The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major freeway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is mainly designated as part of Interstate 95 (I-95), but also includes portions of I-295 and U.S. Route 1 (US 1). The Cross Bronx begins at the Alexander Hamilton Bridge over the Harlem River, where the Trans-Manhattan Expressway continues west across Upper Manhattan to the George Washington Bridge. While I-95 leaves at the Bruckner Interchange in Throgs Neck, following the Bruckner Expressway and New England Thruway to Connecticut, the Cross Bronx Expressway Extension continues east, carrying I-295 to the merge with the Throgs Neck Expressway near the Throgs Neck Bridge. Though the road goes primarily northwest-to-southeast, the nominal directions of all route numbers west of the Bruckner Interchange are aligned with the northbound route number going southeast, and the southbound route number going northwest.
The Cross Bronx Expressway was conceived by Robert Moses and built between 1948 and 1972. It was the first highway built through a crowded urban environment in the United States; the most expensive mile of road ever built to that point is part of the Cross Bronx, costing $40 million (equivalent to $374,111,801 in 2018). At one point during construction, Moses' crews had to support the Grand Concourse (a major surface thoroughfare), a subway line[a] and several elevated train lines[b] while the expressway was laboriously pushed through. The highway experiences severe traffic problems, and its construction has been blamed for negatively affecting a number of low-income neighborhoods in the South Bronx.
|Cross Bronx Expressway|
Map of the Bronx in New York City with Cross Bronx Expressway highlighted in red
|Length||6.5 mi (10.5 km)|
| I-95 from Morris Heights to Throggs Neck|
US 1 from Morris Heights to Tremont
I-295 in Throggs Neck
|West end||I-95 / US 1 in Morris Heights|
| I-87 in Morris Heights|
US 1 in Tremont
Bronx River Parkway in Soundview
I-95 / I-278 / I-295 / I-678 in Throggs Neck
|East end||I-295 in Throggs Neck|
The Cross Bronx Expressway begins at the eastern end of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge as a continuation of the Trans-Manhattan Expressway and officially designated as both I-95 and US 1. Immediately after coming off the bridge, there is an interchange with the Major Deegan Expressway (I-87) for Yankee Stadium and points upstate. The highway soon intersects with Webster Avenue at a partial interchange allowing eastbound vehicles to exit and westbound ones to enter. Northbound US 1 leaves the Cross Bronx Expressway at this exit. About one and half miles later comes a pair of closely spaced interchanges for the Sheridan Expressway (New York State Route 895 or NY 895) and the Bronx River Parkway. The exit for the Sheridan Expressway is an incomplete interchange and allows access from northbound and to southbound I-95 only.
Going eastbound (I-95 northbound), the interchange allows access to southbound I-678, northbound I-95 (Bruckner Expressway) and southbound I-295. I-95 leaves the Cross Bronx Expressway here and continues north along the Bruckner Expressway. The Cross Bronx Expressway continues east of the interchange as I-295, which begins here. The Cross Bronx ends 1.5 miles (2.4 km) later at the Throgs Neck Expressway, where traffic from I-695 merges on towards the Throgs Neck Bridge.
The 1929 Report on Highway Traffic Conditions and Proposed Traffic Relief Measures for the City of New York was the first citywide traffic study, classifying a number of projects that had been proposed by local interests. A "Cross-Bronx Route" along 161st and 163rd Streets was one of two proposed facilities, along with the "Nassau Boulevard" (which became the Long Island Expressway), picked by borough engineers as examples of important projects. Although this routing was south of the present Cross Bronx Expressway, the report did suggest a "New Cross-Bronx Artery" near the present expressway that would link the Washington Bridge with the Clason Point Ferry to Queens. Though it would not be built to freeway standards, it would be 60 feet (18 m) wide with grade separations "where considered necessary and desirable." The George Washington Bridge, then under construction, was cited among reasons to build the highway which would help connect New Jersey to Long Island via the bridges and ferry.
In 1936, the Regional Plan Association (RPA) proposed a cross-Bronx highway which would connect the George Washington, Triborough, and Bronx–Whitestone bridges, as well as access to points north to New England. In late 1940, the New York City Planning Commission adopted a plan for a network of highways. Except for the Bronx and Pelham Parkway, which lay to the north, no cross-Bronx highway had been built up to this point. The report stated that the "Bronx Crosstown Highway", which would now connect on the east end to the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge (which had replaced the Clason Point Ferry), was "an essential part of a desirable highway pattern", taking traffic from the George Washington Bridge to Long Island and New England. The cost was estimated at $17 million, higher than most improvements because of the "topographical conditions, high land values, and heavily built-up areas".
