Criminal justice

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes. The criminal justice system is a series of government agencies and institutions whose goals are to identify and catch unlawful individuals to inflict a form of punishment on them. Other goals include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, and moral support for victims. The primary institutions of the criminal justice system are the police, prosecution and defense lawyers, the courts and prisons.

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United States criminal justice system flowchart.

Law

The Law From Old English lagu (something laid down or fixed) (Harper, Douglas. "law". Online Etymology Dictionary.); legal comes from Latin legalis, from lex "law," "statute" (Harper, Douglas. "legal". Online Etymology Dictionary.) is a system of rules usually enforced through a set of institutions. The purpose of law is to provide an objective set of rules for governing conduct and maintaining order in a society.

The oldest known codified law is the Code of Hammurabi, dating back to about 1754 BC. The preface directly credits the laws to the code of hammurabi of Ur. In different parts of the world, law could be established by philosophers or religion. In the modern world, laws are typically created and enforced by governments. These codified laws may coexist with or contradict other forms of social control, such as religious proscriptions, professional rules and ethics, or the cultural mores and customs of a society.

Within the realm of codified law, there are generally two forms of law that the courts are concerned with. Civil laws are rules and regulations which govern transactions and grievances between individual citizens. Criminal law is concerned with actions which are dangerous or harmful to society as a whole, in which prosecution is pursued not by an individual but rather by the state. The purpose of criminal law is to provide the specific definition of what constitutes a crime and to prescribe punishments for committing such a crime. No criminal law can be valid unless it includes both of these factors. The subject of criminal justice is, of course, primarily concerned with the enforcement of criminal law.

Criminal justice system

Definition

The criminal justice system consists of three main parts:

  1. Law enforcement agencies, usually the police
  2. Courts and accompanying prosecution and defence lawyers
  3. Agencies for detaining and supervising offenders, such as prisons and probation agencies.

In the criminal justice system, these distinct agencies operate together as the principal means of maintaining the rule of law within society.[1]

Adult Criminal Justice System
This image shows the procedure in the criminal justice system

Law enforcement

The first contact a defendant has with the criminal justice system is usually with the police (or law enforcement) who investigate the suspected wrongdoing and make an arrest, but if the suspect is dangerous to the whole nation, a national level law enforcement agency is called in. When warranted, law enforcement agencies or police officers are empowered to use force and other forms of legal coercion and means to effect public and social order. The term is most commonly associated with police departments of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. The word comes from the Latin politia ("civil administration"), which itself derives from the Ancient Greek πόλις, for polis ("city").[2] The first police force comparable to the present-day police was established in 1667 under King Louis XIV in France, although modern police usually trace their origins to the 1800 establishment of the Marine Police in London, the Glasgow Police, and the Napoleonic police of Paris.[3][4][5]

Police are primarily concerned with keeping the peace and enforcing criminal law based on their particular mission and jurisdiction. Formed in 1908, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began as an entity which could investigate and enforce specific federal laws as an investigative and "law enforcement agency" in the United States;[6] this, however, has constituted only a small portion of overall policing activity.[7] Policing has included an array of activities in different contexts, but the predominant ones are concerned with order maintenance and the provision of services.[8] During modern times, such endeavors contribute toward fulfilling a shared mission among law enforcement organizations with respect to the traditional policing mission of deterring crime and maintaining societal order.[9]

Courts

Old Bailey Microcosm edited
A trial at the Old Bailey in London, c. 1808

The courts serve as the venue where disputes are then settled and justice is administered. With regard to criminal justice, there are a number of critical people in any court setting. These critical people are referred to as the courtroom work group and include both professional and non professional individuals. These include the judge, prosecutor, and the defense attorney. The judge, or magistrate, is a person, elected or appointed, who is knowledgeable in the law, and whose function is to objectively administer the legal proceedings and offer a final decision to dispose of a case.

In the U.S. and in a growing number of nations, guilt or innocence (although in the U.S. a jury can never find a defendant "innocent" but rather "not guilty") is decided through the adversarial system. In this system, two parties will both offer their version of events and argue their case before the court (sometimes before a judge or panel of judges, sometimes before a jury). The case should be decided in favor of the party who offers the most sound and compelling arguments based on the law as applied to the facts of the case.

