Crimean Karaites

The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар Qrımqaraylar, singular къарай qaray; Trakai dialect: karajlar, singular karaj; Hebrew: קראי מזרח אירופה‎; Turkish: Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire. "Karaim" is a Russian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian, and Polish name for the community.

Crimean Karaites
къарайлар, karajlar
Qaraylar
Karaite men in traditional garb, Crimea, 19th century.
Total population
≈2,000
 Ukraine (including Crimea)1,196[1]
     Crimea715[2]
 Israel~500[3]
 Poland346[4]
 Lithuania241[5]
 Russia205[6]
Languages
Karaim, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian
Religion
Karaite Judaism, Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Samaritans, Turkic peoples

Origins

Старовинне караїмське кладовище на Тепе-Оба 01
Cemetery near Feodosia (Crimea)

Turkic-speaking Karaites (in the Crimean Tatar language, Qaraylar) have lived in Crimea for centuries. Their origin is a matter of great controversy. Some regard them as descendants of Karaite Jews who settled in Crimea and adopted a form of the Kypchak tongue (see Karaim language). Others view them as descendants of Khazar or Cuman, Kipchak converts to Karaite Judaism. Today many Crimean Karaites deny ethnic Semitic origins and identify as descendants of the Khazars.[7] Some specialists in Khazar history question the Khazar theory of Karaim origins,[8][9] noting the following:

  • the Karaim language belongs to the Kipchak linguistic group, and the Khazar language belongs to the Bulgar group; there is no close relationship between these two Turkic languages;[10]
  • According to the Khazar Correspondence, Khazar Judaism was, most likely, Talmudic.[11] The tradition of Karaite Judaism ranks only the Tanakh as a holy book and does not recognize the Talmud;
  • Khazars disappeared in the 11th century. But, the first written mention of the Crimean Karaites was in the 14th century;[12]
  • Anthropologic researches show similarity between Crimean Karaites of Lithuania and Egyptian Karaite Jews;[13]

In 19th century Crimea, Karaites began to distinguish themselves from other Jewish groups, sending envoys to the czars to plead for exemptions from harsh anti-Jewish legislation. These entreaties were successful, in large part due to the czars’ wariness of the Talmud, and in 1863 Karaites were granted the same rights as their Christian and Tatar neighbors. Exempted from the Pale of Settlement, later they were considered non Jews by Nazis. This left the community untouched by Holocaust, unlike other Turkic-speaking Jews, like the Krymchak Jews that were almost wiped out.[14]

Modern Karaim resist being identified as Jews, emphasizing their Turkic heritage and claiming they are Turkic practitioners of a "Mosaic religion" separate and distinct from Judaism. Miller says that Crimean Karaites did not start claiming a distinct identity apart from the Jewish people before the 19th century, and that such leaders as Avraham Firkovich and Sima Babovich encouraged this position to avoid the strong anti-Semitism of the period.[15]

From the time of the Golden Horde onward, Karaites were present in many towns and villages throughout Crimea and around the Black Sea. During the period of the Crimean Khanate, they had major communities in the towns of Çufut Qale, Sudak, Kefe, and Bakhchisaray.

History

Middle Ages

According to most opinions, the upper stratum of the Khazar society converted to Judaism in the 8th–9th centuries CE. The extent of this conversion and its scope is not known. With the collapse of the Khazar Khanate, a group of the Khazars who took part in a failed rebellion, joined the Magyars in the invasion of Hungary; they settled there at the end of the 9th century CE. An archeological relic of this Khazar settlement was discovered in Transylvania (today Romania) in the 20th century. Known as the Alsószentmihály Rovas inscription, it was transcribed by the archaeologist-historian Gábor Vékony.[16] According to the transcription, the two-row inscription means the following:[17] (first row) "His mansion is famous."
(second row) "Jüedi Kür Karaite." or "Jüedi Kür the Karaite."

Scholars take this as evidence that at least a part of the Khazars were Karaites. (See Inscription in Khazarian Rovas script)

Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Crimean Karaites traditional clothes
Showcase of the Crimean Karaites traditional lifestyle in Trakai, Lithuania

According to Karaite tradition,[18] Grand Duke Vytautas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania relocated one branch of the Crimean Karaites to Lithuania. There they continued to speak their own language. But the Lithuanian dialect of the Karaim language differs significantly from the Crimean one.[19] The Lithuanian Karaites settled primarily in Vilnius and Trakai, as well as in Biržai, Pasvalys, Naujamiestis and Upytė – smaller settlements throughout Lithuania proper.

The Lithuanian Karaites also settled in lands of modern Belarus and Ukraine, which were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Karaite communities emerged in Halicz and Kokizow (near Lwów) in Galicia, as well as in Łuck and Derazhne in Volhynia.[20][21][22] Jews (Rabbinites and Karaites) in Lithuanian territory were granted a measure of autonomy under Michel Ezofovich Senior's[23] management. The Trakai Karaim refused to comply, citing differences in faith. Later all Jews, including Karaites,[24] were submitted to Rabbinite "Council of Four Lands" (Vaad)[25] and "Council of the Land of Lithuania" taxation (1580–1646). The Yiddish-speaking Rabbinites considered the Turkic-speaking Karaites to be apostates, and kept them in a subordinate and depressed position. The Karaites resented this treatment. In 1646 the Karaites gained expulsion of the Rabbinites from Trakai. Despite such tensions, in 1680 Rabbinite community leaders defended the Karaites of Shaty (near Trakai) against blood accusation. Representatives of both groups signed an agreement in 1714 to respect the mutual privileges and resolve disputes without involving the Gentile administration.

According to Crimean Karaite tradition, which developed in the 20th century inter-war Poland[26] their forefathers were mainly farmers and members of the community who served in the military forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth,[27] as well as in the Crimean Khanate.But according to the historical documents of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the chief occupation of the Crimean Karaites was usury.[28] They were granted special privileges, including exemption from the military service.[29] In the Crimean Khanate, the Karaites were repressed like other Jews, with prohibitions on behavior extended to riding horses.[30]

Some famous Karaim scholars in Lithuania included Isaac b. Abraham of Troki (1543–1598), Joseph ben Mordecai Malinovski, Zera ben Nathan of Trakai, Salomon ben Aharon of Trakai, Ezra ben Nissan (died in 1666) and Josiah ben Judah (died after 1658). Some of the Karaim became quite wealthy.

