Cropping is the removal of unwanted outer areas from a photographic or illustrated image. The process usually consists of the removal of some of the peripheral areas of an image to remove extraneous trash from the picture, to improve its framing, to change the aspect ratio, or to accentuate or isolate the subject matter from its background. Depending on the application, this can be performed on a physical photograph, artwork, or film footage, or it can be achieved digitally by using image editing software. The process of cropping is common to the photographic, film processing, broadcasting, graphic design, and printing businesses.
In the printing, graphic design and photography industries, cropping is the removal of unwanted areas from the periphery of a photographic or illustrated image. Cropping is one of the most basic photo manipulation processes, and it is carried out to remove an unwanted object or irrelevant noise from the periphery of a photograph, to change its aspect ratio, or to improve the overall composition. In telephoto photography, most commonly in avian and aviation photography, an image is cropped to magnify the primary subject and further reduce the angle of view -- when a lens of sufficient focal length to achieve the desired magnification directly was not available. It is considered one of the few editing actions permissible in modern photojournalism along with tonal balance, color correction and sharpening. A cropping made by trimming off the top and bottom margins of a photograph, or a film, produces an view that mimics the panoramic format (in photography) or the widescreen format in cinematography and broadcasting. Neither of these formats is cropped as such, but rather they are products of highly specialized optical configurations and camera designs.
Cropping in order to emphasize the subject:
Cropping in order to remove unwanted details/objects:
In certain circumstances, film footage may be cropped to change it from one aspect ratio to another, without stretching the image or filling the blank spaces with letterbox bars (fig. 2).
Concerns about aspect ratios are a major issue in filmmaking. Rather than cropping, the cinematographer usually uses mattes to increase the latitude for alternative aspect ratios in projection and broadcast. Anamorphic optics (such as Panavision lenses) produce a full-frame, horizontally compressed image from which broadcasters and projectionists can matte a number of alternative aspect ratios without cropping relevant image detail. Without this, widescreen reproduction, especially for television broadcasting, is dependent upon a variety of soft matting techniques such as letterboxing, which involves varying degrees of image cropping (see figures 2, 3 and 4)
Since the advent of widescreen television, a similar process removes large chunks from the top & bottom to make a standard 4:3 image fit a 16:9 one, losing 25 percent of the original image. This process has become standard in the United Kingdom, for television programs in which many archive clips are used. This gives them a zoomed-in, cramped image with reduced ??. Another option is a process called pillarboxing, where black bands are placed down the sides of the screen, allowing the original image to be shown full-frame within the wider aspect ratio (fig. 6). See this article for a fuller description of the problem.
Various methods may be used following cropping or may be used on the original image.
It is not possible to "uncrop" a cropped image unless the original still exists or undo information exists: if an image is cropped and saved (without undo information), it cannot be recovered without the original.
However, using texture synthesis, it is possible to artificially add a band around an image, synthetically "uncropping" it. This is effective if the band smoothly blends with the existing image, which is relatively easy if the edge of the image has low detail or is a chaotic natural pattern such as sky or grass, but does not work if discernible objects are cut off at the boundary, such as half a car. An uncrop plug-in exists for the GIMP image editor.
A crop is a plant grown and harvested for agricultural use.
Crop may also refer to:
Crop (anatomy), a dilation of the esophagus that stores and softens food
Crop (implement), a modified whip used in horseback riding or disciplining humans as punishment
Crop factor, a multiplier factor in digital imaging, compared to 35mm film camera focal length
Crop (hairstyle), a woman's short hairstyle
CROP (polling firm), a Canadian polling and market research company
Cropping (punishment), the removal of a person's ears as a punishment
Cropping (animal), cutting the ears of an animal shorter, usually trimming to shape the pinnae
Cropping (image), to remove unwanted outer parts of an image
Scrapbooking, also called cropping, the creation of cards and or scrap-books in unique and creative ways as a hobby
The acronym CROP may stand for:
Council of Regional Organisations in the Pacific
Church Rural Overseas Program, a former initiative of Church World Service, whose name survives in CWS' CROP Walk fundraising eventsFree-form select
Free-Form Select (with synonyms) is a technique in printmaking, graphic design and image processing.
The effect is to erase background colors or elements from a motif to create stand-alone objects. Today, this is done with graphics software (computer graphics) and computers rather than by cutting away parts with scissors or scalpels.
Almost every modern graphics software includes this feature, such as CorelDRAW, Adobe Photoshop, GIMP, and Microsoft Paint. The motif which is to be cut-out freehanded is defined by a border path around the motif.
Free-Form Select is also understood in coloring parts of a black-and-white images and vice versa. Coloring a single object within a black-and-white environment is sometimes called Sin City effect.