The prosecutor, or district attorney, is a lawyer who brings charges against a person, persons or corporate entity. It is the prosecutor's duty to explain to the court what crime was committed and to detail what evidence has been found which incriminates the accused. The prosecutor should not be confused with a plaintiff or plaintiff's counsel. Although both serve the function of bringing a complaint before the court, the prosecutor is a servant of the state who makes accusations on behalf of the state in criminal proceedings, while the plaintiff is the complaining party in civil proceedings.

A defense attorney counsels the accused on the legal process, likely outcomes for the accused and suggests strategies. The accused, not the lawyer, has the right to make final decisions regarding a number of fundamental points, including whether to testify, and to accept a plea offer or demand a jury trial in appropriate cases. It is the defense attorney's duty to represent the interests of the client, raise procedural and evidentiary issues, and hold the prosecution to its burden of proving guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. Defense counsel may challenge evidence presented by the prosecution or present exculpatory evidence and argue on behalf of their client. At trial, the defense attorney may attempt to offer a rebuttal to the prosecutor's accusations.

In the U.S., an accused person is entitled to a government-paid defense attorney if he or she is in jeopardy of losing his or her life and/or liberty. Those who cannot afford a private attorney may be provided one by the state. Historically, however, the right to a defense attorney has not always been universal. For example, in Tudor England criminals accused of treason were not permitted to offer arguments in their defense. In many jurisdictions, there is no right to an appointed attorney, if the accused is not in jeopardy of losing his or her liberty.

The final determination of guilt or innocence is typically made by a third party, who is supposed to be disinterested. This function may be performed by a judge, a panel of judges, or a jury panel composed of unbiased citizens. This process varies depending on the laws of the specific jurisdiction. In some places the panel (be it judges or a jury) is required to issue a unanimous decision, while in others only a majority vote is required. In America, this process depends on the state, level of court, and even agreements between the prosecuting and defending parties. Some nations do not use juries at all, or rely on theological or military authorities to issue verdicts.

Some cases can be disposed of without the need for a trial. In fact, the vast majority are. If the accused confesses his or her guilt, a shorter process may be employed and a judgment may be rendered more quickly. Some nations, such as America, allow plea bargaining in which the accused pleads guilty, nolo contendere or not guilty, and may accept a diversion program or reduced punishment, where the prosecution's case is weak or in exchange for the cooperation of the accused against other people. This reduced sentence is sometimes a reward for sparing the state the expense of a formal trial. Many nations do not permit the use of plea bargaining, believing that it coerces innocent people to plead guilty in an attempt to avoid a harsh punishment.

The entire trial process, whatever the country, is fraught with problems and subject to criticism. Bias and discrimination form an ever-present threat to an objective decision. Any prejudice on the part of the lawyers, the judge, or jury members threatens to destroy the court's credibility. Some people argue that the often Byzantine rules governing courtroom conduct and processes restrict a layman's ability to participate, essentially reducing the legal process to a battle between the lawyers. In this case, the criticism is that the decision is based less on sound justice and more on the lawyer's eloquence and charisma. This is a particular problem when the lawyer performs in a substandard manner. The jury process is another area of frequent criticism, as there are few mechanisms to guard against poor judgment or incompetence on the part of the layman jurors. Judges themselves are very subject to bias subject to things as ordinary as the length of time since their last break.[10]

Manipulations of the court system by defense and prosecution attorneys, law enforcement as well as the defendants have occurred and there have been cases where justice was denied.[11] [12]

Corrections and rehabilitation

HuntsvilleUnitHuntsvilleTX
The Huntsville Unit of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice in Huntsville, Texas is a prison, a component of a corrections system

Offenders are then turned over to the correctional authorities, from the court system after the accused has been found guilty. Like all other aspects of criminal justice, the administration of punishment has taken many different forms throughout history. Early on, when civilizations lacked the resources necessary to construct and maintain prisons, exile and execution were the primary forms of punishment. Historically shame punishments and exile have also been used as forms of censure.

The most publicly visible form of punishment in the modern era is the prison. Prisons may serve as detention centers for prisoners after trial. For containment of the accused, jails are used. Early prisons were used primarily to sequester criminals and little thought was given to living conditions within their walls. In America, the Quaker movement is commonly credited with establishing the idea that prisons should be used to reform criminals. This can also be seen as a critical moment in the debate regarding the purpose of punishment.

