Criminal intelligence

Criminal Intelligence is information compiled, analyzed, and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity.[1][2][3][4]

The United States Army Military Police Corps defines criminal intelligence in more detail; criminal intelligence is information gathered or collated, analyzed, recorded/reported and disseminated by law enforcement agencies concerning types of crime, identified criminals and known or suspected criminal groups.[5]

It is particularly useful when dealing with organized crime. Criminal intelligence is developed by using surveillance, informants, interrogation, and research, or may be just picked up on the "street" by individual police officers.

Some larger law enforcement agencies have a department, division or section specifically designed to gather disparate pieces of information and develop criminal intelligence. One of the most effective ways of applying criminal intelligence is first to record it (store in a computer system) which can be "mined" (searched) for specific information.

US Army usage

Criminal intelligence:

CRIMINT is the result of the collection, analysis, and interpretation of all available information concerning known and potential criminal threats and vulnerabilities of supported organizations. Army law enforcement agencies are the primary liaison representatives of the Army to federal, state, local, and host nation (HN) agencies for exchanging police intelligence. They collect criminal intelligence (CRIMINT) and human intelligence (HUMINT) within the provisions of applicable statutes and regulations. Army law enforcement agencies have the capability to analyze and disseminate collected time-sensitive information concerning a criminal threat against Army interests. The value of such intelligence cannot be overemphasized; it not only serves the purpose of police investigations, it also contributes to the development of countermeasures to safeguard Army personnel, materials, information, and other resources.[6]

CRIMINT Process

The CRIMINT process is effective intelligence results from a series of interrelated activities. The intelligence process is a continuous process of collecting and converting data into intelligence products to be integrated into operations. The process consists of several phases with continuous evaluation and feedback at each phase and at the end of the process. With the minor modification of adding “reporting” to the second phase, the following text outlines the intelligence process as discussed in Army Regulation (AR) 525-13.

  • CRIMINT planning and directing.
  • CRIMINT collection and reporting.
  • CRIMINT processing.
  • Analysis and production.
  • Dissemination and integration.[6]

Criminal intelligence analysis

Criminal intelligence analysis has been recognized by law enforcement as a useful support tool for over twenty-five years and is successfully used within the international community. International organizations, such as the International Police (INTERPOL), European Police (EUROPOL) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and while there are many definitions of Criminal Intelligence Analysis in use throughout the world, the one definition agreed in June 1992 by an international group of twelve European INTERPOL member countries and subsequently adopted by other countries is as follows:

The identification of and provision of insight into the relationship between crime data and other potentially relevant data with a view to police and judicial practice.[7]

As such, criminal intelligence is a more intense or specific application towards investigations than criminology.

Criminal investigation analysis software

There are several techniques intended for criminal investigation analysis. One of them is link analysis which is dedicated to evaluate relationships between nodes. In this specific category there are several applications such as IBM i2 that provides integrated tools to support crime investigators and next-generation, single platforms as DataWalk that imports, integrates and links structured and unstructured data at massive scale for further visual analysis, investigation and collaboration.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Department of Justice (DOJ), National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (2003)" (PDF). fas.org.
  2. ^ "International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A National Plan for Intelligence-Led Policing At the Local, State and Federal Levels (2002)" (PDF). ncirc.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-05-27.
  3. ^ International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) National Law Enforcement Policy Center (2003). Archived 2010-05-27 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ https://www.interpol.int/INTERPOL-expertise/Criminal-Intelligence-analysis
  5. ^ "Field Manual (FM) 3-19.50 - Police Intelligence Operations (2006)". rdl.train.army.mil. Archived from the original on 2011-07-20.
  6. ^ a b FM 3-19.13 LAW ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS
  7. ^ "International Police (INTERPOL) (2010)". interpol.int. Archived from the original on 2007-10-05.
Aboriginal-based organized crime (Canada)

Aboriginal-based organized crime (ABOC) is a term used to refer to Canadian criminal organizations which have a significant percentage of Aboriginal members. These organizations are primarily found in the prairie provinces, which tend to have areas with high concentrations of people of Aboriginal descent. ABOC is an important national monitored issue, as defined by Criminal Intelligence Service Canada.

Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission

The Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (ACIC) was formed to strengthen the country's response to crime affecting Australia. The agency has specialist investigative capabilities and delivers and maintains national information sharing solutions. The ACIC was established on 1 July 2016 following the merger of the Australian Crime Commission and CrimTrac.