Robert Moses proposed a six-lane expressway to run through the middle of the Bronx in 1945. This project proved to be one of the most difficult expressway projects at the time; construction required blasting through ridges, crossing valleys and redirecting small rivers. In doing so, minimal disruption to the apartment buildings that topped the ridges in the area of Grand Concourse was a priority. Moreover, the expressway had to cross 113 streets, seven expressways and parkways (some of which were under construction), one subway line, five elevated lines, three commuter rail lines, and hundreds of utility, water and sewer lines, none of which could be interrupted.
Construction of the expressway began in 1948. A 112-foot open cut was carefully dug to accommodate six 12-foot-wide (3.7 m) traffic lanes and four 10-foot-wide (3.0 m) cobblestone shoulders. In 1963, the last of the three sections of roadway between the Alexander Hamilton and Throgs Neck Bridges were finished, completing the Cross Bronx Expressway.
The first portion, from the Bronx River Parkway east to the Bruckner Interchange, opened on November 5, 1955, at the same time as parts of the Queens Midtown and Major Deegan expressways. When the Throgs Neck Bridge opened on January 11, 1961, the Cross Bronx was extended east as one of its two northern approaches. (The extension was part of I-78 until 1970, when it became I-295, its current designation.) A one-mile (1.5 km) western extension to a temporary interchange with Boston Road opened on April 23, 1956, and on April 27, 1960, another 1.2-mile (2 km) piece opened, taking the road west to Webster Avenue. The short 0.6-mile (1 km) piece from Webster Avenue west to Jerome Avenue opened on February 10, 1961. With the opening of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge in April 1963, the $128 million Cross Bronx was completed. This was not the end of construction; the $12.6 million Highbridge Interchange with the Major Deegan Expressway (I-87) opened in November 1964, and a $68 million reconstruction of the Bruckner Interchange, allowing Bruckner Expressway (I-95/I-278) traffic to bypass the old traffic circle, opened on January 2, 1972. (Cross Bronx traffic passing through to the Throgs Neck Bridge had been able to avoid the circle, but drivers taking the Bruckner in either direction, including those bound for New England, had to exit onto the surface.)
The Cross Bronx Expressway is blamed for worsening the decay of neighborhoods in the South Bronx, such as Tremont. In Robert Caro's The Power Broker, the author argues that Moses intentionally directed the expressway through this neighborhood, even though there was a more viable option only one block south. Many of the neighborhoods it runs through have been continually poor since its construction, partly due to the lowered property value caused by the Expressway. This is partially responsible for the public opposition to many other planned expressways in New York City that were later cancelled – in particular, the Lower Manhattan Expressway, and may have provided impetus to Jane Jacobs, an American expatriate, in her opposition to the Scarborough Expressway in Toronto. Architect Ronald Shiffman argues that the Cross Bronx Expressway "ripped through the heart of the Bronx, creating what was a wall between what eventually was known as the Northern and Southern part of the Bronx." 
The expressway is one of the main routes for shipping and transportation through New York City due to its connections with New Jersey via the George Washington Bridge, Long Island via the Throgs Neck and Whitestone Bridges, Upstate New York via I-87 northbound and the Bronx River Parkway, Manhattan via I-87 southbound to the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge or the Trans-Manhattan Expressway (extension of the Cross Bronx Expressway westward) and the Henry Hudson Parkway, and New England via the New England Thruway (I-95) and the Hutchinson River Parkway. As such, the expressway is also known for its extreme traffic problems; on a typical day 175,000 vehicles travel on the six lanes of highway the road contains, and it is not uncommon for truckers to use the Cross-Westchester Expressway to the New York State Thruway and the Major Deegan Expressway to get around this stretch of I-95. Proposals have been made to make dedicated truck lanes, add express bus service, and build decking on the open trenches to allow for parks, although to no avail. In both 2008 and 2007, Inrix cited the Cross Bronx Expressway's westbound exit 4B (Bronx River Parkway) as being the worst intersection in the United States. In 2008, the expressway's exits included three out of the top four on the list, and four of the top five in 2007.
