Crispin and Crispinian

Saints Crispin and Crispinian are the Christian patron saints of cobblers, curriers, tanners, and leather workers. They were beheaded during the reign of Diocletian; the date of their execution is given as 25 October 285 or 286.

Saints Crispin and Crispinian
Crépin et Crépinien (Kalkar).jpeg
SS. Crispin and Crispinian
Martyrs
Born3rd century AD
Died286
Rome
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Churches
Church of England
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Major shrineSoissons
FeastOctober 30
Attributesdepicted holding shoes
Patronagecobblers; curriers; glove makers; lace makers; lace workers; leather workers; saddle makers; saddlers; shoemakers; tanners; weavers.
San Crispin, San Pablo City, Philippines

History

Born to a noble Roman family in the 3rd century AD, Crispin and Crispinian fled persecution for their faith, ending up at Soissons, where they preached Christianity to the Gauls whilst making shoes by night. While it is stated that they were twin brothers, that has not been positively proved.[1]

They earned enough by their trade to support themselves and also to aid the poor. Their success attracted the ire of Rictus Varus, governor of Belgic Gaul,[2] who had them tortured and thrown into the river with millstones around their necks. Though they survived, they were beheaded by the Emperor c. 285–286.

An alternative account gives them to be sons of a noble Romano-Briton family who lived in Canterbury, following their father's murder for displeasing the Roman Emperor. As they were approaching maturity their mother sent them to London to seek apprenticeship and to avoid coming to the attention of their father's killer. Travelling there, the brothers came across a shoemaker's workshop at Faversham and decided to travel no further and stayed in Faversham. This account fails to explain how the brothers came to be venerated and martyred.

Veneration

The feast day of Saints Crispin and Crispinian is 25 October.[3] Although this feast was removed from the Roman Catholic Church's universal liturgical calendar following the Second Vatican Council, the two saints are still commemorated on that day in the most recent edition of the Roman Church's martyrology.

In the sixth century a stately basilica was erected at Soissons over the graves of these saints, and St. Eligius, a famous goldsmith, made a costly shrine for the head of St. Crispinian.[1]

They are the patron saints of cobblers, glove makers, lace makers, lace workers, leather workers, saddle makers, saddlers, shoemakers, tanners, and weavers.[4]

Popular culture

The Battle of Agincourt was fought on Saint Cristpin's feastday. It has been immortalised by Shakespeare's St. Crispin's Day Speech from his play Henry V. Also, for the Midsummer's Day Festival in the third act of Die Meistersinger, Wagner has the shoemakers' guild enter singing a song of praise to St. Crispin.

A plaque at Faversham commemorates their association with the town. They are also commemorated in the name of the old pub "Crispin and Crispianus" at Strood.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Meier, Gabriel. "Sts. Crispin and Crispinian." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 14 Mar. 2015
  2. ^ See: Arnold Hugh Martin Jones; John Robert Martindale; J. Morris (1971). The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: V. 1 A.D. 260–395. I.. Cambridge University Press. p. 766. ISBN 978-0-521-07233-5. "He is most probably a fictitious character since there was no persecution of Christians in N. Gaul; this area was subject to the Caesar Constantius."
  3. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Crispin and Crispinian" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 468.
  4. ^ "Crispin and Crispinian", Catholic News Agency

External links

286

Year 286 (CCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Maximus and Aquilinus (or, less frequently, year 1039 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 286 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Aert van den Bossche

Aert van den Bossche or the Master of the Crispinus and Crispinianus-Legend (also known as Aert Panhedel, Aert van Panhedel, Arnoul de Panhedel, Arnoul Vanden Bossche and Harnoult van den Boske) was an Early Netherlandish painter of altarpieces, active in Brussels and Bruges in the late 15th century. There is still doubt as to whether he should be identified with the Master of the legend of St. Barbara or was only one of the artists active in a workshop responsible for the works of that master.

Azincourt (novel)

Azincourt is an historical novel written by Bernard Cornwell. The book relates the events leading to the Battle of Agincourt, through its protagonist Nicholas Hook. In the United States, it was published under the title Agincourt.

Bernard Cornwell bibliography

Bernard Cornwell's career started in 1981 with Sharpe's Eagle. He has been a prolific historical novelist since then having published more than 50 novels.

Calendar of saints (Anglican Church of Canada)

Prior to the revision of the Anglican Church of Canada's (ACC) Book of Common Prayer (BCP) in 1962, the national church followed the liturgical calendar of the 1918 Canadian Book of Common Prayer. Throughout most of the twentieth century, the situation in Canada resembled that which pertained in much of the Anglican Communion: There was uncertainty as to whether post-Reformation figures (with the exception of the martyred Charles I) could or should be commemorated. In the words of the calendar's introduction, "New names have been added from the ancient calendars, and also from the history of the Anglican Communion, without thereby enrolling or commending such persons as saints of the Church." The 1962 revision added twenty-six post-Reformation individuals, as well as commemorations of the first General Synod and of "The Founders, Benefactors, and Missionaries of the Church in Canada." Of the calendar days, twenty-eight were highlighted as "red-letter days" — that is, days of required observation.