The ACIC works with law enforcement partners to improve the ability to stop criminals exploiting emerging opportunities and gaps in law enforcement information. They report to the Minister for Home Affairs, and is accountable to and monitored and reviewed by the Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. The ACIC Board includes representatives of Commonwealth, state and territory law enforcement and key national security and regulatory agencies. The Board also provides strategic direction to the ACIC and is responsible for determining special operations and special investigations. They are subject to the jurisdiction of the Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity (ACLEI), which is tasked with preventing, detecting and investigating law-enforcement related corruption issues.

Australian Intelligence Community

The Australian Intelligence Community (AIC) and the National Intelligence Community (NIC) or National Security Community of the Australian Government are the collectives of statutory intelligence agencies, policy departments, and other government agencies concerned with protecting and advancing the national security and national interests of the Commonwealth of Australia. The intelligence and security agencies of the Australian Government have evolved since the Second World War and the Cold War and saw transformation and expansion during the Global War on Terrorism in response to current international and domestic security issues such as terrorism, violent extremism, cybersecurity, transnational crime, counter-proliferation, support to military operations, and Pacific regional instability.The National Security Committee of Cabinet (NSC) is a Cabinet committee and the peak Australian Government decision-making body for national security, intelligence, foreign policy, and defence matters. It is chaired by the Prime Minister and is composed of the Deputy Prime Minister, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister for Defence, and Minister for Home Affairs.

The Australian Government 2008 National Security Strategy defined the Australian Intelligence Community (AIC) as the six core intelligence agencies (Office of National Assessments (ONA), Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO), Australian Signals Directorate (ASD), Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation (AGO)) and the National Intelligence Community (NIC) as policy departments and other government agencies such as the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet and the Australian Federal Police. The Office of National Assessments further classifies the six agencies of the Australian Intelligence Community as collection (ASIO, ASIS, ASD, AGO) or assessment agencies (ONA, DIO). The Office of National Assessments itself plays a unique all-source intelligence assessment and intergovernmental co-ordination role.As a middle power and G20 economy in the international community and a regional power in the Asia-Pacific and Indo-Pacific, Australia has played a major role in international security. The Australian Government is a member of the Five Eyes intelligence community, the Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty, the Five Power Defence Arrangements, and the Commonwealth of Nations. The foreign policy of Australia is guided by its commitment to multilateralism and the United Nations and regionalism with the Pacific Islands Forum and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations alongside strong bilateral relations particularly in Oceania, Southeast Asia, the alliance with the United States, and Australia–China relations.

The Australian Defence Force has also deployed around the world for United Nations peacekeeping, regional peacekeeping operations including with the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands and the International Force for East Timor, humanitarian relief, counterterrorism and special operations, border security in Operation Resolute, airborne surveillance operations and maritime monitoring operations in the South China Sea and South West Pacific, counterinsurgency and security assistance such as with the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan with Operation Slipper and Operation Highroad, and the fight against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant with Operation Okra.

Domestically, the rise of violent extremism and threats of both Islamic and right-wing terrorism are key concerns of the Australian Government. Crime in Australia, including cybercrime and transnational crime such as human trafficking, arms trafficking, and the illegal drug trade, are ongoing risks to the security and safety of Australia.

Canadian Forces National Investigation Service

The Canadian Forces National Investigation Service (CFNIS) is the investigative arm of the Canadian Forces Military Police.

The CFNIS, an independent Military Police unit, provides an independent investigative capability for the purpose of fair and impartial administration of military justice.

Criminal Intelligence Service Canada

Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC; French: Service canadien de renseignements criminels) is an inter-agency organization in Canada designed to coordinate and share criminal intelligence amongst member police forces. Established in 1970, the CISC has a central bureau in Ottawa and ten bureaus in each province offering services to over 400 law enforcement agencies in Canada.There are three levels of membership in the CISC. Level I is for police forces responsible for federal and provincial law enforcement and have their own criminal intelligence unit. Level II is for member agencies that have specific law enforcement role. For example, Canada Border Services Agency and Wildlife Service. Level III is for agencies that have a complementary role to law enforcement or assistance to law enforcement. The level of membership is mirrored to membership with the Canadian Police Information Centre.Intelligence units of member agencies supply their provincial bureau of the CISC with raw intelligence data, which is then added to an online database, Automated Criminal Intelligence Information System (ACIIS). The Ottawa Bureau is the custodian of the national database, and manages it in consultation with member agencies. The purpose of the CISC initiative is to not only coordinate information sharing across jurisdictions, but to facilitate investigations into organized and serious crime across Canada.

