Croatian (/kroʊˈeɪʃən/ (listen); hrvatski [xř̩ʋaːtskiː]) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries.
Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin. In the mid-18th century, the first attempts to provide a Croatian literary standard began on the basis of the Neo-Shtokavian dialect that served as a supraregional lingua franca pushing back regional Chakavian, Kajkavian, and Shtokavian vernaculars. The decisive role was played by Croatian Vukovians, who cemented the usage of Ijekavian Neo-Shtokavian as the literary standard in the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, in addition to designing a phonological orthography. Croatian is written in Gaj's Latin alphabet.
Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, Chakavian and Kajkavian. These dialects, and the four national standards, are usually subsumed under the term "Serbo-Croatian" in English, though this term is controversial for native speakers, and paraphrases such as "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles.
|Native to||Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia (Vojvodina), Montenegro, Romania (Caraș-Severin County), and diaspora|
|(5.6 million, including other dialects spoken by Croats cited 1991–2006)|
|Latin (Gaj's alphabet)|
Official language in
Bosnia and Herzegovina (co-official)
Serbia (in Vojvodina)
Austria (in Burgenland)
|Regulated by||Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics|
Traditional extent of Serbo-Croatian dialects in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina
In the late medieval period up to the 17th century, the majority of semi-autonomous Croatia was ruled by two domestic dynasties of princes (banovi), the Zrinski and the Frankopan, which were linked by inter-marriage. Toward the 17th century, both of them attempted to unify Croatia both culturally and linguistically, writing in a mixture of all three principal dialects (Chakavian, Kajkavian and Shtokavian), and calling it "Croatian", "Dalmatian", or "Slavonian". It is still used now in parts of Istria, which became a crossroads of various mixtures of Chakavian with Ekavian/Ijekavian/Ikavian dialects.
The most standardized form (Kajkavian–Ikavian) became the cultivated language of administration and intellectuals from the Istrian peninsula along the Croatian coast, across central Croatia up into the northern valleys of the Drava and the Mura. The cultural apex of this 17th century idiom is represented by the editions of "Adrianskoga mora sirena" ("Siren of Adriatic Sea") by Petar Zrinski and "Putni tovaruš" ("Traveling escort") by Katarina Zrinska.
However, this first linguistic renaissance in Croatia was halted by the political execution of Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan by the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I in Vienna in 1671. Subsequently, the Croatian elite in the 18th century gradually abandoned this combined Croatian standard.
The Illyrian movement was a 19th-century pan-South Slavic political and cultural movement in Croatia that had the goal to standardize the regionally differentiated and orthographically inconsistent literary languages in Croatia, and finally merge them into a common South Slavic literary language. Specifically, three major groups of dialects were spoken on Croatian territory, and there had been several literary languages over four centuries. The leader of the Illyrian movement Ljudevit Gaj standardized the Latin alphabet in 1830–1850 and worked to bring about a standardized orthography. Although based in Kajkavian-speaking Zagreb, Gaj supported using the more populous Neo-Shtokavian – a version of Shtokavian that eventually became the predominant dialectal basis of both Croatian and Serbian literary language from the 19th century on. Supported by various South Slavic proponents, Neo-Shtokavian was adopted after an Austrian initiative at the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850, laying the foundation for the unified Serbo-Croatian literary language. The uniform Neo-Shtokavian then became common in the Croatian elite.
In the 1860s, the Zagreb Philological School dominated the Croatian cultural life, drawing upon linguistic and ideological conceptions advocated by the members of the Illyrian movement. While it was dominant over the rival Rijeka Philological School and Zadar Philological Schools, its influence waned with the rise of the Croatian Vukovians (at the end of the 19th century).
Croatian is commonly characterized by the Ijekavian pronunciation (see an explanation of yat reflexes), the sole use of the Latin alphabet, and a number of lexical differences in common words that set it apart from standard Serbian. Some differences are absolute, while some appear mainly in the frequency of use.
Croatian, although technically a form of Serbo-Croatian, is sometimes considered a distinct language by itself. Purely linguistic considerations of languages based on mutual intelligibility (abstand languages) are frequently incompatible with sociopolitical conceptions of language so that varieties that are mutually intelligible may be considered separate languages. Differences between various standard forms of Serbo-Croatian are often exaggerated for political reasons. Most Croatian linguists regard Croatian as a separate language that is considered key to national identity. The issue is sensitive in Croatia as the notion of a separate language being the most important characteristic of a nation is widely accepted, stemming from the 19th-century history of Europe. The 1967 Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language, in which a group of Croatian authors and linguists demanded greater autonomy for the Croatian language, is viewed in Croatia as a linguistic policy milestone that was also a general milestone in national politics.