Correctional Activities at Central Jail Faisalabad, Pakistan in 2010 - Convicted prisoners receiving Quranic education
Qur'anic education for offenders at the Central Jail Faisalabad in Faisalabad, Pakistan

Punishment (in the form of prison time) may serve a variety of purposes. First, and most obviously, the incarceration of criminals removes them from the general population and inhibits their ability to perpetrate further crimes. A new goal of prison punishments is to offer criminals a chance to be rehabilitated. Many modern prisons offer schooling or job training to prisoners as a chance to learn a vocation and thereby earn a legitimate living when they are returned to society. Religious institutions also have a presence in many prisons, with the goal of teaching ethics and instilling a sense of morality in the prisoners. If a prisoner is released before his time is served, he is released as a parole. This means that they are released, but the restrictions are greater than that of someone on probation.

There are numerous other forms of punishment which are commonly used in conjunction with or in place of prison terms. Monetary fines are one of the oldest forms of punishment still used today. These fines may be paid to the state or to the victims as a form of reparation. Probation and house arrest are also sanctions which seek to limit a person's mobility and his or her opportunities to commit crimes without actually placing them in a prison setting. Furthermore, many jurisdictions may require some form of public or community service as a form of reparations for lesser offenses. In Corrections, the Department ensures court-ordered, pre-sentence chemical dependency assessments, related Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative specific examinations and treatment will occur for offenders sentenced to Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative in compliance with RCW 9.94A.660.

Execution or capital punishment is still used around the world. Its use is one of the most heavily debated aspects of the criminal justice system. Some societies are willing to use executions as a form of political control, or for relatively minor misdeeds. Other societies reserve execution for only the most sinister and brutal offenses. Others still have discontinued the practice entirely, believing the use of execution to be excessively cruel.[13]

Academic discipline

The functional study of criminal justice is distinct from criminology, which involves the study of crime as a social phenomenon, causes of crime, criminal behavior, and other aspects of crime. It emerged as an academic discipline in the 1920s, beginning with Berkeley police chief August Vollmer who established a criminal justice program at the University of California, Berkeley in 1916.[14] Vollmer's work was carried on by his student, O.W. Wilson, who led efforts to professionalize policing and reduce corruption. Other programs were established in the United States at Indiana University, Michigan State University, San Jose State University, and the University of Washington.[15] As of 1950, criminal justice students were estimated to number less than 1,000. Until the 1960s, the primary focus of criminal justice in the United States was on policing and police science.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, crime rates soared and social issues took center stage in the public eye. A number of new laws and studies focused federal resources on researching new approaches to crime control. The Warren Court (the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren), issued a series of rulings which redefined citizen's rights and substantially altered the powers and responsibilities of police and the courts. The Civil Rights Era offered significant legal and ethical challenges to the status quo.

In the late 1960s, with the establishment of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) and associated policy changes that resulted with the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. The LEAA provided grants for criminology research, focusing on social aspects of crime. By the 1970s, there were 729 academic programs in criminology and criminal justice in the United States.[15] Largely thanks to the Law Enforcement Education Program, criminal justice students numbered over 100,000 by 1975. Over time, scholars of criminal justice began to include criminology, sociology, and psychology, among others, to provide a more comprehensive view of the criminal justice system and the root causes of crime. Criminal justice studies now combine the practical and technical policing skills with a study of social deviance as a whole.

Criminal justice degree programs at four-year institutions typically include coursework in statistics, methods of research, criminal justice, policing, U.S court systems, criminal courts, corrections, community corrections, criminal procedure, criminal law, victimology, juvenile justice, and a variety of special topics. A number of universities offer a Bachelor of Criminal Justice.

History

Prisoners whipped
Prisoners at a whipping post in a Delaware prison, c. 1907

The modern criminal justice system has evolved since ancient times, with new forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms. These developments have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. In ancient times through the Middle Ages, exile was a common form of punishment. During the Middle Ages, payment to the victim (or the victim's family), known as wergild, was another common punishment, including for violent crimes. For those who could not afford to buy their way out of punishment, harsh penalties included various forms of corporal punishment. These included mutilation, branding, and flogging, as well as execution.

