Crime in Canada

Under the Canadian constitution, the power to establish criminal law and rules of investigation is vested in the federal Parliament. The provinces share responsibility for law enforcement (although provincial policing in many jurisdictions is contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police), and while the power to prosecute criminal offences is assigned to the federal government, responsibility for prosecutions is delegated to the provinces for most types of criminal offences. Laws and sentencing guidelines are uniform throughout the country, but provinces vary in their level of enforcement.[2]

Canada
Crime rates* (2017)
Violent Criminal Code violations
Homicide1.8
Attempted murder2.25
Sexual assault67.22
Assault595.05
Robbery61.95
Criminal harassment52.95
Uttering threats169.10
Total violent crime violations1098.40
Property crime violations
Breaking and entering438.51
Theft of motor vehicle231.61
Theft over $5,00047.01
Theft under $5,000570.17
Mischief713.84
Total property crime violations3244.76
Notes

*Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.

 Census population: 35,151,728[1]

Source: Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations

Statistics Canada data

Crime rates in Canada were reported at 5,334 incidents per 100,000 inhabitants with violent crime at 1,098 incidents and property crime at 3,245 incidents (per 100,000). [3] The province with the lowest crime rate in 2017 was Quebec with 3,359 incidents per 100,000 followed by Ontario with 3,804 incidents per 100,000. The province with the highest crime rate for 2017 was Nunavut with 34,948 incidents per 100,000. Overall crime decreased 23% between 2007 and 2017 with all provinces experiencing a decrease in crime (up to 34%) with the exception of Yukon which saw no decrease and Nunavut which saw an increase. Violent crime was lowest in Prince Edward Island followed by Ontario and Quebec. [3] The three northern territories have higher per capita crime rates than any province.

CanadaHomicideRate
Canada Homicide Rate year-by-year

Canada's homicide rate per capita (per 100,000) inhabitants has been declining since a peak in the 1970s. After dropping to a low point of 1.44 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants in 2013, Canada's homicide rate has been rising again [4]. In 2015 the rate rose to 1.68 per 100,000 people, up from 1.47 the previous year.[5] Statistics Canada data released on 2016, police reported 611 homicides across Canada in 2016, a rate of 1.68 per 100,000 people.[6]. Canada's national homicide rate 2017 was the highest it's been in a decade, Statistics Canada says, because of a spike in gang-related violence and shootings. The agency said there were 660 reported homicides in Canada last year. Not only was that an increase of nearly eight per cent from 2016, it also pushed up the homicide rate to 1.8 victims for every 100,000 people -- the highest since 2009.[7] The agency also said the rates of other serious offences, including attempted murder, sexual assault, robbery and aggravated assault were all up last year, as was the use of guns in violent crimes.[7]

Police reported criminal violence is thought to be an undercount of actual violence rates. Thus, approximately every five years, Statistics Canada conducts a survey of victimization in Canada. The last General Social Survey conducted was in 2004, where 24,000 people were contacted by telephone: 106 reported incidents of violence per 1,000 polled, which is slightly lower than in 1999 when it was 111 per 1,000 polled.[8] In 2007, the number of murders dropped to 594, 12 fewer than the previous year. One-third of the 2007 murders were stabbings and another third were by firearm. In 2007, there were 190 stabbings and 188 shootings. Handguns were used in two-thirds of all firearm murders. Seventy-four youths were accused of murder, down 11 from the previous year. About eighty-four percent of murders were done by someone known to the victim. Male victims of homicide were most likely to be killed by an acquaintance, someone known to them through a criminal relationship, or a stranger. Female victims of homicide were most frequently killed by a current or former intimate partner, or another family member. The province with the highest crime rate was Manitoba while the lowest crime rates occurred in Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador.