During the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Karaim suffered severely during the Chmielnicki Uprising of 1648 and the wars between Russia and Commonwealth in the years 1654–1667. The many towns plundered and burnt included Derazhne and Trakai, where only 30 families were left in 1680. The destruction of the Karaite community in Derazhne in 1649 is described in a poem (both in Hebrew and Karaim language) by a leader of the congregation, Hazzan Joseph ben Yesh'uah Ha-Mashbir.[31] Catholic missionaries worked to convert the local Karaim to Christianity, but were largely unsuccessful.

Russian Empire

Trakai Kenesa
Karaim kenesa in Trakai (modern day Lithuania).

19th century leaders of the Karaim, such as Sima Babovich and Avraham Firkovich, were driving forces behind a concerted effort to alter the status of the Karaite community in eyes of the Russian legal system. Firkovich in particular was adamant in his attempts to connect the Karaim with the Khazars, and has been accused of forging documents and inscriptions to back up his claims.[32]

Ultimately, the Tsarist government officially recognized the Karaim as being innocent of the death of Jesus.So they were exempt from many of the harsh restrictions placed on other Jews. They were, in essence, placed on equal legal footing with Crimean Tatars. The related Krymchak community, which was of similar ethnolinguistic background but which practiced rabbinical Judaism, continued to suffer under Tsarist anti-Jewish laws.

Solomon Krym (1864–1936), a Crimean Karaite agronomist, was elected in 1906 to the First Duma (1906–1907) as a Kadet (National Democratic Party). On November 16, 1918 he became the Prime Minister of a short-lived Crimean Russian liberal, anti-separatist and anti-Soviet government also supported by the German army.[33]

Since the incorporation of Crimea into the Russian Empire the main center of the Qarays is the city of Yevpatoria. Their status under Russian imperial rule bore beneficial fruits for the Karaites decades later.

During the Holocaust

In 1934, the heads of the Karaite community in Berlin asked the Nazi authorities to exempt Karaites from the anti-Semitic regulations based on their legal status as Russians in Russia. The Reich Agency for the Investigation of Families determined that, from the standpoint of German law, the Karaites were not to be considered Jews. The letter from the Reichsstelle für Sippenforschung (de) officially ruled:

The Karaite sect should not be considered a Jewish religious community within the meaning of paragraph 2, point 2 of the First Regulation to the Reich Citizenship Law. However, it cannot be established that Karaites in their entirety are of blood-related stock, for the racial categorization of an individual cannot be determined without … his personal ancestry and racial biological characteristics

— [34]

This ruling set the tone for how the Nazis dealt with the Karaite community in Eastern Europe. At the same time, the Nazis had serious reservations about the Karaites. SS Obergruppenfuhrer Gottlob Berger wrote on November 24, 1944:

"Their Mosaic religion is unwelcome. However, on grounds of race, language and religious dogma... Discrimination against the Karaites is unacceptable, in consideration of their racial kinsmen [Berger was here referring to the Crimean Tatars]. However, so as not to infringe the unified anti-Jewish orientation of the nations led by Germany, it is suggested that this small group be given the opportunity of a separate existence (for example, as a closed construction or labor battalion)..."

Despite having exempt status, groups of Karaites were massacred in the early phases of the war. German soldiers who came across Karaites in Russia during the invasion of Operation Barbarossa, unaware of their legal status under German law, attacked them; 200 were killed at Babi Yar alone. German allies such as Vichy France began to require the Karaites to register as Jews, but eventually granted them non-Jewish status after getting orders by Berlin.[35]

When interrogated, Ashkenazi rabbis in Crimea told the Germans that Karaites were not Jews, in an effort to spare the Karaite community the fate of their Rabbanite neighbors.[36] Many Karaites risked their lives to hide Jews, and in some cases claimed that Jews were members of their community. The Nazis impressed many Karaites into labor battalions.[37]

Warsaw Karaim cemetery
Karaim cemetery in Warsaw, established in 1890.
Karaite cemetery in Trakai (Troki)
Karaim cemetery in Trakai.
Karaites cementry Bakhchysarai (2)
Karaim cemetery in Bakhchisaray Crimea.

In Vilnius and Trakai, the Nazis forced Karaite Hakham Seraya Shapshal to produce a list of the members of the community. Though he did his best, not every Karaite was saved by Shapshal's list.

Post-War

After the Soviet recapture of Crimea from Nazi forces in 1944, the Soviet authorities counted 6,357 remaining Karaites. Karaites were not subject to mass deportation, unlike the Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Armenians and others the Soviet authorities alleged had collaborated during the Nazi German occupation. Some individual Karaites were deported.

Assimilation and emigration greatly reduced the ranks of the Karaite community. A few thousand Karaites remain in Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and Poland. Other minor communities exist in Israel, Turkey, the United States, and Great Britain.

In the 1990s, about 500 Crimean Karaites, mainly from Ukraine, emigrated to Israel under the Law of Return.[38] The Israeli Chief Rabbinate has ruled that Karaites are Jews under Jewish law.[39]

Geographic distribution

The name "Crimean Karaites" has often been considered as something of a misnomer, as many branches of this community found their way to locations throughout Europe.

As time went on, some of these communities spread throughout the region, including to Crimea. According to Karaite tradition, all the Eastern European Karaite communities were derived from those in the Crimea,[40] but some modern historians doubt the Crimean origin of Lithuanian Karaites.[19][41] Nevertheless, this name, "Crimean Karaites" is used for the Turkic-speaking Karaites community supposed to have originated in Crimea, distinguishing it from the historically Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic-speaking Karaites of the Levant, Anatolia, and the Middle East.For the purposes of this article, the terms "Crimean Karaites", "Karaim", and "Qarays" are used interchangeably, while "Karaites" alone refers to the general Karaite branch of Judaism.