|Harlem River||0.00||0.00||–||I-95 south / US 1 south – George Washington Bridge, Newark, NJ||Continuation into Manhattan via Trans-Manhattan Expressway|
|Alexander Hamilton Bridge|
|1B||Amsterdam Avenue||Southbound exit and northbound entrance; shared ramp with exits 1C-D|
|1C-D||I-87 (Major Deegan Expressway) – Albany, Queens, Yankee Stadium||Signed as exits 1C (south) and 1D (north)|
|Tunnel under Jennie Jerome Playground|
|Tremont||1.28||2.06||2B||US 1 north (Webster Avenue)||Northern terminus of concurrency with US 1; northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|1.86||2.99||3||Third Avenue||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|West Farms||2.05||3.30||Tunnel under East 176th Street|
|2.64||4.25||4A||NY 895 south (Sheridan Expressway) – RFK Bridge||No southbound exit; former I-895|
|Soundview||3.00||4.83||4B||Bronx River Parkway / Rosedale Avenue||Exit 4 on Bronx Parkway|
|5A||White Plains Road / Westchester Avenue|
|Tunnel under Hugh J. Grant Circle|
|Castle Hill||4.00||6.44||5B||Castle Hill Avenue||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|Throggs Neck||4.50||7.24||6A||I-678 south (Whitestone Bridge) – Queens||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; exit 19 on I-678|
|4.70||7.56||6B||I-95 north – New Haven, CT||C.B.X. transitions from I-95 to I-295; eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|12||I-278 west (Bruckner Expressway) – Manhattan||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; exit 54 on I-278|
|6.60||10.62||10||I-695 north to I-95 north – New Haven, CT||Northbound exit and southbound entrance; south end of I-695|
|6.80||10.94||9||Harding Avenue / Pennyfield Avenue|
|–||I-295 south (Throgs Neck Bridge) – Long Island||Continuation into Queens|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
The Alexander Hamilton Bridge carries eight lanes of traffic over the Harlem River in New York City between the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx, connecting the Trans-Manhattan Expressway in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan and the Cross-Bronx Expressway, as part of Interstate 95 and U.S. 1. The bridge opened to traffic on January 15, 1963, the same day that the Cross-Bronx Expressway was completed. For 2011, the New York City Department of Transportation, which operates and maintains the bridge, reported an average daily traffic volume in both directions of 182,174; having reached a peak ADT of 192,848 in 1990.
The total length of bridge, including approaches, is 2,375 feet (724 m). The parallel main spans of the steel arch bridge stretch 555 feet (169 m) long over the Harlem River and provide 103 feet (31 m) of vertical clearance at the center and 366 feet (112 m) of horizontal clearance.Bathgate Industrial Park
Bathgate Industrial Park is an industrial park located in the Tremont neighborhood of the Bronx, New York City. It is south of the Cross Bronx Expressway, west of Third and Fulton Avenues (near Crotona Park), north of Claremont Parkway, and east of Washington Avenue in Bronx Community Board 3.
A joint project of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (the PANYNJ leasing it from the NYCEDC) it opened in 1982 and is operated as a non profit organization. It was developed as an incentive to revitalize the South Bronx. The designation of the Bathgate Industrial Park in 1980 involved rezoning a former residential district characterized by vacant land and buildings.The park, which covers seven city blocks spanning 20 acres (8.1 ha), contains eight buildings and has approximately 454,000 square feet of space for light industrial, distribution, office and educational uses. Tenants include a generic drug manufacturer and food distributors, and academic and vocational training centers. The Mott Hall Bronx High School and the Urban Assembly School for Applied Math and Science are located on the site, within the Bathgate Educational Campus.Bronx Community Board 3
Bronx Community Board 3 is a local government unit in the New York City borough, of the Bronx, encompassing the neighborhoods of Crotona Park East, Claremont, Concourse Village, Melrose, and Morrisania. It is delimited by the Sheridan Expressway to the east, the Cross Bronx Expressway and Crotona Park North to the north, Park Avenue and Webster Avenue to the west, and East 159th Street and East 161st Street to the south.Bronx Community Board 4
Bronx Community Board 4 is a local government unit of the City of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Mount Eden, Highbridge and Concourse. It is delimited by Webster Avenue and Park Avenue to the east, Washington Bridge and the Cross Bronx Expressway to the north, the Harlem River to the west, and East 149th Street to the south.Bronx Community Board 5
Bronx Community Board 5 is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Fordham, Morris Heights, Mount Hope, and University Heights. It is delimited by Webster Avenue to the east, Hall of Fame Terrace, West 183rd Street, and Fordham Road to the north, the Harlem River to the west, and Washington Bridge and the Cross Bronx Expressway to the south.