The central bureau is staffed by Royal Canadian Mounted Police employees along with secondments from the following agencies:

Canada Border Services Agency

Canadian Forces Military Police

Ontario Provincial Police

Ottawa Police Service

Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Service de police de la Ville de Montréal

Sûreté du Québec

Toronto Police Service

Vancouver Police DepartmentThe CISC has a strategic plan consisting of four pillars.The first pillar is criminal intelligence personnel. According to this pillar, the CISC intends to improve national criminal intelligence by directing resources to the cultivation of intelligence expertise and equipment and to attract talent in this field to the CISC through its hiring policies.

Secondly, the CISC aims to provide support to its intelligence personnel through the direction given by the leadership of the organization, by making the necessary technological tools available to intelligence personnel based on the "need to know/right to know" principle, and by facilitating the analysis of intelligence data through training personnel in intelligence analysis methodology and best practices. The second pillar also includes disseminating processed intelligence back to member agencies and measuring the "value added" of criminal intelligence through assessing feedback and determining the satisfaction of members with the service through a performance-measuring tool called the "balance scorecard."

The third pillar is "criminal intelligence technologies," meaning the maintenance of the ACIIS system and data mining technology, and keeping up-to-date as new technologies develop. The fourth and final pillar is the "criminal intelligence communications plan," which consists of coordinating information flows between member agencies as well as with members and non-member partners and instilling strategic-thinking on a national scale in criminal intelligence workers.

The CISC also publishes an annual report on organized crime in Canada.

Department of Criminal Intelligence

The Department of Criminal Intelligence was the central domestic and foreign intelligence organisation in India under the British Raj. It was set up in April 1904 under Sir Harold Stuart on recommendations of H.L. Fraser, following the report of the 1903 Police Commission instituted by the then Viceroy of India Lord Curzon. It remained the most important intelligence organisation in India until the end of the Raj in 1947.

Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia Criminal

Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia Criminal (National Directorate of Criminal Intelligence, DNIC) is an Argentine intelligence agency, part of the National Intelligence System. It used to depend on the Secretaría de Seguridad Interior (Secretariat of Interior Security), which itself depends on the Ministry of Interior; currently, the DNIC depends from the National Ministry of Security. The DNIC is not a division of the Secretaría de Inteligencia (SIDE), which has its own Directorate of Interior Intelligence.

Federal Intelligence Agency

The Federal Intelligence Agency (in Spanish: Agencia Federal de Inteligencia) also known as AFI is the principal intelligence agency of Argentina.

This organization is the successor to the Secretariat of Intelligence (formerly SIDE) and has two purposes: to collect national intelligence for governmental needs and criminal intelligence. It also was transferred from the Ministry of Security, to the National Criminal Intelligence.

The agency was created by Law 27126 3 amending the National Intelligence Act entering into force 120 days after enactment of the Act. According to regulations shall govern all communication by the Director General or Deputy Director General any interaction being punished by the members of the AFI any action or relationship regulated by the law establishing the Federal Intelligence Agency. In turn AFI officials should make affidavits without distinction of degrees.

Grim Reapers Motorcycle Club (Canada)

The Grim Reapers Motorcycle Club was an outlaw motorcycle club, founded in 1967 in Calgary, Alberta, that was active during the sixties and seventies, and grew to become a dominant club in the region during the eighties and nineties.They were apparently independent of a US-based motorcycle club of the same name that was founded in 1965 in Louisville, Kentucky. Along with the Rebels, the Warlords, and King's Crew, they were one of the four dominant outlaw motorcycle clubs operating in Alberta prior to 1997. In 1997, the club became part of the Hells Angels in a patch-over ceremony held in Red Deer, Alberta.In 1970, 11 members and 2 associates were sentenced to life in prison for the murder of Ronald Hartley, president of the Outcasts Motorcycle Club. After an appeal several members were released and others had their sentences reduced. Two members were eventually convicted and sentenced to life in prison for the murder.The Grim Reapers were listed as an "Outlaw Motorcycle Gang" by Criminal Intelligence Service Canada. In 1997, primarily because of public outcry due to escalating violence in eastern Canada between the Rock Machine and the Hells Angels' Quebec chapters, the Canadian government passed Bill C-95 which amended the Criminal Code (and other legislation) to give Canadian law enforcement organizations powers similar to those provided to their American counterparts via RICO.Several former members of the Reapers, later to become members of the Hells Angels' Western Canadian chapters, were eventually successful in their challenge of charges brought against them under the new legislation as a result of events that occurred in relation to their patch-over gathering in Red Deer. In 2005, the bikers in Alberta won a major court victory when a judge ruled that police violated their constitutional rights during a roadside check in 1997.