Though a prison, Le Stinche, existed as early as the 14th century in Florence, Italy,[16] incarceration was not widely used until the 19th century. Correctional reform in the United States was first initiated by William Penn, towards the end of the 17th century. For a time, Pennsylvania's criminal code was revised to forbid torture and other forms of cruel punishment, with jails and prisons replacing corporal punishment. These reforms were reverted, upon Penn's death in 1718. Under pressure from a group of Quakers, these reforms were revived in Pennsylvania toward the end of the 18th century, and led to a marked drop in Pennsylvania's crime rate. Patrick Colquhoun, Henry Fielding and others led significant reforms during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.[17]

The first official criminal justice system was created by the British during the American Revolution, as they created the system to primarily justify hangings to the citizens of their government. In each selected area or/and district there was a magistrate that in today's time would be known as a judge. These individuals were in charge of determining if the Crown or also known as the British government had enough evidence to hang an individual for a crime. The British would not always hang an individual for committing a crime, there would also be trials for punishments that would be carried out by cleaning ships, prison ships, or be locked up on British mainland. During the American revolution the primary type of punishment was to be hanged or sent to prison ships such as the notorious HMS Jersey. After the American revolution the British-based criminal justice system was then adopted by other developing nations (Such as the United States).

Modern police

The first modern police force is commonly said to be the Metropolitan Police in London, established in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel.[18][19] Based on the Peelian principles, it promoted the preventive role of police as a deterrent to urban crime and disorder.[20][21] In the United States, police departments were first established in Boston in 1838, and New York City in 1844. Early on, police were not respected by the community, as corruption was rampant.

In the 1920s, led by Berkeley, California police chief, August Vollmer and O.W. Wilson, police began to professionalize, adopt new technologies, and place emphasis on training and professional qualifications of new hires. Despite such reforms, police agencies were led by highly autocratic leaders, and there remained a lack of respect between police and the community. Following urban unrest in the 1960s, police placed more emphasis on community relations, enacted reforms such as increased diversity in hiring, and many police agencies adopted community policing strategies.

In the 1990s, CompStat was developed by the New York Police Department as an information-based system for tracking and mapping crime patterns and trends, and holding police accountable for dealing with crime problems. CompStat has since been replicated in police departments across the United States and around the world, with problem-oriented policing, intelligence-led policing, and other information-led policing strategies also adopted.

See also

References

  1. ^ "U.S. Criminal Justice System Overview - CorrectionalOfficer.org". www.correctionalofficer.org.
  2. ^ Harper, Douglas. "police". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-02-08.
  3. ^ Dinsmor, Alastair (Winter 2003). "Glasgow Police Pioneers". The Scotia News. Archived from the original on 2009-07-16. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
  4. ^ "History". Marine Support Unit. Metropolitan Police. Archived from the original on 2007-07-16. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  5. ^ "La Lieutenance Générale de Police". La Préfecture de Police fête ses 200 ans Juillet 1800 - Juillet 2000. La Préfecture de Police au service des Parisiens.
  6. ^ FBI (2009). THE FBI: A Centennial History, 1908-2008. Washington, D.C.: FBI. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-16-080954-5.
  7. ^ Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-669-01292-7.
  8. ^ Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. London: Pluto Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN.
  9. ^ McElreath, David; Doss, Daniel; Jensen, Carl; Wigginton, Michael; Kennedy, Ralph; Winter, Kenneth; Mongue, Robert; Bounds, Janice; Estis-Sumerel, J. Michelle (2013). Introduction to Law Enforcement (1 ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-1466556232.
  10. ^ "We find that the percentage of favorable rulings drops gradually from ≈65% to nearly zero within each decision session and returns abruptly to ≈65% after a break." Shai Danzigera; Jonathan Levav; Liora Avnaim-Pessoa (11 April 2011). "Extraneous factors in judicial decisions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (17): 6889–92. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.6889D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1018033108. PMC 3084045. PMID 21482790.
  11. ^ Perri, Frank S.; Lichtenwald, Terrance G. (2009). "When Worlds Collide: Criminal Investigative Analysis, Forensic Psychology And the Timothy Masters Case" (PDF). Forensic Examiner. 18 (2): 226972.
  12. ^ Perri, Frank S.; Lichtenwald, Terrance G. (2010). "The Last Frontier: Myths & The Female Psychopathic Killer" (PDF). Forensic Examiner. 19 (2): 50–67.
  13. ^ (ACJS)1963 JUSTICE SCIENCES 2015-04-25. 2015-05-07 ACJS HISTORY 243-252 CRIMINAL JUSTICE.4:243-2546790
  14. ^ "Finest of the Finest". TIME Magazine. February 18, 1966. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14.
  15. ^ a b Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, Ryan D. King; Cleveland; King (June 2004). "Institutional Environments and Scholarly Work: American Criminology, 1951-1993". Social Forces. 82 (4): 1275–1302. doi:10.1353/sof.2004.0093.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). "Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 81 (3): 567–84. doi:10.2307/1143848. JSTOR 1143848.
  17. ^ Garland, David (2002). "Of Crimes and Criminals". In Maguire, Mike; Rod Morgan; Robert Reiner. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press. p. 20.
  18. ^ Terrill, Richard J. (2015). World Criminal Justice Systems: A Comparative Survey (revised ed.). Routledge. p. 32. ISBN 978-1317228820.
  19. ^ Dempsey, John S.; Forst, Linda S. (2015). An Introduction to Policing (8 ed.). Cengage Learning. pp. 6–8. ISBN 978-1305544680.
  20. ^ Brodeur, Jean-Paul; Eds., Kevin R. E. McCormick and Livy A. Visano (1992). "High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political Activities," Understanding Policing. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 284–285, 295. ISBN.
  21. ^ "Policing by consent". UK Government. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2013.