Lithuania

Karaite Kenesa Vilnius
Kenesa in Vilnius

The local Karaim communities still exist in Lithuania (where they live mostly in Panevėžys and Trakai regions) and Poland. The 1979 census in the USSR showed 3,300 Karaim. Lithuanian Karaim Culture Community was founded in 1988.

According to the Lithuanian Karaim website the Statistics Department of Lithuania carried out an ethno-statistic research entitled "Karaim in Lithuania" in 1997. It was decided to question all adult Karaim and mixed families, where one of the members is a Karaim. During the survey, for the beginning of 1997, there were 257 people of Karaim nationality, 32 of whom were children under 16.

Religion

Until the 20th century, Karaite Judaism was the only religion of the Karaim,[42] During the Russian Civil War a significant number of Karaim emigrated to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary and then France and Germany.[43][44] Most of them converted to Christianity. The Karaim's modern national movement philanthropist M.S. Sarach was one of them.[45]

The Crimean Karaites' emancipation in the Russian Empire caused cultural assimilation followed by secularization. This process continued in the USSR when most of the kenesas were closed.[46]

Trakai Kenesa 1932-2002
In 1932 Star of David was removed from Trakai Kenesa cupola by Shapshal's' order.[47] Some years later it was also removed from the iron gate [48]

In 1928 secular Karaim philologist Seraya Shapshal was elected as Hacham of Polish and Lithuanian Karaim. Being a strong adopter of Russian orientalist V. Grigorjev's theory about the Khazarian origin of the Crimean Karaites, Shapshal developed the Karaim's religion and historical dejudaization doctrine[49]

In the mid 1930s, he began to create a theory describing the Altai-Turkic origin of the Karaim and the pagan roots of Karaite religious teaching (worship of sacred oaks, polytheism, led by the god Tengri, the Sacrifice). Shapshal's doctrine is still a topic of critical research and public debate.

He made a number of other changes aimed at the Karaim's Turkification and at erasing the Karaite Jewish elements of their culture and language.[50][51] He issued an order canceling the teaching of Hebrew in Karaite schools and replaced the names of the Jewish holidays and months with Turkic equivalents (see the table below).

According to Shapshal, Crimean Karaites were pagans who adopted the law of Moses, but continued to adhere to their ancient Turkic beliefs. In addition, he claimed that the Karaites had revered Jesus and Mohammed as prophets for centuries. In the Post-Soviet period, Shapshal's theory was further developed in modern Karaylar publications[52] (e.g. "Crimean Karaites legends") and was officially adopted by the Crimean Karaim Association "Krymkaraylar" (Ассоциация крымских караимов “Крымкарайлар”) as the only correct view of the Karaim's past and the present in 2000.[53]

Evolution of Crimean Karaite holiday names in the 20th century

Traditional Hebrew name (1915)[54][55] Secondary name Modern Turkic name[56] Turkic name translated to English.[57][58]
Pesach Hag ha-Machot (Unleavened bread festival) Tymbyl Chydžy Unleavened bread ("Tymbyl") festival
Omer Sefira (Counting of the Omer)
San Bašy Counting Beginning
Jarty San Counting Middle
Shavuot Hag Shavuot (Feast of Weeks) Aftalar Chydžy Feast of Weeks
The 9th of Tammuz Fast Chom Hareviyi (4th month fast) Burunhu Oruč First Fast
The 7th of Av Fast Chom Hahamishi (5th month fast) Ortančy Oruč Middle Fast
The 10th of Av Fast" Yom hа-Churban – The Destruction Day (of the Solomon's Temple). The other name: "Nedava"(offering) Kurban Sacrifice
Rosh HaShana Yom Teru'ah (The blowing of horns day) Byrhy Kiuniu Horns Day
Yom Kippur literally "The Day of Atonement" Bošatlych Kiuniu The Day of Atonement
Fast of Gedalia Chom Hashviyi (7th month fast) Omitted
Sukkot literally "Tabernacles". The other name: "Hag Ha Asif" ("Harvest festival") Alačych Chydžy or Oraq Toyu Tabernacles festival or Harvest festival
Tenth of Tevet fast Chom Haasiri (10th month fast) Oruč Fast
Purim "Lots". Kynyš Three-cornered shaped sweet filled-pocket cookie.[59]
Was not considered a holiday Jyl Bašy The beginning of the Year

Genetics

Leon Kull and Kevin Alan Brook led the first scientific study of Crimean Karaites using genetic testing of both Y chromosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA and the results showed that Crimean Karaites are indeed partially of Middle Eastern origin and closely related to other Jewish communities (Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews), while finding that the Crimean Karaites are genetically unrelated to non-Jewish Turkic-speaking peoples of the region.[60][61]

Culture

Language

Karaim is a Kypchak Turkic language being closely related to Crimean Tatar, Armeno-Kipchak etc. Among the many different influences exerted on Karaim, those of Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian were the first to change the outlook of the Karaim lexicon. Later, due to considerable Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian influence, many Slavic and Baltic words entered the language of Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, and Russian Karaim. Hebrew remained in use for liturgical purposes. Following the Ottoman occupation of Crimea, Turkish was used for business and government purposes among Karaim living on the Crimean peninsula. Three different dialects developed: the Trakai dialect, used in Trakai and Vilnius (Lithuania), the Lutsk or Halych dialect spoken in Lutsk (until World War II), and Halych, and the Crimean dialect. The last forms the Eastern group, while Trakai and Halych Karaim belong to the Western group. Currently only small minority of Karaim can speak the Karaim language (72 Crimean dialect speakers,[1] 118 Trakai dialect speakers, and about 20 Halych dialect speakers).