Crime by region

Violent crime severity index by CMA

CMAs in Canada – Violent Crime Severity Index, by year[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
City 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Abbotsford–Mission 82.3 90.4 81.1 70.7 79.7 72.4 89.8 118.8
Barrie 46.3 43.8 42.3 38.6 46.1 49.2 50.1 53.9
Brantford 88.4 70.0 73.5 73.9 67.6 84.5 92.5 91.5
Calgary 61.3 72.1 63.0 62.0 61.2 72.1 82.1 84.8
Edmonton 102.5 103.9 93.3 89.7 95.8 105.9 106 118.7
Gatineau 63.8 55.9 57.5 65.1 71.4 68.1 59.7 74.5
Greater Sudbury 61.4 63.9 62.9 66.3 75.4 78.7 85 98.1
Guelph 49.1 47.3 44.1 42.5 53.8 48.2 44.5 49.2
Halifax 77.3 79.0 73.6 84.8 92.4 111.7 105.6 120.0
Hamilton 66.0 54.6 55.0 59.9 62.5 75.8 80.9 84.3
Kelowna 62.7 69.8 60.4 67.1 81.8 86.0 95.9 104.3
Kingston 38.5 54.5 44.3 48.6 53.7 48.1 54.5 71.9
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo 60.1 54.5 51.1 57.0 60.9 69.5 69.8 65.1
London 59.4 56.7 49.0 56.9 64.1 70.5 74.3 69.9
Moncton 79.3 75.6 74.5 66.5 73.4 68.2 72.4 79.4
Montréal 73.1 76.1 72.5 79.5 87.8 97.7 98.3 102.7
Ottawa 62.1 53.7 49.6 56.1 58.2 63.9 67.5 78.1
Peterborough 68.9 56.9 51.7 57.7 66.2 60.2 65.8 59.5
Québec 51.5 43.1 47.5 48.3 50.8 48.6 51.3 50.9
Regina 124.1 107.9 103.8 105.8 110.1 123.5 151.2 155.6
Saguenay 67.7 61.3 58.2 57.2 79.4 55.2 59.2 72.8
Saint John 63.8 65.7 61.6 59.5 68.0 91.3 96.4 100.3
Saskatoon 114.0 113.5 122.6 109.9 126.4 134.5 155.7 154.7
Sherbrooke 55.6 44.1 51.6 45.3 49.7 49.3 N/A 54.2
St. Catharines–Niagara 37.6 42.2 40.9 49.3 54.1 48.0 56.9 63.5
St. John's 88.9 79.6 69.5 79.5 77.3 74.7 90.1 69.3
Thunder Bay 125.6 119.2 138.5 110.9 118.8 128.7 138.5 136.1
Toronto 70.4 64.6 63.5 68.2 78.4 84.7 88.4 94.5
Trois-Rivières 46.2 59.9 57.3 51.4 46.4 46.2 44.4 56.0
Vancouver 72.8 85.0 78.2 83.6 92.6 98.3 108.2 117.8
Victoria 56.8 69.1 58.4 54.4 63.7 70.9 81.3 81.0
Windsor 58.1 67.7 57.0 61.9 66.4 59.8 65.1 74.6
Winnipeg 149.6 122.1 116.1 119.9 145.4 173.8 163.9 187.0
Canada 75.3 74.5 70.2 73.7 81.4 85.3 88.9 93.7

Crime statistics by province and territory

Crime statistics vary considerably through different parts of Canada. In general, the eastern provinces have the lowest violent crime rates while the western provinces have higher rates and the territories higher still. Of the provinces, Manitoba and Saskatchewan have the highest violent crime rates. The chart below also shows that Saskatchewan has the highest provincial assault rate, and that Manitoba has the highest provincial sexual assault rate, robbery rate and homicide rate of any Canadian province. In many instances the crime rates in the Yukon, North West Territories and Nunavut are the highest in the country and can be up to ten times the national average.

2016 crime statistics for the provinces and territories are given below, as reported by Statistics Canada.[17]

Police

Police rate in Canada
Map of Police per 100,000 population across Canada, 2012.[18]
  < 176
  176-200
  201-300
  301-400
  > 400

In 2005, there were 61,050 police officers in Canada which equates to one police officer per 528.6 persons, but with significant regional variations.[19] Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island have the fewest police per capita with 664.9 and 648.4 persons per police officer, respectively. Conversely, the highest ratio of police to population is found in Canada's northern territories; Nunavut has 247.9 persons per police officer, the Northwest Territories has 248.5 persons per officer and the Yukon has 258.2 persons for each police officer.[20]

That is a substantially lower rate than most developed countries with only Japan and Sweden having so few police officers. The United States has one officer per 411.5 persons, and Germany 344.8.