Further reading

  • Dale, Elizabeth. Criminal Justice in the United States, 1789–1939 (Cambridge University Press, 2011)184 pp
  • Fuller, John Randolph. Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents 2005. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Serge Guinchard and Jacques Buisson. Criminal procedural law in France Lexinexis editor, 7th edition, September 2011, 1584 pages.
  • Hanes, Richard C. and Sharon M. Hanes. Crime and Punishment in America. Volume 1. 2005. Thomas Gale. Farmington Hills, MI
  • Friedman, Lawrence M. Crime and Punishment in American History. 1993. Basic Books. New York, NY.
  • Sunga, Lyal S. The Emerging System of International Criminal Law: Developments in Codification and Implementation, 1997. Kluwer Law International. The Hague, The Netherlands.
  • Walker, Samuel Popular Justice: A History of American Criminal Justice. 1980. Oxford University Press, Inc. New York

External links

Allan B. Polunsky Unit

Allan B. Polunsky Unit (TL, formerly the Terrell Unit) is a prison in West Livingston, unincorporated Polk County, Texas, United States, located approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) southwest of Livingston along Farm to Market Road 350. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) operates the facility. The unit houses the State of Texas death row for men, and it has a maximum capacity of 2,900. Livingston Municipal Airport is located on the other side of FM 350. The unit, along the Big Thicket, is 60 miles (97 km) east of Huntsville.Polunsky was named after Allan B. Polunsky, a former chairman of the Texas Board of Criminal Justice who is now the chairman of the Public Safety Commission, the governing board of the Texas Department of Public Safety.Polunsky houses Texas's "supermax" units and is notable for being the location of Texas's death row for men (executions, though, are conducted at the Huntsville Unit in Huntsville).

Anne Milgram

Anne Milgram is an American attorney, politician, legal thinker, and academic. As 57th Attorney General of New Jersey from 2007 to 2010, she reformed the Camden Police Department and injected data and evidence into decisions about how to fight crime and make communities safer.

Milgram is currently a Professor of Practice and Distinguished Scholar in Residence at New York University School of Law. Most recently, she was the founding head of the Criminal Justice Initiative at the Laura and John Arnold Foundation.Milgram began her career as a state, federal, and local prosecutor. Today, her work focuses on re-inventing the criminal justice system through the strategic employment of smart data, analytics, and technology.

She serves as a member of the Covenant House International Board of Directors, the National Center for State Courts Board of Directors, and the Institute for Innovation in Prosecution Advisory Board. Milgram is a former TED speaker and published author. She has received the United States Department of Justice Director’s Award, and the Department of Justice Special Commendation for Outstanding Service.

Milgram is currently serves as a law professor at New York University School of Law and as special counsel at Lowenstein Sandler.

Conviction

In law, a conviction is the verdict that usually results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime. The opposite of a conviction is an acquittal (that is, "not guilty"). In Scotland and in the Netherlands, there can also be a verdict of "not proven", which counts as an acquittal. There are also cases in which the court orders that a defendant not be convicted, despite being found guilty; in England, Wales, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand the mechanism for this is a discharge.