The terms "Serbo-Croatian" or "Serbo-Croat" are still used as a cover term for all these forms by foreign scholars, even though the speakers themselves largely do not use it. In Croatia, this is often based on the argument that the official language in Yugoslavia, a standardized form of Serbo-Croatian, was "artificial" or a political tool used to combine two distinct people. Within ex-Yugoslavia, the term has largely been replaced by the ethnic terms Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian.
The use of the name "Croatian" for a language names has been historically attested to, though not always distinctively; the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement, for example, designated "Croatian" as one of its official languages, and Croatian became an official EU language upon accession of Croatia to the EU on 1 July 2013. In 2013, the EU started publishing a Croatian language version of its official gazette.
Standard Croatian is the official language of the Republic of Croatia and, along with Standard Bosnian and Standard Serbian, one of three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is also official in the regions of Burgenland (Austria), Molise (Italy) and Vojvodina (Serbia). Additionally, it has co-official status alongside Romanian in the communes of Carașova and Lupac, Romania. In these localities, Croats or Krashovani make up the majority of the population, and education, signage and access to public administration and the justice system are provided in Croatian, alongside Romanian.
There is no regulatory body that determines the proper usage of Croatian. The current standard language is generally laid out in the grammar books and dictionaries used in education, such as the school curriculum prescribed by the Ministry of Education and the university programmes of the Faculty of Philosophy at the four main universities. In 2013, a Hrvatski pravopis by the Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics received an official sole seal of approval from the Ministry of Education.
Attempts are being made to revive Croatian literature in Italy.
The most prominent recent editions describing the Croatian standard language are:
Also notable are the recommendations of Matica hrvatska, the national publisher and promoter of Croatian heritage, and the Lexicographical institute Miroslav Krleža, as well as the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
Numerous representative Croatian linguistic works were published since the independence of Croatia, among them three voluminous monolingual dictionaries of contemporary Croatian.
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Bocce (), sometimes anglicized as bocci or boccie, is a ball sport belonging to the boules family, closely related to British bowls and French pétanque, with a common ancestry from ancient games played in the Roman Empire. Developed into its present form in Italy (where it is called bocce, the plural of the Italian word boccia which means 'bowl' in the sport sense), it is played around Europe and also in overseas areas that have received Italian migrants, including Australia, North America, and South America (where it is known as bochas, or bolas criollas ('Criollo balls') in Venezuela, bocha in Brazil). Bocce was initially played among the Italian migrants but has slowly become more popular with their descendants and the wider community.
The sport is also very popular on the eastern side of the Adriatic, especially in Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, where the sport is known in Serbo-Croatian as boćanje ('playing boće') or balote (colloquially also bućanje). In Slovenia the sport is known as balinanje or colloquially 'playing boče', or bale (from Italian bocce and Venetian bałe, meaning 'balls').Bosnia (region)
Bosnia (Serbo-Croatian: Bosna/Босна; pronounced [bɔ̂sna]) is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 81% of the country; the other eponymous region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.
The two regions have formed a geopolitical entity since medieval times, and the name "Bosnia" commonly occurs in historical and geopolitical senses as generally referring to both regions (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The official use of the combined name started only in the late period of Ottoman-rule.Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The ten cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian: kanton, Croatian: županije; Serbian: Кантон), are the member states of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of the two political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ten cantons were established by the Law on Federal Units (Cantons) on 12 June 1996.Counties of Croatia
The counties of Croatia (Croatian: županije) are the primary administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Croatia.