Harold Stuart

Sir Harold Arthur Stuart (29 July 1860 – 1 March 1923) was an Indian Civil Servant, the first Director of the Central Criminal Intelligence Department of India, and later a Home Secretary to the Government of India. A graduate of King's College Cambridge, Harold Stuart was born in the city of York to Peter Stuart. He entered the Indian Civil Service in 1881, serving as the Under Secretary to the Government of Madras. From April 1904 till 1909, Stuart served as the head of the newly formed department of Criminal Intelligence, later serving as the Home Secretary to the Government of India and subsequently in the Executive Council.

In 1919 he was appointed as the British High commissioner to the Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission

List of Indian intelligence agencies

India has a number of intelligence agencies of which the best known are the Research and Analysis Wing, India’s external intelligence agency and the Intelligence Bureau, the domestic intelligence agency.

National Criminal Intelligence Service

The National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) was a United Kingdom policing agency. Following the Police and Criminal Justice Act 2001, NCIS returned to direct funding by the Home Office in 2002 and was a non-departmental public body. On 1 April 2006 it was merged into the newly created Serious Organised Crime Agency.

The unit was established in April 1992 previously known as the National Drugs Intelligence Unit. Organised according to the Police Act 1997, the functions of NCIS were to gather intelligence data and analysed this information to provide the necessary insight and intelligence to national police forces. The act also empowered the service with rights to perform surveillance operations.Organisation of the service included units specialising in organised crimes and crimes involving illicit drugs, football and financial issues. A specialised unit was focused especially on kidnap and extortion,counterfeit money, the stealing of automobiles and paedophilic crimes. At the time of the creation of the service, there was a paedophile unit integral to the organisation of the service. The service consisted of 500 officers.The service was designed specifically to act against crime classified as both organised in performance and of a serious nature. Relevant groups were to include necessarily:

at least three people

engaging in ongoing criminal activity for prolonged periods, something like a "career criminal"

are motivated in acting to gain in power and for the accumulation of profit.The service received £138 million in funding during 1999.The unit was disbanded during 2006 and replaced by SOCA.The Director General had no responsibility for terrorist responses, which at the time was dealt with by the Security Service (MI5) and Constabulary Special Branches coordinated by the Metropolitan Police Special Branch (MPSB).

National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan

The National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP) is an intelligence-sharing initiative that links the computer databases of local, state, regional, tribal law enforcement agencies with those of the U.S. federal government.

National Forensic DNA Database of South Africa

The National Forensic DNA Database of South Africa (NFDD) is a national DNA database used in law enforcement in South Africa. The Criminal Law (Forensic Procedures) Amendment Act No. 37 of 2013 (the "DNA Act") provides for the expansion and administration of such a database in South Africa, enabling the South African Police Service (SAPS) to match forensic DNA profiles derived from samples collected at crime scenes with forensic DNA profiles of offenders convicted of, and suspects arrested for, offences listed in a new Schedule 8 of the amended Criminal Procedure Act of 1977.

National Security Corps

Państwowy Korpus Bezpieczeństwa (Polish for National Security Corps, short PKB, sometimes also referred to as Kadra Bezpieczeństwa) was a Polish underground police force organized by the Armia Krajowa and Government Delegate's Office at Home under German occupation during World War II. It was trained as the core of the future police forces during the assumed all-national uprising and after the liberation. The first commander of the Corps was Lt. Col. Marian Kozielewski. He was later replaced by Stanisław Tabisz. In October 1943 the PKB had 8 400 officers, until early 1944 the number grew to almost 12 000.

The PKB was created by the Department of the Internal Affairs of the Delegate's Office in 1940, mostly from members of the pre-war Polish police and volunteers. PKB carried out investigation and criminal intelligence duties as well as gathered reports of the Gestapo and Kripo in the General Government. It enforced the verdicts prepared by the Directorate of Civil Resistance and Directorate of Underground Resistance and passed by the Special Courts.

A unit of PKB commanded by Henryk Iwański purportedly distinguished itself during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943. However, according to the work of a Polish-Israeli research team (Dr. Dariusz Libionka and Dr. Laurence Weinbaum), much of what Henryk Iwański wrote should be relegated to the realm of confabulation or manipulation of the Communist secret police.