For a host of reasons, the criminal justice system is not perfect: sometimes guilty defendants are acquitted, while innocent people are convicted. Appeal mechanisms and post conviction relief procedures may mitigate the effects of a conviction to some extent. An error which results in the conviction of an innocent person is known as a miscarriage of justice.

After a defendant is convicted, the court determines the appropriate sentence as a punishment. Furthermore, the conviction may lead to results beyond the terms of the sentence itself. Such ramifications are known as the collateral consequences of criminal charges.

A minor conviction is a warning conviction, and it does not affect the defendant but does serve as a warning.A history of convictions are called antecedents, known colloquially as "previous" in the United Kingdom, and "priors" in the United States and Australia. The history of convictions also shows that a minor law conviction can be prosecuted as any individual's punishment.

Crime in Ohio

This article refers to crime in the U.S. state of Ohio.

Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994

The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c.33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It introduced a number of changes to the existing law, most notably in the restriction and reduction of existing rights and in greater penalties for certain "anti-social" behaviours. A main motivation was to restrict outdoor rave parties, in particular in reaction to the 1992 Castlemorton Common Festival. The Bill was introduced by Michael Howard, home secretary of Prime Minister John Major's Conservative government, and attracted widespread opposition.

Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service

The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service (Scottish Gaelic: Oifis an Ard-Ghnìomhachas agus Seirbheis Neach-casaid an Ard-Ghnìomhachas, Scots: Croun Office an Procurator Fiscal Service) is the independent public prosecution service for Scotland, and is a Ministerial Department of the Scottish Government. The department is headed by Her Majesty's Lord Advocate, who under the Scottish legal system is responsible for prosecution, along with the area procurators fiscal. In Scotland, virtually all prosecution of criminal offences is undertaken by the Crown. Private prosecutions are extremely rare.

The Service's responsibilities extend to the whole of Scotland, and include:

Investigation and prosecution of criminal offences

Investigation of sudden or suspicious deaths

The investigation and prosecution of criminal conduct by the police

Assessment and possession of bona vacantia

Assessment and possession of treasure troveThe Lord Advocate is assisted by the Solicitor General for Scotland, both Law Officers. The day-to-day running of the Service is done by the Crown Agent & Chief Executive and an executive board who are based in the service headquarters at Crown Office in Chambers Street, Edinburgh.

The Service employs both civil servants who carry out administrative and other duties and solicitors and advocates who represent the Crown in Court.

FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division

Not to be confused with the Criminal Justice Information Services of Scotland.The Criminal Justice Information Services Division (or CJIS) is a division of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) located in Clarksburg, Harrison County, West Virginia. The CJIS was established in February 1992 and is the largest division in the FBI.The FBI CJIS is a high-tech hub providing state-of-the-art tools and services to law enforcement, national security/intelligence community partners, and the general public.

High School for Law and Justice

High School for Law and Justice (HSLJ), formerly the High School for Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (LE/CJ in short), is a high school located in Houston, Texas, United States. The school serves grades 9 through 12 and is a part of the Houston Independent School District.

HSLJ is an all-magnet high school that has Houston ISD's magnet program for law enforcement and criminal justice. Children from surrounding neighborhoods are not automatically eligible for HSLJ; pupils in the surrounding area are zoned to Reagan High School. Prospective students are required to take a test for admission.

During the students enrollment at HSLJ he/she will be subjected to various classes that teach him/her how to operate in either the Law Enforcement or Criminal Justice fields.

In 2014 the HISD board voted to rename the school the High School for Law and Justice. This was effective in 2016.

The school is on an 11-acre (4.5 ha) property.

Huntsville, Texas

Huntsville is a city in and the county seat of Walker County, Texas. The population was 38,548 as of the 2010 census. It is the center of the Huntsville micropolitan area.

Huntsville is approximately 70 miles north of Houston in the East Texas Piney Woods on Interstate 45, which runs between Houston and Dallas. It is home to Sam Houston State University, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Huntsville State Park, and HEARTS Veterans Museum of Texas. The city served as the residence of Sam Houston, who is recognized in Huntsville by the Sam Houston Memorial Museum and a statue on Interstate 45.