Cuisine

Kibinai
Kybyn

The most famous Crimean Karaite food is Kybyn (Russian: Кибина pl. Кибины, Karaim: kybyn pl. kybynlar, Lithuanian: Kibinai). Kybynlar are half moon shaped pies of leavened dough with a stuffing of chopped beef or mutton, baked in dutch oven or baking sheet. Other meals common for Crimean Karaites and Tatars are Chiburekki, Pelmeni, Shishlik (These are most often made from mutton).[62]

Ceremony dishes, cooked for religious holidays and weddings are:

  • Tymbyl is Pesach round cakes flat of unleavened[63] dough, knead with cream and butter or butter and eggs, reflected in the modern name of this festival (Tymbyl Chydžy[64]),
  • Qatlama is Shavuot (Aftalar Chydžy[64]) cottage cheese pie, which seven layers symbolizing seven weeks after Pesach, four layers of yeast dough, three of pot cheese,
  • Wedding pies are Kiyovliuk (on the part of the groom) and Kelin'lik (on the part of the bride).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b 1,196 Karaites in the Ukraine as a whole (including the Crimea) Распределение населения по национальности и родному языку УКРАИНА Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Ukraine (Russian language version)
  2. ^ Population in Autonomous Republic of the Crimea = 671, population in Sevastopol city council area = 44. 671+44 = 715. Распределение населения по национальности и родному языку, Автономная Республика Крым (Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Autonomous Republic of the Crimea )
    Распределение населения по национальности и родному языку, Г.Севастополь (горсовет) (Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Sevastopol city council)
  3. ^ Mikhail Kizilov. The Karaites of Galicia: An Ethnoreligious Minority Among the Ashkenazim, the Turks, and the Slavs, 1772—1945|(Studia Judaeoslavica, 2009)] 340
  4. ^ Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna.Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011.
  5. ^ "Gyventojai pagal tautybę, gimtąją kalbą ir tikybą". Statistics Lithuania. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  6. ^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity Archived April 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  7. ^ Blady 113–130.
  8. ^ Golden 2007a, p. 9
  9. ^ Brook 2006 p. 110–111, 231.
  10. ^ Erdal, Marcel (1999). "The Khazar Language". In: Golden et al., 1999:75–107
  11. ^ "...After the days of Bulan there arose one of his descendants, a king Obadiah by name, who reorganized the kingdom and established the Jewish religion properly and correctly. He built synagogues and yeshiva/yeshivot, brought in Jewish scholars, and rewarded them with gold and silver. … They explained to him the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud and the order of divine services. The King was a man who revered and loved the Torah. He was one of the true servants of God. May the Divine Spirit give him rest!…" Khazar Correspondence text
  12. ^ A. Harkavy, Altjudische Denkmaler aus der Krim, mitgetheilt von Abraham Firkowitsch, SPb., 1876.
  13. ^ A. Fried, K. Landau, J. Cohen and E.Goldschmidt (1968). Some genetic polymorphic characters of the Karaite community. Harefuiah, 75, 507-509.
  14. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/crimea-karaites-welcome-russia-1.5341282
  15. ^ Miller, Philip. Karaite Separatism in 19th Century Russia, pp xv-xvi, 3, 47
  16. ^ Vékony, Gábor (2004): A székely rovásírás emlékei, kapcsolatai, története [The Relics, Relations and the History of the Szekely Rovas Script]. Publisher: Nap Kiadó, Budapest. ISBN 963-9402-45-1
  17. ^ Vékony, Gábor (1997): Szkíthiától Hungáriáig: válogatott tanulmányok. [From Scythia to Hungary: Selected Studies] Szombathely: Életünk Szerk. Magyar Írók Szövetsége. Nyugat-magyarországi Csoport. Ser.: Életünk könyvek, p. 110
  18. ^ : "…ובשנת 1218 תתקע"ח לאלף החמשי וויטולט דוכוס הגדול של ליטא ערך מלחמה על הטטארים והשיג באי קרים ונלחם וישב שבי ויקח עמו מקירים 483 משפחות קראים ויוליכם לליטא ויצו לבנות להם עיר ויקרא אותה טראק החדשה ויתן להם כתב חרות ושדות ואדמה ויושיבם בעיר ההיא 330 משפחות...…" ( "… At 1218 Witold, Grand Duke of the Lithuania made war against the Tatars, reached the Crimea island, fought, captured and took with him 483 Karaite families and led to Lithuania and ordered to build for them a town, called New Troki and gave them the freedom and the fields and the lands and settled in this town 330 families …") .Abraham Firkovich // The Hebrew Monuments of the Crimea, p. 252— Wilna 1872 (ספר אבני זכרון המאסף רשימות המצבות על קברי בני ישראל בחצי האי קירים אשר אסף ורשם… כמהר״ר אברהם פירקאוויץ ירו׳ נר״ו.)
  19. ^ a b "Karaites of Crimea: History and Present-Day Situation in Community". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  20. ^ Nosonovsky, M.; Shabarovsky, V. (2005). "Караимская община XVI-XVIII веков в Деражном на Волыни". Vestnik EUM. 9: 31–52.
  21. ^ Шабаровський, В. В (Shabarovsky, V.V.) (2013). Караїми на Волині (Karaites in Volhynia, in Ukrainian). Lutsk: Tverdynya.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Shapira, Dan; Lasker, Daniel, J. (2011). Eastern European Karaites in the Last Generations. Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute and the Center for the Study of Polish Jewry and its Culture.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  23. ^ Jews and Heretics in Catholic Poland – A Beleaguered Church in the Post-Reformation Era – by Magda Teter
  24. ^ "He-Avar" ("Хе-Авар") Magazine, Petrograd, № 1, 1918
  25. ^ Jacob Mann, "Karaica", Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature, no. 11, Philadelphia, 1935; Jurgita Šiaučiūnaitė – Verbickienė, Žydai Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės visuomenėje: sambūvio aspektai, Vilnius, 2009; Idem, Ką rado Trakuose Žiliberas de Lanua, arba kas yra Trakų žydai, in Lietuvos istorijos studijos, no. 7, 1999.
  26. ^ Кизилов М. Ильяш Караимович и Тимофей Хмельницкий: кровная месть, которой не было, (М. Kizilov. Ilyash Karaimovich and Timofey Khmelnitsky: the blood feud that never took place) Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences in publication Фальсификация исторических источников и конструирование этнократических мифов Archived 2013-01-27 at the Wayback Machine."Начиная приблизительно с межвоенного периода и вплоть до наших дней, караимские националисты стараются представить мирное караимское население Восточной Европы в роли "неустрашимых и храбрых воителей", что едва ли одобрили их богобоязненные исторические предки, которые были преимущественно торговцами и ремесленниками".
