Cropping (image)

Cropping is the removal of unwanted outer areas from a photographic or illustrated image. The process usually consists of the removal of some of the peripheral areas of an image to remove extraneous trash from the picture, to improve its framing, to change the aspect ratio, or to accentuate or isolate the subject matter from its background. Depending on the application, this can be performed on a physical photograph, artwork, or film footage, or it can be achieved digitally by using image editing software. The process of cropping is common to the photographic, film processing, broadcasting, graphic design, and printing businesses.

Cropping in photography, print & design

Vinepyrennees
Wide view, uncropped photograph
Vinepyrennees crop
Cropped version, accentuating the subject

In the printing, graphic design and photography industries, cropping[1] is the removal of unwanted areas from the periphery of a photographic or illustrated image. Cropping is one of the most basic photo manipulation processes, and it is carried out to remove an unwanted object or irrelevant noise from the periphery of a photograph, to change its aspect ratio, or to improve the overall composition.[2] In telephoto photography, most commonly in avian and aviation photography, an image is cropped to magnify the primary subject and further reduce the angle of view -- when a lens of sufficient focal length to achieve the desired magnification directly was not available. It is considered one of the few editing actions permissible in modern photojournalism along with tonal balance, color correction and sharpening. A cropping made by trimming off the top and bottom margins of a photograph, or a film, produces an view that mimics the panoramic format (in photography) or the widescreen format in cinematography and broadcasting. Neither of these formats is cropped as such, but rather they are products of highly specialized optical configurations and camera designs.

Graphic examples (photography)

Cropping in order to emphasize the subject:

Calanit004

Cropped image of Anemone coronaria, aspect ratio 1.065, in which the flower fills most of the frame

Kalanit01

The original photo, aspect ratio 1.333, in which the flower uses only a small part of the frame

Cropping in order to remove unwanted details/objects:

Chartzit001

Cropped image of Garland chrysanthemum, aspect ratio 16:4

Teva 17 3 (64)

The original photo, aspect ratio 1.333, the lower right part shows some white-colored trash and the upper right shows a dead flower, and both are unwanted objects.

Cropping in cinematography & broadcasting

In certain circumstances, film footage may be cropped to change it from one aspect ratio to another, without stretching the image or filling the blank spaces with letterbox bars (fig. 2).

Concerns about aspect ratios are a major issue in filmmaking. Rather than cropping, the cinematographer usually uses mattes to increase the latitude for alternative aspect ratios in projection and broadcast. Anamorphic optics (such as Panavision lenses) produce a full-frame, horizontally compressed image from which broadcasters and projectionists can matte a number of alternative aspect ratios without cropping relevant image detail. Without this, widescreen reproduction, especially for television broadcasting, is dependent upon a variety of soft matting techniques such as letterboxing, which involves varying degrees of image cropping [1](see figures 2, 3 and 4)

Since the advent of widescreen television, a similar process removes large chunks from the top & bottom to make a standard 4:3 image fit a 16:9 one, losing 25 percent of the original image. This process has become standard in the United Kingdom, for television programs in which many archive clips are used. This gives them a zoomed-in, cramped image with reduced ??. Another option is a process called pillarboxing, where black bands are placed down the sides of the screen, allowing the original image to be shown full-frame within the wider aspect ratio (fig. 6). See this article for a fuller description of the problem.

Image cropping aspect ratios

Figure 1:
2.35:1 original image with widescreen aspect ratio, showing alternative aspect ratios

Image cropping 235x1

Figure 2:
2.35:1 image with letterbox resized to 4:3, the whole image is visible

Image cropping 185x1

Figure 3:
1.85:1 image with letterbox resized to 4:3. Typical 16:9 image, the outer edges of the image are not visible

Image cropping 155x1

Figure 4:
1.55:1 image with letterbox resized to 4:3. A compromise between 16:9 and 4:3, often broadcast in the UK

Image cropping 133x1

Figure 5:
1.33:1 image without letterbox, because it is cropped to 4:3, losing much of the original

Additional methods

Various methods may be used following cropping or may be used on the original image.

  • Vignetting is the accentuation of the central portion of an image by blurring, darkening, lightening, or desaturation of peripheral portions of the image
  • The use of nonrectangular mat or picture frame may be used for selection of portions of a larger image

Uncropping

It is not possible to "uncrop" a cropped image unless the original still exists or undo information exists: if an image is cropped and saved (without undo information), it cannot be recovered without the original.

However, using texture synthesis, it is possible to artificially add a band around an image, synthetically "uncropping" it. This is effective if the band smoothly blends with the existing image, which is relatively easy if the edge of the image has low detail or is a chaotic natural pattern such as sky or grass, but does not work if discernible objects are cut off at the boundary, such as half a car. An uncrop plug-in exists for the GIMP image editor.

References

  1. ^ "Crop Images With PHP and Jquery". Archived from the original on 2011-12-13.
  2. ^ "Automatic image cropping to improve composition".
Crop (disambiguation)

A crop is a plant grown and harvested for agricultural use.

Crop may also refer to:

Crop (anatomy), a dilation of the esophagus that stores and softens food

Crop (implement), a modified whip used in horseback riding or disciplining humans as punishment

Crop factor, a multiplier factor in digital imaging, compared to 35mm film camera focal length

Crop (hairstyle), a woman's short hairstyle

CROP (polling firm), a Canadian polling and market research company

Cropping (punishment), the removal of a person's ears as a punishment

Cropping (animal), cutting the ears of an animal shorter, usually trimming to shape the pinnae

Cropping (image), to remove unwanted outer parts of an image

Scrapbooking, also called cropping, the creation of cards and or scrap-books in unique and creative ways as a hobby

The acronym CROP may stand for:

Council of Regional Organisations in the Pacific

Church Rural Overseas Program, a former initiative of Church World Service, whose name survives in CWS' CROP Walk fundraising events

Free-form select

Free-Form Select (with synonyms) is a technique in printmaking, graphic design and image processing.

The effect is to erase background colors or elements from a motif to create stand-alone objects. Today, this is done with graphics software (computer graphics) and computers rather than by cutting away parts with scissors or scalpels.

Almost every modern graphics software includes this feature, such as CorelDRAW, Adobe Photoshop, GIMP, and Microsoft Paint. The motif which is to be cut-out freehanded is defined by a border path around the motif.

Free-Form Select is also understood in coloring parts of a black-and-white images and vice versa. Coloring a single object within a black-and-white environment is sometimes called Sin City effect.

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