Its current chairperson is Dr. Bola Omotosho, and its district manager Ken Brown.Bronx Community Board 6
Bronx Community Board 6 is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Bathgate, Belmont, East Tremont, and West Farms as Bronx Community District 6. It is delimited by Bronx Park to the east and north, Webster Avenue to the west, and Crotona Park North and the Cross Bronx Expressway to the south.Bronx Community Board 9
Bronx Community Board 9 is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Castle Hill, Parkchester, Soundview, Bruckner, Harding Park, Bronx River, Clason Point and Unionport. It is delimited by Westchester Creek to the east, the Sheridan Expressway to the west, the Cross Bronx Expressway and East Tremont Avenue to the north and the Bronx River and the East River to the south.Bruckner Expressway
The Bruckner Expressway is a freeway in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. It carries Interstate 278 (I-278) and I-95 (and formerly I-878) from the Triborough Bridge to the south end of the New England Thruway at the Pelham Parkway interchange. The highway follows a mostly northeast–southwest alignment through the southern portion of the borough, loosely paralleling the course of the East River. It connects to several major freeways including the Bronx River Parkway, and at the Bruckner Interchange, it connects to the Cross Bronx Expressway, the Whitestone Expressway, and the Hutchinson River Parkway.Bruckner Interchange
The Bruckner Interchange is a complex interchange in the New York City borough of The Bronx in the United States. The junction connects four highways: the Bruckner, Cross Bronx, and Hutchinson River (or Whitestone) Expressways, and the Hutchinson River Parkway. It was constructed in the 1960s; however, elements of the junction date as far back as the 1940s. The interchange includes connections to several interstate routes, including I-278, I-678, I-295 and I-95.CBX
CBX may refer to:
CBX (AM), a radio station (740 AM) licensed to Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
CBX-FM, a radio station (90.9 FM) licensed to Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Cross Border Xpress, bridge to and terminal in San Diego at Tijuana Airport
Honda CBX, a six-cylinder motorcycle made by Honda from 1978 to 1982
the family of Heterochromatin Protein 1 or "Chromobox Homolog" or short CBX, in molecular biology
the IATA code for Condobolin Airport, Australia
The Cross Bronx Expressway
EXO's first subunit, EXO-CBXEast Tremont, Bronx
East Tremont is a residential neighborhood located in the West Bronx, New York City. From the north and moving clockwise, it is bounded by East 180th Street, Southern Boulevard, the Cross-Bronx Expressway and Third Avenue. East Tremont Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through the neighborhood.
East Tremont is part of Bronx Community Board 6, and its ZIP codes include 10457 and 10460. The area is patrolled by the NYPD's 48th Precinct. New York City Housing Authority property in the area is patrolled by P.S.A. 8 at 2794 Randall Avenue in the Throggs Neck section of the Bronx.Edgewater Park (Bronx)
Edgewater Park is a small 60-acre (24 ha) waterside co-op community of 675 single-family homes in the Throggs Neck section of the Bronx, north of the Cross Bronx Expressway (I-95) near the Throgs Neck Bridge. Its beaches overlook Long Island Sound. Its sister communities are Silver Beach, south of the Cross Bronx Expressway, as well as Harding Park.Interstate 695 (New York)
Interstate 695 (I-695) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. It serves as a connector between I-95 (Bruckner Expressway) and I-295 (Cross Bronx Expressway) near the Throgs Neck Bridge toward Queens and Long Island. I-695 is named the Throgs Neck Expressway.Interstate 95 in New York
Interstate 95 (I-95) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Miami, Florida, to the Canada–United States border near Houlton, Maine. In the U.S. state of New York, I-95 extends 23.50 miles (37.82 km) from the George Washington Bridge in New York City to the Connecticut state line at Port Chester. From the George Washington Bridge, which carries I-95 across the Hudson River from New Jersey into New York City, it runs across upper Manhattan on the Trans-Manhattan Expressway and continues east across the Harlem River on the Alexander Hamilton Bridge and onto the Cross Bronx Expressway. In the Bronx, I-95 leaves the Cross Bronx at the Bruckner Interchange, joining the Bruckner Expressway to its end. North of the interchange with Pelham Parkway, it then continues northeast via the New England Thruway (which is part of the New York State Thruway system) out of New York City into Westchester County and to the Connecticut state line, where I-95 continues on the Connecticut Turnpike.Jerome Avenue