  27. ^ "Universitas Helsingiensis". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  28. ^ Древние привилегии литовско-волынских караимов, извлеченные из актов замка Луцкого 1791 г"Но вникнув в смысл привилегии Витольда замечаем, что в древние времена тамошние Караимы более всего занимались заимодавством; да, и по сие время зажиточные люди этого общества не оставляют этого прибыльного промысла; и отдавая свои капиталы в рост, в обеспечение их берут у своих должников в арендное содержание мельницы, корчмы, а чаще всего ссудят под заклад движимого имущества".
  29. ^ Древние привилегии литовско-волынских караимов, извлеченные из актов замка Луцкого 1791 г"В следствие того они били челом его Королевской милости, что издавна еще при Великом Князе Витольде и при Сигизмунде и при отце нашем Короле Казимире его милости, жиды [Троцкие] (i.e Karaite Jews) никогда на войну не хаживали и не посылали".
  30. ^ P. S. Pallas Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die Südlichen Statthalterschaften des Russischen Reichs (1799–1801)
  31. ^ Nosonovsky, M. (2011). "The Karaite Community in Derażne and its Leader Hazzan Joseph ben Yeshu'ah". Eastern European Karaites in the Last Generations: 17–35.
  32. ^ Harkavy, Albert. "Altjudische Denkmaller aus der Krim mitgetheilt von Abraham Firkowitsch, 1839–1872." In Memoires de l’Academie Imperiale de St.-Peterboug, VIIe Serie, 24, 1877; reprinted Wiesbaden, 1969.
  33. ^ Fisher, Alan W. (1978). The Crimean Tatars. Hoover Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-8179-6662-1. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  34. ^ YIVO archives, Berlin Collection, Occ E, 3, Box 100, letter dated January 5, 1939.
  35. ^ Semi passim.
  36. ^ Blady 125–126.
  37. ^ Green passim.
  38. ^ Mikhail Kizilov. The Karaites of Galicia: An Ethnoreligious Minority Among the Ashkenazim, the Turks, and the Slavs, 1772—1945 (Studia Judaeoslavica, 2009)] 340
  39. ^ ביע אומר חלק ח, אבן העזר סימן י"ב; מכתב שפורסם אצל: מיכאל קורינאלדי, המעמד האישי של הקראים, ירושלים תשמ"ד, עמ' 139; הובא גם אצל: בני לאו, 'על משמרתי אעמודה להחזיר עטרה ליושנה', בתוך: מרדכי בר-און (עורך), אתגר הריבונות, Иерусалим 1999, 226
  40. ^ The Karaite Encyclopedia by Nathan Schur (Frankfurt, 1995) Archived 2007-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Ahiezer, G. and Shapira, D. 2001.'Karaites in Lithuania and in Volhynia-Galicia until the Eighteenth Century' [Hebrew]. Peamin 89: 19–60
  42. ^ Катехизис, основы Караимского закона. Руководство по обучению Закону-Божию Караимского юношества. — СПб., 1890.
  43. ^ Album "Archive of the Dmitri Penbeck’s family" – compiled by V. Penbek — Simferopol-Slippery Rock, 2004. — C. 24
  44. ^ Кропотов В. С. Военные традиции крымских караимов — Симферополь, 2004. — C. 75
  45. ^ Virtual Karaim Museum
  46. ^ Mikhail Kizilov. "Karaites and Karaism: Recent Developments". paper presented at the CESNUR 2003 Conference, Vilnius, Lithuania. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  47. ^ "...its cupola was originally surmounted by a shield of David, but the removal of this emblem was ordered some ten years ago by the local hakham [i.e. Szapszał] as smacking too much of traditional Judaism. The offending symbol, however, still remains on the iron gate, from which it could hardly be removed without causing a conspicuous blemish...”Published in : ISRAEL COHEN, Vilna, Philadelphia 1943, pp. 463–464
  48. ^ Seraphim, Peter Heinz. Das Judentum im Osteuropäischen Raum, 1938 "...126. Das Wappen der Karaimen am Eingang zu ihrer "Kenessa" in Troki bei Wilna..."
  49. ^ Roman Freund, Karaites and Dejudaization (Acta Universitas Stockholmiensis. 1991. – №30).
  50. ^ М. Кизилов, Новые материалы к биографии Шапшала// Материалы девятой международной конференции по иудаике (2002), с. 255—273.
  51. ^ E.g compare the Trakai kenassa gate in 1932 [1] and today File:Trakai Kenesa.JPG
  52. ^ A. Malgin. Евреи или тюрки. Новые элементы в идентичности караимов и крымчаков в современном Крыму [Jews or Turks. New elements in the identity of the Karaites and Krypchaks in modern Crimea] (2002)
  53. ^ "Попытки приписать крымским караимам чуждые этнос и религию, смешение этнических крымских караимов с караимами по религии, искажение истории — оскорбляют национальные чувства и создают предпосылки для национальных и религиозных конфликтов." ("Attempts to attribute the Crimean Karaites alien ethnicity and religion, mixing ethnic Crimean Karaites with the Karaites on religion, the distortion of history – offend the national feelings and create the conditions for national and religious conflicts") Караи (крымские караимы). История, культура, святыни. — Симферополь, 2000.
  54. ^ КАРАИМСКИЙ КАТИХИЗИС ВКРАТЦЕ/ Сост. М. Я. Фиркович. — Мелитополь:1915г( Karaite Catechism briefly/ M.J Firchovich. – Melitopol 1915 )
  55. ^ THE BRIEF CATECHISM -THE INSTRUCTIONS for basic education of karaite children in the Law of God and the brief history of karaism //Y B. Shamash(Translation from Russian of КРАТКИЙ КАТИХИЗИС/ Сост. Я. Б. ШАМАШ)
  56. ^ Lithuanian Karaim Calendar('ch' pronounced as IPA /x/) Archived 2008-03-28 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ Караимско-русско-польский словарь / Н. А. Баскаков, А. Зайончковский, С. Ш. Шапшал, 1974,
  58. ^ "Караимские праздники". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  59. ^ "Народы России - Национальная кухня крымских караимов (караев)". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  60. ^ Kevin Alan Brook, Leon Kull, and Adam J. Levin, "The Genetic Signatures of East European Karaites," August 28, 2013, [2]
  61. ^ Kevin Alan Brook, "The Genetics of Crimean Karaites," Karadeniz Araştırmaları №42 (Summer 2014): pp. 69–84, pdf
  62. ^ Virtual Karaim Museum Archived 2013-04-14 at Archive.today
  63. ^ Lietuvos karaimai: Religija: Šventės. Archived 2011-10-09 at the Wayback Machine
  64. ^ a b "Календарь". Retrieved 14 April 2016.

