.

López's good form with lowly club Crotone earned him a call up for Paraguay at the 2007 Copa America. His form attracted some interest of a few larger Italian clubs, including Napoli. However, López moved back to Paraguay to play for Libertad, after the relegation of Crotone from Serie B.

Davide Nicola

Davide Nicola (born March 5, 1973 in Luserna San Giovanni) is an Italian football former player and current manager of Udinese.

European route E846

European route E 846 is a European B class road in Italy, connecting the cities Cosenza – Crotone.

F.C. Crotone

Football Club Crotone S.r.l is an Italian football club based in Crotone, Calabria. Founded in 1910, holding home games at Stadio Ezio Scida, which has a 16,547-seat capacity. The club currently competes in Serie B.

Gian Piero Gasperini

Gian Piero Gasperini (born 26 January 1958) is an Italian football manager and former player, who is currently the manager of Italian side Atalanta.

List of foreign Serie B players

This is a list of foreign players in Serie B of the Italian football league system. The following players:

have played at least one Serie B game for the respective club;

have not been capped for the Italian national team on any level, independently from the birthplace, except for players born in San Marino and active in the Italian national team before the first official match of the Sammarinese national team played on November 14, 1990 and players of Italian formation born abroad from Italian parents;

have been born in Italy and were capped by a foreign national team. This includes players who have dual citizenship with Italy.These are all the teams that have had at least a foreign player while playing in a Serie A season and in bold are the ones currently playing for the 2018–19 season :

AlbinoLeffe, Alessandria, Alzano Virescit, Ancona, Arezzo, Ascoli, Atalanta, Avellino, Bari, Benevento, Bologna, Brescia, Cagliari, Carpi, Castel di Sangro, Catania, Catanzaro, Cesena, Chievo, Cittadella, Como, Cosenza, Crema, Cremonese, Crotone, Empoli, Entella, Fanfulla Lodi, Fermana, Fidelis Andria, Fiorentina, Foggia, Frosinone, Gallipoli, Genoa, Gubbio, Juve Stabia, Juventus, Lanciano, Latina, Lazio, Lecce, Lecco, Legnano, Licata, Livorno, Lucchese, Maceratese, Mantova, Messina, Milan, Modena, Napoli, Nocerina, Novara, Padova, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Portogruaro, Piacenza, Pisa, Pistoiese, Pro Patria, Pro Vercelli, Reggiana, Reggina, Rimini, Roma, Salernitana, Sampdoria, Sassuolo, Siena, SPAL, Spezia, Taranto, Ternana, Torino, Trapani, Treviso, Triestina, Udinese, Varese, Venezia, Verona, Vicenza, Voghera.

These are the only teams that have participated in Serie A but have not had a foreign player: Acireale, Alba Roma, Barletta, Biellese, Bolzano, Brindisi, Campobasso, Carrarese Calcio, Casale, Cavese, Centese, Derthona, Fiumana, Forlì, Magenta, Massese

In bold are the players that have played at least one game in the 2018–19 season.

List of railway stations in Calabria

This is the list of the railway stations in Calabria owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.

Lorenzo Crisetig

Lorenzo Crisetig (born 20 January 1993) is an Italian footballer who plays for Serie B club Benevento, on loan from Bologna, as a midfielder.

Crisetig made his competitive debut on 27 September 2011, in the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League.

Milo of Croton

Milo of Croton (; Greek: Μίλων, Mílōn; gen.: Μίλωνος, Mílōnos) was a 6th-century BC wrestler from the Magna Graecian city of Croton, who enjoyed a brilliant wrestling career and won many victories in the most important athletic festivals of ancient Greece. In addition to his athletic victories, Milo is credited by the ancient commentator Diodorus Siculus with leading his fellow citizens to military triumph over neighboring Sybaris in 510 BC.

Milo was also said to have carried a bull on his shoulders, and to have burst a band about his brow by simply inflating the veins of his temples.

The date of Milo's death is unknown, but he reportedly was attempting to tear a tree apart when his hands became trapped in a crevice in its trunk, and a pack of wolves surprised and devoured him. Milo has been depicted in works of art by Pierre Puget, Étienne-Maurice Falconet and others. In literature, he has been referenced by Rabelais in Gargantua and Pantagruel, by Shakespeare in Troilus and Cressida, and also by Alexandre Dumas in The Man in the Iron Mask.

Moussa Diaby

Moussa Diaby (born 7 July 1999) is a French footballer who currently plays as a winger for Ligue 1 side Paris Saint-Germain.

Province of Crotone

The province of Crotone (Italian: provincia di Crotone) is a province in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It was formed in 1992 out of a section of the province of Catanzaro. The provincial capital is the city of Crotone. It borders the provinces of Cosenza, Catanzaro, and also the Ionian Sea. It contains the mountain Pizzuta, the National Park of the Sila, Montagnella Park, and the Giglietto Valley. Crotone was founded in 710 BCE. It participated in the Second Punic War against the Roman Republic.

The province contains 27 comuni (singular: comune), listed at comuni of the Province of Crotone.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Crotone-Santa Severina

The Archdiocese of Crotone-Santa Severina (Latin: Archidioecesis Crotonensis-Sanctae Severinae) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in southern Italy, created in 1986. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Catanzaro-Squillace. The historic Diocese of Cortone (also Cotrone, now Crotone) in Calabria had existed from the 6th century, and was in 1986 combined with the Diocese of Santa Severina. It was a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Reggio. In 2013 there was one priest for every 1, 841 Catholics.

San Nicola dell'Alto

San Nicola dell'Alto (Arbëreshë Albanian: Shën Koll) is a village and comune (municipality) in the province of Crotone, in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It is an Arbëreshë village founded by Albanian immigrants to Italy in the sixteenth century.

Stadio Ezio Scida

Stadio Ezio Scida is a football stadium in Crotone, Italy. It is currently the home of F.C. Crotone. The stadium holds 16,547.

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