National Vehicle Crime Intelligence Service

The National Vehicle Crime Intelligence Service (NAVCIS), formerly known as the Association of Chief Police Officers Vehicle Crime Intelligence Service (AVCIS) is a British police unit.

Originally set up and run by the Association of Chief Police Officers, it is responsible for combating organised vehicle crime and the use of vehicles in crime. AVCIS was formed in 2006 to replace the vehicle crime related functions of the National Criminal Intelligence Service which was disbanded with the creation of the Serious Organised Crime Agency and is based in Warwickshire.NAVCIS works with a number of other agencies and private companies to maintain the downward pressure on vehicle crime which has seen it reduce by 50% since 2001.

Rebels Motorcycle Club (Canada)

The Rebels MC (motorcycle club) was an outlaw motorcycle club based in Western Canada that was founded in Red Deer, Alberta in 1968.Along with the Grim Reapers, the Warlords, and King's Crew, the Rebels became one of the four dominant outlaw motorcycle clubs operating in Alberta prior to 1997. By 1997, when the Grim Reapers became part of the Hells Angels in a patch-over ceremony held in Red Deer, Alberta, and after merging with the Loners of Saskatchewan, the Rebels had become a support club of the Hells Angels with four chapters: Edmonton, Calgary, Moose Jaw, and Saskatoon.In the 1970s and early 1980s (the golden era in Canada for independent one-percenter clubs), the Rebels were the dominant club in the Edmonton area, while the Reapers were the alpha club in Red Deer and Calgary. In the early eighties, as the Reapers grew more powerful and the Rebels less so, the Rebels were warned by the Reapers not to fly the "Alberta" lower rocker on threat of club warfare, so members of the Rebel's Calgary chapter used "Southern Alberta" for the lower rocker and Edmonton members flew "Northern Alberta". King's Crew, meanwhile, were tolerated in their use of "Calgary" as the lower rocker, while the Saskatchewan Rebels, at that point being the dominant club in that province, flew "Saskatchewan" as their lower rocker. In September 1998, the Saskatoon Rebels were patched over to the Hells Angels and the Apollos of Saskatoon became the primary Hells Angels support club there.The Edmonton chapter of the Rebels folded in 1997, soon after the arrest of then secretary-treasurer Scott Jamieson. In 2004, Joey "Crazy Horse" Morin, a.k.a. Joey Campbell, a former associate of the Edmonton chapter of the Rebels, and Robert Charles Simpson were gunned down outside an Edmonton strip club. At the time of the murders, the Bandidos website identified Morin as a probationary member and Simpson as a hangaround. Sources close to the investigation speculated at the time that Morin and Simpson were in Edmonton to set up shop and the murders were committed by a group opposed to that happening. To date no arrests have been made and the file is still officially open and active.The Rebels were listed as an Outlaw Motorcycle Gang by Criminal Intelligence Service Canada.

Royal Brunei Police Force

The Royal Brunei Police Force, RBPF (Malay: Polis Diraja Brunei (PDRB)) was founded in 1921 with the passing of the Brunei Police Force Enactment. The police force is in charge of prisons, fire services, the issuing of licenses, immigration, and keeping law and order in the streets. The RBPF has been one of the 190 members of INTERPOL, an intergovernmental organisation worldwide since 1984.

With a force of more than 4,400 officers, the RBPF is responsible for keeping law and order and providing law enforcement services. The mandate for the RBPF in keeping the law in the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam includes the prevention, detection and investigation of crime, collection of criminal intelligence, traffic control, escort duties (VIPs, cash, prisoners), sea and border patrol, public order, riot as well as public event control. [1]

Sistema de Inteligencia Nacional

Sistema de Inteligencia Nacional (National Intelligence System, SIN) is the official denomination of the Argentine national intelligence community.

The National Intelligence System consists of the following agencies and its dependencies:

Secretaría de Inteligencia (Secretariat of Intelligence, S.I)

Escuela Nacional de Inteligencia (National Intelligence School, ENI)

Dirección de Observaciones Judiciales (Directorate of Judicial Surveillance, DOJ)

Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia Criminal (National Directorate of Criminal Intelligence, DNIC)

Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia Estratégica Militar (National Directorate of Strategic Military Intelligence, DNIEM)The National Intelligence System came online with the 2001 Intelligence Reform Law 25.520.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.