Canada's national police force is the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) which is the main police force in Canada's north, and in rural areas except in Quebec, Ontario, and Newfoundland. Those three provinces have their own provincial police forces, although the RCMP still operate throughout rural Newfoundland and also provide specific federal policing services in Ontario and Quebec. Many cities and districts have their own municipal police forces, while others have contracts with the provincial police or RCMP to police their communities.

Report rates of crimes

A publication posted on Statistics Canada reported that in 2009, only a small portion of crimes that happen are reported to the police (31% of all crimes), and this figure has been lowering from 1999 (37%) and 2004 (34%).[21] Only 54% of break and enters, 43% of robberies, and 34% of assaults are reported to the police.[22] The most common reason for not reporting a crime was the victim thought it was not important enough (68%). Other common reasons include; they think the police cannot do anything about it (59%), or they dealt with it another way (42%). Multiple reasons are given so the percentages do not sum to 100%.

Punishment

Canada abolished the death penalty for murder in 1976,[23] instituting a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment for murder.

In 2001, Canada had about 32,000 people in prison or about 0.13% of the total population. Globally, the United States was the country with the highest percentage of inmate population (about 0.7% of the total population). The European average is 0.2% of the total population, with France and Germany having lower rates than Canada, but with the United Kingdom, Spain and most of Eastern Europe having higher ones.

Comparisons

Comparing crime rates between countries is difficult due to the differences in jurisprudence, reporting and crime classifications. National crime statistics are in reality statistics of only selected crime types. Data are collected through various surveying methods that have previously ranged between 15% and 100% coverage of the data. A 2001 Statistics Canada study concluded that comparisons with the U.S. on homicide rates were the most reliable. Comparison of rates for six lesser incident crimes was considered possible but subject to more difficulty of interpretation. For example, types of assaults receive different classifications and laws in Canada and the U.S., making comparisons more difficult than homicides. At the time, the U.S. crime of aggravated assault could be compared to the sum of three Canadian crimes (aggravated assault, assault with a weapon, and attempted murder). This comparison had a predicted bias that would inflate the Canadian numbers by only 0.1%. The study also concluded that directly comparing the two countries' reported total crime rate (i.e. total selected crimes) was "inappropriate" since the totals include the problem data sets as well as the usable sets.[24] For reasons like these, homicides have been favored in international studies looking for predictors of crime rates (predictors like economic inequality).

Crime Comparison Between Selected Countries (Reported crimes per 100 000 population)
Country Homicide Robbery Sexual Assault Statistics Year
Canada 1.6 79.4 62.9 2012[25]
Australia 1.3 63.3 80.1 2011[26][27]
England and Wales 1.0 119.3 78.2 2012[28][29][30]
Ireland 1.0 61.1 39.7 2011[31][32]
New Zealand 0.9 47.1 76.5 2012[33]
Northern Ireland 1.5 72.6 88.9 2010/2011[34][35]
Scotland 1.7 34.9 85.1 2012/2013[36][37]
South Africa 30.1 297.5 2012[38][39]
United States of America 4.5 102.2 110 2014[40][41]

United States

Much study has been done of the comparative experience and policies of Canada with its southern neighbour the United States, and this is a topic of intense discussion within Canada.

Historically, the violent crime rate in Canada is far lower than that of the U.S. and this continues to be the case. For example, in 2000 the United States' rate for robberies was 65 percent higher, its rate for aggravated assault was more than double, and its murder rate was triple that of Canada. However, the rate of some property crime types is lower in the U.S. than in Canada. For example, in 2006, the rates of vehicle theft were 22% higher in Canada than in the U.S.[42]

Furthermore, in recent years, the gap in violent crime rates between the United States and Canada has narrowed due to a precipitous drop in the violent crime rate in the U.S. For example, while the aggravated assault rate declined for most of the 1990s in the U.S. and was 324 per 100,000 in 2000, the aggravated assault rate in Canada remained relatively steady throughout and was 143 per 100,000 in 2000. In other areas, the U.S. had a faster decline. For instance, whereas the murder rate in Canada declined by 36% between 1991 and 2004, the U.S. murder rate declined by 44%. [43]