Since they were re-established in 1992, Croatia has been divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, which has the authority and legal status of both a county and a city (separate from the surrounding Zagreb County). As of 2015, the counties are subdivided into 128 cities and 428 (mostly rural) municipalities.Croatian Football Cup
The Croatian Football Cup (Croatian: Hrvatski nogometni kup) is an annually held football tournament for Croatian football clubs and is the second most important competition in Croatian football after the Croatian First Football League championship. It is governed by the Croatian Football Federation (CFF) and usually runs from late August to late May. Cup winners automatically qualify for next season's UEFA Europa League, except when cup winners are also First League champions, in which case cup finalists take their berth in the Europa League.The cup was established in 1992, after Croatian clubs had abandoned the Yugoslav First League and Yugoslav Cup competitions following the breakup of Yugoslavia. As of the most recent 2017–18 season a total of 27 cup seasons were held. The competition has historically been dominated by the two Eternal Derby sides - the most successful club is Dinamo Zagreb (formerly known in the 1990s as "HAŠK Građanski" and "Croatia Zagreb") who appeared in 21 finals and won 15 titles, followed by Hajduk Split who won 6 titles out of 11 finals they appeared in.Either Dinamo or Hajduk appeared in all but two cup finals (in 1999 and 2006) and only three other clubs have won the cup - Rijeka (4 wins), Inter Zaprešić (1 win) and Osijek (1 win). Although clubs can qualify for the cup via regional county cups, which are usually contested by second-, third- or fourth-level sides, Istra 1961 (formerly known as Uljanik Pula) in 2003 was the only team in the history of the competition to have reached the cup final from outside the top level.Croatian Football Federation
The Croatian Football Federation (HNS; Croatian: Hrvatski nogometni savez, lit. Croatian football alliance) is the governing body of association football in Croatia. It was originally formed in 1912 and is based in the capital city of Zagreb. The organisation is a member of both FIFA and UEFA, and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the game of football in Croatia. Its current president is Davor Šuker.The HNS sanctions all competitive football matches in Croatia, either directly, beginning with the 3. HNL on down, or indirectly through the associations of professional football clubs, who manage 1. HNL and 2. HNL, the first and second divisions of Croatia, respectively, as well as the Croatian Cup. It is also responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's and youth national football teams. As of 2009, the HNS had 118,316 registered players (650 of them professionals) and a total of 1,732 registered association football and futsal clubs.Croatian Second Football League
The Croatian Second Football League (Croatian: Druga hrvatska nogometna liga or, more commonly, Druga HNL or 2. HNL) is the second highest football league in Croatia. The league was formed in 1991 with the dissolution of the Yugoslav Second League and it is operated by the Croatian Football Federation.
Between the 2001–02 season and 2005–06 season, the league was split in two divisions, one being the Northern Croatian Second League and the other being the Southern Croatian Second League. Each of these two leagues comprised twelve teams playing under a system pretty much identical to the one in the Prva HNL. However, since the start of the 2006–07 season, the united Croatian Second League comprises twelve teams from the entire country. Relegation from this division is into one of the regional divisions of the Treća HNL.Jutarnji list
Jutarnji list (lit. "The Morning Paper") is a Croatian daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in Zagreb since April, 6, 1998, by EPH (Europapress holding, owned by Ninoslav Pavić) which eventually changed name in Hanza Media, when bought by Marijan Hanžeković. The newspaper is published in the berliner format and online. Its online edition jutarnji.hr is the second most visited news website in Croatia after Index.hr.According to the owner of Hanza Media Marijan Hanžeković, "Jutarnji list should be conceptually newspaper of liberal and social-democratic orientation, with emphasis on accuracy and relevance." however lately it is evident that Jutarnji List might be an accomplice in spreading of misinformation on behalf of the ruling party, and at times seems completely under their control.Karst
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. It has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes. However, in regions where the dissolved bedrock is covered (perhaps by debris) or confined by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock strata, distinctive karst features may occur only at subsurface levels and be totally missing above ground.
The study of karst is considered of prime importance in petroleum geology because as much as 50% of the world's hydrocarbon reserves are hosted in porous karst systems.List of Croatian-language poets
Below is a list of poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the Croatian language.Montenegrin language
Montenegrin (; црногорски / crnogorski) is the normative variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Montenegrins and the official language of Montenegro. Montenegrin is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian.Montenegro's language has historically and traditionally been called either Montenegrin, "Our language", or Serbian. The idea of a standardized Montenegrin standard language separate from Serbian appeared in the 1990s during the breakup of Yugoslavia, through proponents of Montenegrin independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegrin became the official language of Montenegro with the ratification of a new constitution on 22 October 2007.
The Montenegrin standard is still emerging. Its orthography was established on 10 July 2009 with the addition of two letters to the alphabet. Their usage remained controversial and they achieved only limited public acceptance, along with some proposed alternative spellings. They had been used for official documents since 2009, but in February 2017, the Assembly of Montenegro removed them from any type of governmental documentation.Municipalities of Croatia
Municipalities in Croatia (Croatian: općina; plural: općine) are the second lowest administrative unit of government in the country, and along with cities and towns (grad, plural: gradovi) they form the second level of administrative subdisivion, after counties.
Though equal in powers and administrative bodies, municipalities and towns differ in that municipalities are usually more likely to consist of a collection of villages in rural or suburban areas, whereas towns are more likely to cover urbanised areas. Croatian law defines municipalities as local self-government units which are established, in an area where several inhabited settlements represent a natural, economic and social entity, related to one other by the common interests of the area's population.As of 2017, the 21 counties of Croatia are subdivided into 128 towns and 428 municipalities.Narodne novine
Narodne novine (English: The People's Newspaper) is the official gazette (or newspaper of public record) of the Republic of Croatia which publishes laws, regulations, appointments and official decisions and releases them in the public domain. It is published by the eponymous public company.