Bibliography

  • Ben-Tzvi, Yitzhak. The Exiled and the Redeemed. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1957.
  • Blady, Ken. Jewish Communities in Exotic Places. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson Inc., 2000. pp. 115–130.
  • Brook, Kevin Alan. The Jews of Khazaria. 2nd ed. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2006.
  • Friedman, Philip. "The Karaites under Nazi Rule". On the Tracks of Tyranny. London, 1960.
  • Green, W.P. "Nazi Racial Policy Towards the Karaites", Soviet Jewish Affairs 8,2 (1978) pp. 36–44
  • Golden, Peter B. (2007a). "Khazar Studies: Achievements and Perspectives". In Golden, Peter B.; Ben-Shammai,, Haggai; Róna-Tas, András. The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Handbook of Oriental Studies. 17. BRILL. pp. 7–57. ISBN 978-9-004-16042-2. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
  • Karaite Judaism: Introduction to Karaite Studies. Edited by M. Polliack. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2004, 657–708.
  • Kizilov, Mikhail. Karaites Through the Travelers' Eyes: Ethnic History, Traditional Culture and Everyday Life of the Crimean Karaites According to the Descriptions of the Travelers. Qirqisani Center, 2003.
  • Kizilov, Mikhail. "Faithful Unto Death: Language, Tradition, and the Disappearance of the East European Karaite Communities," East European Jewish Affairs 36:1 (2006): 73–93.
  • Krymskiye karaimy: istoricheskaya territoriya: etnokul'tura. Edited by V.S. Kropotov, V.Yu. Ormeli, A. Yu. Polkanova. Simferpol': Dolya, 2005
  • Miller, Philip. Karaite Separatism in 19th Century Russia. HUC Press, 1993.
  • Semi, Emanuela T. "The Image of the Karaites in Nazi and Vichy France Documents," Jewish Journal of Sociology 33:2 (December 1990). pp. 81–94.
  • Shapira, Dan. "Remarks on Avraham Firkowicz and the Hebrew Mejelis 'Document'." Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 59:2 (2006): 131–180.
  • Shapira, Dan. "A Jewish Pan-Turkist: Seraya Szapszał (Şapşaloğlu) and His Work 'Qırım Qaray Türkleri'," Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 58:4 (2005): 349–380.
  • Shapira, Dan. Avraham Firkowicz in Istanbul (1830–1832). Paving the Way for Turkic Nationalism. Ankara: KaraM, 2003.
  • Shapshal, S. M.: Karaimy SSSR v otnoshenii etnicheskom: karaimy na sluzhbe u krymskich chanov. Simferopol', 2004
  • Zajączkowski, Ananiasz. Karaims in Poland: History, Language, Folklore, Science. Panistwowe Wydawn, 1961.

External links

Abraham Firkovich

Abraham (Avraham) ben Samuel Firkovich (Hebrew אברהם בן שמואל - Avraham ben Shmuel; Karayce: Аврагъам Фиркович - Avragham Firkovich) (1786–1874) was a famous Karaite writer and archeologist, collector of ancient manuscripts, and a Karaite Hakham. He was born in Lutsk, Volhynia, then lived in Lithuania, and finally settled in Çufut Qale, Crimea. Gabriel Firkovich of Troki was his son-in-law.

Abraham Kirimi

Abraham Kirimi (Hebrew: אברהם קירימי?; 1358, Solhat – 15th century) was a Crimean rabbi of the 14th century.

Adolph Joffe

Adolph Abramovich Joffe (Russian: Адо́льф Абра́мович Ио́ффе, alternative transliterations Adolf Ioffe or, rarely, Yoffe) (10 October 1883 in Simferopol – 16 November 1927 in Moscow) was a Communist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat of Karaite descent.

Benjamin Aga

Benjamin Aga (Karaim: Беньямин Агъа), who died in 1824, was the leader of the Crimean Karaites. He was the royal treasurer of Şahin Giray, the last Crimean Khan, and therefore is called in Karaite literature ha-Neeman ("the Trusted")—an appellation bestowed also upon his father Samuel, who died in 1770, and who probably held the same office under former khans. When Şahin Giray fled for his life from his rebellious subjects, and sought succor from his protectress Catherine II in St. Petersburg, Benjamin Aga followed him, hoping to collect the large sums of money that he had advanced to the fugitive. Following the last partition of Poland in 1795, after Crimea had been under Russian rule for over a decade, Vilnius, Lutsk and Trakai came under Russian Rule. Benjamin Aga, Solomon ben Nahamu Bobowitz, and the astronomer Isaac of Kalea, the son-in-law of Jacob Aga, who was the elder brother of Benjamin, went to St. Petersburg as a delegation from the Crimean Karaites, to petition the empress to release their sect from the double rate of taxation which all the Jews then had to pay. Through the intervention of Count Nikolay Zubov, the delegation obtained from the empress the exemption from the "Jewish" taxes, some land grants, and other privileges which had not been asked for. This established an important precedent for exempting the Karaites from subsequent anti-Jewish legislation. The extraordinary success of the mission served to arouse great enthusiasm among the Karaites, and Aga and his fellow delegates were received with great honor on their return. A large monolith, fashioned out of marble, with fitting inscription, was erected in the court of the kenesa at Eupatoria, to commemorate an event so important in the history of the Karaites of Russia.