Jerome Avenue is one of the longest thoroughfares in the New York City borough of the Bronx, New York, United States. The road is 5.6 miles (9.0 km) long and stretches from Highbridge general area to Woodlawn. Both of these termini are with the Major Deegan Expressway which runs parallel to the west. Most of the elevated IRT Jerome Avenue Line runs along Jerome Avenue. The Cross Bronx Expressway interchanges with Jerome and the Deegan. Though it runs through what is now the West Bronx neighborhood, Jerome Avenue is the dividing avenue between nominal and some named "West" and "East" streets in the Bronx; Fifth Avenue, and to a lesser extent, Broadway, also splits Manhattan into nominal "West" and "East" streets.New York State Route 895
New York State Route 895 (NY 895; formerly Interstate 895 or I-895) is a short expressway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. Its south end is at a merging with the Bruckner Expressway (I-278) in the Hunts Point neighborhood, and its north end is at the Cross Bronx Expressway (I-95), with a short continuation connecting with local West Farms streets. NY 895 runs along the Arthur V. Sheridan Expressway for its entire route; the expressway is locally known as the Sheridan Expressway or simply The Sheridan.
The highway opened to traffic in 1963, and it received an Interstate route designation in 1970. The expressway was co-named for the Bronx Borough Commissioner of Public Works Arthur V. Sheridan, who died in a motor car crash in 1952. I-895 was supposed to connect back to I-95, its parent route, further north in Eastchester. However, due to community opposition, this extension was never built. As a result, I-895 saw relatively little use, since it ran parallel to the longer Bronx River Parkway.
In the 1990s, community groups began advocating for I-895 to be demoted to a boulevard. These groups cited the Sheridan Expressway's negative impact on the community. In the 2000s and 2010s, the city and state investigated ways to integrate the Sheridan with the neighboring community. I-895 was downgraded to a state route in September 2017, in preparation for its conversion into Sheridan Boulevard. The conversion of NY 895 into Sheridan Boulevard began in September 2018, and the boulevard is expected to be complete by late 2019.Tremont, Bronx
Tremont is a residential neighborhood in the West Bronx, New York City. Its boundaries are East 181st Street to the north, Third Avenue to the east, the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the south, and the Grand Concourse to the west. East Tremont Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through Tremont.
The neighborhood is part of Bronx Community Board 6, and its ZIP Codes include 10453 and 10457. The local subway is the IND Concourse Line (B and D trains), operating along the Grand Concourse. The area is patrolled by the NYPD's 48th Precinct.Webster Avenue
Webster Avenue is one of the longest thoroughfares in the Bronx, New York City, United States. It stretches for 5.8 miles (9.3 km) from Melrose to Woodlawn (on the Bronx-Westchester borderline). The road starts at the intersection of Melrose Avenue, East 165th Street, Brook Avenue, and Park Avenue in the neighborhood of Melrose, ending at Nereid Avenue (East 238th Street) in the neighborhood of Woodlawn. There are no subway lines along this thoroughfare, unlike the streets it parallels—Jerome Avenue, The Grand Concourse, and White Plains Road, which all have subway lines (the IRT Jerome Avenue Line, IND Concourse Line, and IRT White Plains Road Line, respectively)—but until 1973, Webster Avenue north of Fordham Road was served by the Third Avenue Elevated, served by the 8 train.
On March 29, 1936, a trolley on Webster Avenue crashed into a new automobile at 209th Street. The crash hurt 20 people, and 12 of them were rushed to Fordham Hospital.West Farms, Bronx
West Farms is a residential neighborhood in the west-central Bronx, New York City, in the northeast corner of the South Bronx. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are: Bronx Park to the north, the Bronx River Parkway to the east, the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the south, and Southern Boulevard to the west. East Tremont Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through West Farms.
West Farms is part of Bronx Community Board 6, and its ZIP Code is 10460. The area is patrolled by the NYPD's 48th Precinct. NYCHA property in the area is patrolled by P.S.A. 8 at 2794 Randall Avenue in the Throggs Neck section of the Bronx.