Incarceration in the United States

Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, and the highest per-capita incarceration rate. In 2016 in the US, there were 655 people incarcerated per 100,000 population. This is the US incarceration rate for adults or people tried as adults. In 2018 2.2 million Americans have been incarcerated, which means for every 100,000 there are 655 that are currently inmates. This costs the United States government $80 billion dollars a year.

John Jay College of Criminal Justice

The John Jay College of Criminal Justice (John Jay) is a senior college of the City University of New York in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. John Jay was founded as the only liberal arts college with a criminal justice and forensic focus in the United States. The college is known for its criminal justice, forensic science, forensic psychology, and public affairs programs.

National Criminal Justice Reference Service

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally sponsored program that shares publications and other information including grants and funding opportunities and upcoming trainings and conferences from the United States Department of Justice's Office of Justice Programs (OJP) agencies and National Institute of Corrections (NIC). NCJRS also maintains a criminal justice library and serves as a resource for law enforcement and other criminal justice agencies.

NCJRS services and resources are available to anyone interested in crime, victim assistance, and public safety including policymakers, practitioners, researchers, educators, community leaders, and the general public. NCJRS hosts one of the largest criminal and juvenile justice libraries and databases in the world, the NCJRS Abstracts Database. The collection, with holdings from the early 1970s to the present, contains more than 210,000 publications, reports, articles, and audiovisual products from the United States and around the world. These resources include Federal, state, and local government reports, books, research reports, journal articles, and unpublished research.

National Institute of Justice

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice. NIJ, along with the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), and other program offices, comprise the Office of Justice Programs (OJP) branch of the Department of Justice.

Race and crime

Race is one of the correlates of crime receiving attention in academic studies, government surveys, media coverage, and public concern. Several causes of racial disparities in treatment by the criminal justice system have been tested by experts in the sociological field. A majority of their results find that a lack of financial means and low social status are likely factors motivating minorities to commit crime. Additionally, blacks and other ethnic minorities are often sentenced to more time in prison than their white counterparts.

Race in the United States criminal justice system

Race in the United States criminal justice system refers to the unique experiences and disparities in the United States in regard to the policing and prosecuting of various races. There have been different outcomes for different racial groups in convicting and sentencing felons in the United States criminal justice system. Experts and analysts have debated the relative importance of different factors that have led to these disparities. Minority defendants are charged with crimes requiring a mandatory minimum prison sentence more often, in both relative and absolute terms (depending on the classification of race, mainly in regards to Hispanics), leading to large racial disparities in correctional facilities.

Sam Houston State University

Sam Houston State University (known as SHSU or Sam) was founded in 1879 and is the third-oldest public institution of higher learning in Texas. It is approximately 70 miles north of downtown Houston, in Huntsville, Texas. It is one of the oldest purpose-built institutions for the instruction of teachers west of the Mississippi River and the first such institution in Texas. It is named for Sam Houston, who made his home in the city and is buried there.

SHSU is a member of the Texas State University System and has an enrollment of more than 20,000 students across over 80 undergraduate, 59 master's, and 8 doctoral degree programs. Its programs are ranked 231-300 by U.S. News & World Report. The university also offers more than 20 online bachelor's and graduate degrees. It was the first institution classified as a Doctoral Research University by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education within the Texas State University System, and while education continues to be the most popular major among its students, SHSU has nationally recognized programs in banking, performing arts, mathematics and criminal justice.

Texas Department of Criminal Justice

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) is a department of the government of the U.S. state of Texas. The TDCJ is responsible for statewide criminal justice for adult offenders, including managing offenders in state prisons, state jails, and private correctional facilities, funding and certain oversight of community supervision, and supervision of offenders released from prison on parole or mandatory supervision. The TDCJ operates the largest prison system in the United States.The department has its headquarters in the BOT Complex in Huntsville and offices at the Price Daniel Sr. Building in downtown Austin.

The Night Of

The Night Of is a 2016 American eight-part crime drama television miniseries based on the first season of Criminal Justice, a 2008 British series. The miniseries was written by Richard Price and Steven Zaillian (based on the original Criminal Justice plot by Peter Moffat), and directed by Zaillian and James Marsh. Broadcast on HBO, The Night Of premiered on July 10, 2016 to critical acclaim. The first episode premiered on June 24, 2016, via HBO's on-demand services.

Victimisation

Victimisation (or victimization) is the process of being victimised or becoming a victim. The field that studies the process, rates, incidence, effects, and prevalence of victimisation is called victimology.

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