With the publication of the Book of Alternative Services (BAS) in 1985, a revised and expanded calendar was introduced. This was supplemented, in 1994, with the publication of For All The Saints; a book of propers, short biographies and descriptions of the commemorations, and readings by or about the individuals or events commemorated (there were also some very minor changes to the 1985 calendar). As the BAS has largely supplanted the BCP for most Canadian Anglicans, so too has its calendar. Nonetheless, the BCP calendar is still in use and individuals and parishes can legitimately choose to observe it.

The chief difference between the 1962 and 1985 calendars is the elimination of observations for several European figures, in order to include individuals of interest to the Canadian Church, and to the worldwide Anglican Communion. Similar to the Calendar of saints of the Church of England, the Patriarchs of Old are omitted in both the Book of Common Prayer and the newer Book of Alternative Services, for the Anglican Church of Canada.

In the ACC, the calendar is officially referred to as the Canadian Calendar of Holy Persons.

Calendar of saints (Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil)

The calendar of saints of the Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil (Igreja Episcopal Anglicana do Brasil – IEAB) follows the tradition of The Episcopal Church (TEC), from whom it was a missionary district until 1965. TEC's calendar of saints, in turn, has its origins in the calendar of the Church of England and in the General Roman Calendar. As such, IEAB commemorates many of the figures present in the Roman Calendar, most of them on the same dates, but it also commemorates various notable Post-Reformation uncanonized Christians, especially those of Brazilian origin.

The only person canonized in a traditional sense since the English Reformation was Charles I in 1660 (commemorated on 30 January), although he is not widely venerated as a saint by most Anglicans. The Anglican Communion has no mechanism for canonizing saints, and unlike the Catholic Church it makes no claims regarding the heavenly status of those commemorated in its calendars. For this reason, IEAB avoides the use of the prenominal title "saint" with reference to uncanonized figures. In order not to imply degrees of sanctity or to discriminate between canonized and uncanonized persons, the title "saint" is not used at all in IEAB's calendar, even with reference to those who are generally known by that title, such as the Apostles or the early Christian saints.

There is no single, unified calendar for the various provinces of the Anglican Communion; each makes its own calendar suitable for its local situation. As a result, the following calendar contains some important figures in the history of Brazil, such as Black warrior Zumbi dos Palmares, Native warrior Sepé Tiaraju, and environmentalist Chico Mendes. At the same time, there are figures from other provinces as well as post-Reformation Catholics, such as nun Dulce Pontes. The most recent edition of the calendar, elaborated by IEAB's Liturgical Commission for the liturgical year which has started on Advent Sunday (30 November 2014), tried to balance the number of male and female figures. The holy days are divided in principal feasts, festivals and lesser festivals. To settle any doubts regarding the sanctity of post-Reformed, uncanonized figures, all of them are commemorated in lesser Festivals, whose celebration is optional. The typography shows the level of the observance: BOLD CAPITALS denote principal feasts, Bold denotes festivals, and roman denotes lesser festivals.

Charles de Hacqueville

Charles de Hacqueville (c. 1572, Ons-en-Bray - 27 February 1623, Paris) was a French cleric and bishop.

Commemoration (Anglicanism)

Commemorations are a type of religious observance in the many Churches of the Anglican Communion, including the Church of England. They are the least significant type of observance, the others being Principal Feasts, Principal Holy Days, Festivals, and Lesser Festivals. Whereas Principal Feasts must be celebrated, it is not obligatory to observe Commemorations. They are always attached to a calendar date, and are not observed if they fall on a Sunday, in Holy Week, or in Easter Week. In Common Worship Commemorations are not provided with collects or indications of liturgical colour. However, they may be celebrated as Lesser Festivals if local pastoral conditions suggest it.

A full list of all Anglican Holy Days includes Commemorations printed in italics.

Crispin (disambiguation)

Crispin may refer to:

Crispin (apple) or Mutsu apple, a cross between the Golden Delicious and the Indo apple varieties

Crispin (given name)

Crispin (surname)

Crispin Hard Cider Company

Crispin and Crispinian, Christian saints

Crispin of Pavia, Bishop of Pavia and saint

Crispin of Csanád, Bishop of Csanád

Crispin of Viterbo (1668–1750), Italian saint and member of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin

Crispin: The Cross of Lead, a 2002 children's novel

Crispin: At the Edge of the World, a 2006 children's novel

Crispin School, a secondary school in Street, Somerset, England

Crispin (Shannara), a character in Terry Brooks' Shannara novels

Crispin (wizard), a character in King's Quest V: Absence Makes the Heart Go Yonder! video game

Crispin, a character in The Mistmantle Chronicles by M. I. McAllister

Crispin, the subject of Wallace Stevens' long poem "The Comedian as the Letter 'C'"

Crispin, a supporting character from Daddy Daycare

Crispin: The Pig Who Had It All, a 2000 picture book by Ted Dewan

Crispin, a trade name for tramadol

Faversham Parish Church

St Mary of Charity, Faversham Parish Church is the Church of England parish church of the town of Faversham in Kent, England. The church spire dominates the town's skyline and is visible for some distance.