Chufut-Kale

Chufut-Kale (Tatar pronunciation: [tʃuˈfut qaˈle]; Russian and Ukrainian: Чуфут-Кале - Chufut-Kale; Crimean Tatar: Çufut Qale; Karaim: Къале - Qale) is a medieval city-fortress in the Crimean Mountains that now lies in ruins. It is a national monument of Crimean Karaites culture just 3 km (1.9 mi) east of Bakhchisaray.

Its name is Crimean Tatar and Turkish for "Jewish Fortress" (çufut/çıfıt - Jew, qale/kale - fortress), while Crimean Karaites refer to it simply as "Fortress", considering the place as historical center for the Crimean Karaite community. In the Middle Ages the fortress was known as Qırq Yer (Place of Forty) and as Karaites to which sect the greater part of its inhabitants belong, Sela' ha-Yehudim (The Rock of the Jews).

Constantinopolitan Karaites

The Constantinopolitan Karaites or Greco-Karaites are a Karaite community with a specific historical development and a distinct cultural, linguistic and literary heritage, while they share particular commonalities with the Romaniote Jews.

Eupatorian Kenassas

The Eupatorian Kenassas is the temple complex of Crimean Karaites (karaev) located in Eupatoria, Crimea. It covers an area of 0.25 hectares and consists of large and small kenesa buildings (meetinghouses), building religious schools (Midrash), charity dining, household courtyards and multiple courtyards (grape, marble, waiting for the prayer Ritual, Memorial). The kenesa has been a centre of the religious life of the Karaites of Yevpatoria since 1837.

Iosif Grigulevich

Iosif Romualdovich Grigulevich (Russian: Иосиф Ромуальдович Григулевич; May 5, 1913 – June 2, 1988) was a Soviet NKVD Operative between 1937 and 1953, when he took a leading role in assassinating Communist and Bolshevik individuals who were not loyal to Joseph Stalin.

Under a false identity as Teodoro B. Castro, a wealthy Costa Rican expatriate living in Rome, Grigulevich served as the ambassador of the Republic of Costa Rica to both Italy and Yugoslavia (1952–1954). His mission as an agent was to assassinate Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito but was later aborted by Stalin's death in 1953. Grigulevich then settled in Moscow, where he worked as an expert on the history of Latin America and on the Roman Catholic Church.

He was a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, served as editor-in-chief of the magazine Obshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost ("Social Sciences Today"), and published many books and articles about Latin American subjects.

Joel Baer Falkovich

Joel Baer Falkovich was a Russian Empire dramatist. He authored Yiddish plays such as Reb Chaimele der Koẓin, (Odessa, 1866) and Rochel die Singerin, (Zhytomyr, 1868). His letters to Abraham Firkovich were also noted.

Karaim language

The Karaim language (Crimean dialect: къарай тили, Trakai dialect: karaj tili, traditional Hebrew name lashon kedar לשון קדר "language of the nomads") is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Judaeo-Spanish. It is spoken by only a few dozen Crimean Karaites (Qrimqaraylar) in Lithuania, Poland and Crimea and Galicia in Ukraine. The three main dialects are those of Crimea, Trakai-Vilnius and Lutsk-Halych all of which are critically endangered. The Lithuanian dialect of Karaim is spoken mainly in the town of Trakai (also known as Troki) by a small community living there since the 14th century.

There is a chance the language will survive in Trakai as a result of official support and because of its appeal to tourists coming to the Trakai Island Castle, where Crimean Karaites are presented as the castle's ancient defenders.

Karaite

Karaite or Qaraite may refer to:

Karaite Judaism, a Jewish religious movement that rejects the Talmud

Crimean Karaites, an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Eastern EuropeSubbotnik Karaites, one of the three sects of Subbotniks

Karaite language, Turkic language of Crimean Karaites. Its Crimean dialect is an ethnolect of the Crimean Tatar language.

Krymchaks

The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. кърымчах - qrımçah, pl. кърымчахлар - qrımçahlar) are Jewish ethno-religious communities of Crimea derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Orthodox Judaism. They have historically lived in close proximity to the Crimean Karaites, also Turkic but who follow Karaite Judaism.

At first krymchak was a Russian descriptive used to differentiate them from their Ashkenazi Jewish coreligionists, as well as other Jewish communities in the former Russian Empire such as the Georgian Jews, but in the second half of the 19th century this name was adopted by the Krymchaks themselves. Before this their self-designation was "Срель балалары" (Srel balalary) - literally "Children of Israel". The Crimean Tatars referred to them as zuluflı çufutlar ("Jews with pe'ot") to distinguish them from the Karaites, who were called zulufsız çufutlar ("Jews without pe'ot").

List of Karaite Jews

People associated with Karaite Judaism include:

Early Karaite Period — 8th-9th centuries (700-899 CE)

‘Anan ben David, founder of the Annanites which would later be absorbed into Kara'ism

Benjamin al-Nahawandi, regarded by some as the proper originator of Kara'ism as it has come down through the ages

Golden Age — 10th-12th centuries (900-1199 CE)

Aharon ben Mosheh ben Asher (died c.960 CE), refiner of the Tiberian writing system, regarded as having produced the most accurate version of the Masoretic Text

Daniel al-Qumisi, Kara'ite scholar, polemicist, proto-Zionist, and compiler of the legal code Sefer ha-Mitzvot

Hasun ben Mashiach, scholar who flourished in Egypt (or Babylonia) in the first half of the tenth century

Ya'akov Qirqisani aka al-Kirkisani, dogmatist, author, and exegete of the early 10th century