The Narodne novine started as the Novine Horvatzke, first published on January 6, 1835 by Ljudevit Gaj, who created and printed the paper. The first usage of the term "Narodne novine" was in 1843, but the paper changed several names over the years, usually according to the name of the state that Croatia was part of.
Gaj sold the original publishing company to the government in 1868. The current incarnation of the company was officially founded in 1952. In 2001 the company became a public company (Croatian: dioničko društvo).
The Narodne novine as the official gazette of the Republic of Croatia promulgates acts, laws and other rules and regulations of the Croatian Parliament, bylaws of the Croatian Government and also Decrees of the President of the Republic. On publication, legislation begins a brief period (usually 8 days) known as vacatio legis, allowing it to become widely known before taking legal effect.Osijek-Baranja County
Osijek-Baranja County (pronounced [ôsijeːk bǎraɲa], Croatian: Osječko-baranjska županija, Hungarian: Eszék-Baranya megye, Serbian: Осјечко-барањска жупанија) is a county in Croatia, located in northeastern Slavonia and Baranja. Its center is Osijek; other cities include Đakovo, Našice, Valpovo, Belišće, Beli Manastir.Primorje-Gorski Kotar County
Primorje-Gorski Kotar County (Croatian: Primorsko-goranska županija, pronounced [prǐːmorsko-ɡǒranskaː ʒupǎnija]) is a county in western Croatia that includes the Bay of Kvarner, the surrounding Northern Croatian Littoral, and the mountainous region of Gorski kotar. Its center is Rijeka. The county's population was 315,000 in the 2018 census.The county includes the islands of Krk, Cres, Lošinj and Rab.Serbian language
Serbian (српски / srpski, pronounced [sr̩̂pskiː]) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.
Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian (more specifically on the dialects of Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovina), which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin. The other dialect spoken by Serbs is Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, which is transitional to Macedonian and Bulgarian.
Serbian is practically the only European standard language whose speakers are fully functionally digraphic, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created it based on phonemic principles. The Serbian Latin alphabet was designed by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1830.Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian ( (listen); srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски also called Serbo-Croat , Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS)) is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro. It is a pluricentric language with four mutually intelligible standard varieties.
South Slavic dialects historically formed a continuum. The turbulent history of the area, particularly due to expansion of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in a patchwork of dialectal and religious differences. Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread dialect in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area previously occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian (which further blend into Slovenian in the northwest). Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs differ in religion and were historically often part of different cultural circles, although a large part of the nations have lived side by side under foreign overlords. During that period, the language was referred to under a variety of names, such as "Slavic" in general or "Serbian", "Croatian", ”Bosnian”, "Slavonian" or "Dalmatian" in particular. In a classicizing manner, it was also referred to as "Illyrian".
The process of linguistic standardization of Serbo-Croatian was originally initiated in the mid-19th-century Vienna Literary Agreement by Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, decades before a Yugoslav state was established. From the very beginning, there were slightly different literary Serbian and Croatian standards, although both were based on the same Shtokavian subdialect, Eastern Herzegovinian. In the 20th century, Serbo-Croatian served as the official language of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (when it was called "Serbo-Croato-Slovenian"), and later as one of the official languages of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The breakup of Yugoslavia affected language attitudes, so that social conceptions of the language separated on ethnic and political lines. Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, Bosnian has likewise been established as an official standard in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and there is an ongoing movement to codify a separate Montenegrin standard. Serbo-Croatian thus generally goes by the names Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac.Like other South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian has a simple phonology, with the common five-vowel system and twenty-five consonants. Its grammar evolved from Common Slavic, with complex inflection, preserving seven grammatical cases in nouns, pronouns, and adjectives. Verbs exhibit imperfective or perfective aspect, with a moderately complex tense system. Serbo-Croatian is a pro-drop language with flexible word order, subject–verb–object being the default. It can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gaj's Latin alphabet, whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, and the orthography is highly phonemic in all standards.Večernji list
Večernji list (also known as Večernjak, English: Evening paper) is a conservative Croatian daily newspaper published in Zagreb.Zagreb County
Zagreb County (Croatian: Zagrebačka županija) is a county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, it is often nicknamed "Zagreb ring". According to the 2011 census, the county has 317,606 inhabitants.
The Zagreb County once included the city of Zagreb, but in 1997 they separated, when the City was given a special status. Although separated from Zagreb City County both administratively and territorially, it still remains closely linked with it.
Zagreb County borders on Krapina-Zagorje County, the city of Zagreb, Varaždin County, and Koprivnica-Križevci County in the north, Bjelovar-Bilogora County in the east, Sisak-Moslavina County in the south and Karlovac County in the southwest.
Franjo Tuđman Airport is located on the territory of Zagreb County, the biggest and most important airport in the country.