Forty Martyrs of England and Wales

The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales are a group of Catholic, lay and religious, men and women, executed between 1535 and 1679 for treason and related offences under various laws enacted by Parliament during the English Reformation. The individuals listed range from Carthusian monks who in 1535 declined to accept Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy, to seminary priests who were caught up in the alleged ‘Popish Plot’ against Charles II in 1679. Many were sentenced to death at show trials, or with no trial at all.

List of county days in the United Kingdom

County days in the United Kingdom are relatively recent observances, formed to celebrate the cultural heritage of a particular British county. County days may be selected to coincide with the observance of a Saint's Day that has local significance.

Proposals exist for various days in Somerset.A proposal also exists to make the 29th of July Buckinghamshire Day. The date was chosen as a truly Global event can be traced back to this date, the founding of the Paralympic Games which goes from strength to strength and started in Stoke Maderville in Buckinghamshire. Although in 2015 as the 29th of July falls in midweek, events are taking place on the 18th and 26 July across the county.

The Memorial Mob a Bucks-based group who create Memorials to Lost & Forgotten events of the Armed & Emergency Services, felt it was appropriate to honour Buckinghamshire.

October 25

October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 67 days remaining until the end of the year.

October 25 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

October 24 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - October 26

All fixed commemorations below celebrated on November 7 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For October 25th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on October 12.

Rictius Varus

Rictius Varus (Rictiovarus, Rixius Varus, Rexius Vicarius) was a Vicarius in Roman Gaul at the end of the 3rd century, around the time of the Diocletianic Persecution. The Roman Martyrology contains many references to the prefect Rixius Varus, who is said to have persecuted hundreds of Christians. In Christian hagiography he later repented and became a Christian martyr himself, and is regarded a Saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, with his feast day on July 6.

Modern scholars however question his existence and reject the story of his conversion.

Saint Crispin's Day

Saint Crispin's Day falls on 25 October and is the feast day of the Christian saints Crispin and Crispinian (also known as Crispinus and Crispianus, though this spelling has fallen out of favour), twins who were martyred c. 286.It is a day most famous for the battles that occurred on it, most notably the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. Because of the St. Crispin's Day Speech in Shakespeare's play Henry V, calling the soldiers who would fight on the day a "band of brothers", other battles fought on Crispin's day have been associated with Shakespeare's words. Other notable battles include the Battle of Balaclava (Charge of the Light Brigade) during the Crimean War in 1854 and the Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Pacific theatre in 1944.

Soissons

Soissons (French pronunciation: ​[swasɔ̃]) is a commune in the northern French department of Aisne, in the region of Hauts-de-France. Located on the Aisne River, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Paris, it is one of the most ancient towns of France, and is probably the ancient capital of the Suessiones. Soissons is also the see of an ancient Roman Catholic diocese, whose establishment dates from about 300, and it was the location of a number of church synods called "Council of Soissons".

Textiles in mythology and folklore

The theme of textiles in mythology and folklore is ancient, and its lost mythic lore probably accompanied the early spread of this art. In traditional societies today, westward of Central Asia and the Iranian plateau, weaving is a mystery within woman's sphere. Where men have become the primary weavers in this part of the world, it is possible that they have usurped the archaic role: among the gods, only goddesses are weavers. Herodotus noted, however, the cultural difference between gender identities and weaving among Hellenes and Egyptians: among Egyptians it was the men who wove.Weaving begins with spinning. Until the spinning wheel was invented in the 14th century, all spinning was done with distaff and spindle. In English the "distaff side" indicates relatives through one's mother, and thereby denotes a woman's role in the household economy. In Scandinavia, the stars of Orion's belt are known as Friggjar rockr, "Frigg’s distaff".

Textiles have also been associated in several cultures with spiders in mythology.

The spindle, essential to the weaving art, is recognizable as an emblem of security and settled times in a ruler's eighth-century BCE inscription at Karatepe:

"In those places which were formerly feared, where a man fears... to go on the road, in my days even women walked with spindles"

In the adjacent region of North Syria, historian Robin Lane Fox remarks funerary stelae showing men holding cups as if feasting and women seated facing them and holding spindles.

Victoricus, Fuscian, and Gentian

Victoricus (or Victorice, Victoric), Fuscian (or Fulcian, Fulcien, Fuscien) and Gentian (or Gentien) (died circa 287-303) were three Christian martyrs later venerated as Roman Catholic saints. Their feast day falls on December 11.

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