Yehudah Hadasi, 12th century scholar, philosopher, and grammarian from Constantinople

Solomon ben Jeroham, exegete and controversialist

Yefet ben Ali, Babylonian commentator on the Bible

Middle Period — 13th-17th century (1200-1699 CE)

Aaron ben Elijah of Nicomedia (1328/9-1369), perhaps the most prominent Kara'ite theologian, considered the Kara'ite equivalent of his rabbinic contemporary, Maimonides

Elijah Bashyazi (1420-1490), Hakham who codified Karaite laws

Moses ben Elijah Bashyazi (1537-1555), wrote many Karaite books

Yiṣḥaq b. Avraham of Troki, 16th century Lithuanian Kara'ite philosopher and writer who wrote the important apology or defense of Judaism vis-a-vis Christianity entitled Ḥizzuq Emunah (Fortification of Faith)

Mordecai Sultansky (1772-1862), prominent scholar who wrote about angelology and the origin of Karaite Jews

Early-Modern Era — 18th-19th centuries (1700-1947 CE)

Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch (1891-1970), Russian-English mathematician

Adolph Joffe (1883-1927), Russian communist revolutionary, Bolshevik politician, Soviet diplomat

Avraham Firkovich, famous leader of the Crimean Karaites, a very important collector of manuscripts, who was an amateur archeologist

Solomon Krym (1864–1936), deputy in the Russian Duma

Samuel Maykapar (1867-1938), Soviet composer

Seraya Shapshal (1873-1961), ḥakham of the Lithuanian Karaite community

Sima Babovich (1790-1855), ḥakham of the Crimean Karaites

Current-Modern Era — 20th-21st centuries (1948 CE-present)

Avraham Kefeli, Ḥazzan in Ashdod, Israel

Avraham Qanaï, Ḥakham of the Kara'ite congregation “Oraḥ Ṣaddiqim” in Albany, New York

Melech ben Ya'aqov, Ḥakham of the World Alliance of Qara'im, and maintains the website Karaite Insights

Joe Pessah, Congregation leader of congregation B'nai Y'Israel in Daly City, California

Meir Rekhavi, Ḥakham and co-founder of the World Karaite Movement, holds the position of Chancellor for the Karaite Jewish University, maintains the website Rekhavi.karaitejudaism.org

Moshe Marzouk (1926-1955), Egyptian Kara'ite Jew, hanged by Egypt for his participation in Israel's Operation Suzannah, also called the Lavon Affair

Moshe ben Yosef Firrouz, Chief Rabbi and Vice-Chancellor of Karaite Jewish University, maintains the Karaim.net website

Yochanan Zaqantov, Hazzan and Dean of Students of Karaite Jewish University, maintains the KaraiteJudaism.org website

Marina Kumysh

Marina Yevgenyevna Kumysh (Russian: Марина Евгеньевна Кумыш) (born December 27, 1964 in Moscow, Russia) is a former Soviet competitive volleyball player and Olympic gold medalist.

Russian Jews in Israel

Russian Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Russian Jewish communities, who now reside within the State of Israel. They number around 900,000. This refers to all post-Soviet Jewish disaspora groups, not only Russian Jews, but also Ashkenazi Jews, Mountain Jews, Crimean Karaites, Krymchaks, Subbotniks, Bukharan Jews, and Georgian Jews.

Seraya (disambiguation)

Seraya or Serayah may refer to:

Seraya, historical building in Nazareth, Israel

Seraya Shapshal (1873-1961), hakham and leader of the Crimean and then the Polish and Lithuanian Crimean Karaites (Karaim) community

Serayah McNeill (born 1995), American actress, model and singer also known by the mononym Serayah

Seraya Energy, licensed electricity retailer in Singapore

Seraya Shapshal

Seraya Shapshal or His Excellency Hajji Seraya Khan Shapshal (Karaim: Серая Бен Мордехай Шапшал; Lithuanian: Seraja Šapšalas; Polish: Seraj Szapszał; Russian: Серге́й Маркович Шапшал) (1873–1961) was a hakham and leader of the Crimean and then the Polish and Lithuanian Crimean Karaites (Karaim) community.

Sima Babovich

Sima ben Salomon Babovich (Karayce: Сима Бабович - Sima Babovich, Russian: Сима Соломонович Бабович) (1790–1855) was a first Hakham of the Russian Crimean Karaites, one of the early figures in the Crimean Karaites movement.

Babovich used his influence with Czarist authorities to obtain an exemption for the Crimean Karaites of Russia from military service, which continued to be compulsory for Rabbinic Jews in Russia. The Karaites of Yevpatoria commemorated this event every year by an annual special prayer in his honor.

Babovich and his descendants were prominent leaders in the affairs of the Crimean Karaites. His agitation gained recognition from the Russian government of the Karaites as a separate religious community in 1837. He was a close associate of Avraham Firkovich, who accompanied him on his visit to the Holy Land in 1830. It was Babovich who asked Firkovich to assemble material detailing the history, origin and customs of the Crimean Karaites, in response to a request from the Russian government. In 1840 the Karaites were granted the status of an independent Church and giving them rights far in advance of the Jews. The Russian government made Babovich the Hakham of the Crimean Karaites.

Solomon Krym

Solomon Krym (1864–1936) was an agronomist and a Crimean Karaite politician.

He was elected in 1906 to the First Duma (1906–07) as a Kadet (Constitutional Democratic Party). He was an active member of the irregular freemasonic lodge, the Grand Orient of Russia’s Peoples.A few months after the dismantling of the Tatar-controlled Crimean People's Republic, he was briefly the Finance Minister under the first Crimean Regional Government headed by General Suleyman Sulkiewicz. On November 16, 1918 he became the Prime Minister of the second short-lived Crimean Regional liberal, anti-separatist and anti-Soviet government. His Foreign Affairs Minister was Maxim Vinaver, another former Kadet member of the First Duma.After the defeat of the Volunteer Army in April 1919 he emigrated and went into exile in a Russian émigrés colony at Bormes-les-Mimosas (France), building a house on the "Russian hill" there.

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