The homicide rate in Canada peaked in 1975 at 3.03 per 100,000 and has dropped since then; it reached lower peaks in 1985 (2.72) and 1991 (2.69). It reached a post-1970 low of 1.73 in 2003. The average murder rate between 1970 and 1976 was 2.52, between 1977 and 1983 it was 2.67, between 1984 and 1990 it was 2.41, between 1991 and 1997 it was 2.23 and between 1998 and 2004 it was 1.82.[44] The attempted homicide rate has fallen at a faster rate than the homicide rate.[45]

By comparison, the homicide rate in the U.S. reached 10.1 per 100,000 in 1974, peaked in 1980 at 10.7 and reached a lower peak in 1991 (10.5). The average murder rate between 1970 and 1976 was 9.4, between 1977 and 1983 it was 9.6, between 1984 and 1990 it was 9, between 1991 and 1997 it was 9.2 and between 1998 and 2004 it was 6.3. In 2004, the murder rate in the U.S. dipped below 6 per 100,000, for the first time since 1966, and as of 2010 stood at 4.8 per 100,000 [43]

In more recent years, the U.S. as a country still typically has higher violent crimes rates. In 2012, the homicide rate in the U.S. was 4.7 per 100,000 residents,[46] Canada's was 3 times lower at 1.6.[25] However the chances of being murdered at random are extremely low in both countries. In Canada, only 15% of murders are committed by strangers,[47] in the U.S. this number is very similar at 14%,[48] meaning in 50 years your chance of being murdered at random is 0.000128% in Canada,[49] in the U.S. it is 0.000329% (of course these numbers would vary by neighborhoods within each country). Certain methods of homicide are used more frequently in each country; in Canada (0.59),[50] stabbing homicides occur 51.3% more often than in the U.S. (0.39),[51] however firearm homicides occur 440% more in the U.S. (2.7) than in Canada (0.5). In the U.S., you are 3 times more likely to die being shot (17.4%) than being stabbed (5.3%).[52]

Beyond homicides, the U.S. (112.9) has a higher robbery rate - 42.2% higher than Canada (79.4). Other violent crimes such as physical assaults or sexual assaults are not very comparable between the countries because of different definitions of the crimes. The disparity in property crime is not as large, however it still exists. The burglary/break-in rate in the U.S. (670.2) is 33.1% higher than in Canada (503.7), the theft rate in the U.S. (1959.3) is 33.4% higher than in Canada (1468.4), and the auto-theft rate in the U.S. (229.7) is slightly higher than the rate in Canada (223.5).

See also

References

  1. ^ Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Population size and growth in Canada: Key results from the 2016 Census". Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  2. ^ "Top 16 Worst Major Cities in Canada by Crime Rate 2019". Immigroup. Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  3. ^ a b https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54974/t/tbl02b-eng.htm
  4. ^ https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3510006801
  5. ^ https://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/7-charts-that-tell-the-story-of-homicide-in-canada/
  6. ^ https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/these-are-the-canadian-cities-with-the-highest-homicide-rates-for-2016
  7. ^ a b Berthiaume, Lee (21 November 2018). "Statistics Canada blames gang violence, shootings as homicide rate hits 10-year high". CTV News.
  8. ^ Brazeau, Robyn; Brzozowski, Jodi-Anne. "Violent victimization in Canada" (PDF). Statcan.ca. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
  9. ^ "Table 4 Police-reported crime severity indexes, by census metropolitan area, 2009". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  10. ^ "Police-reported crime statistics: Table 3 Police-reported crime severity indexes, by census metropolitan area, 2010". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  11. ^ "Table 3 Police-reported crime severity indexes, by census metropolitan area, 2011". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  12. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Description for chart 9 Police-reported Violent Crime Severity Index, by census metropolitan area, 2012". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  13. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Table 3 Police-reported Crime Severity Indexes, by census metropolitan area, 2013". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  14. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Table 3 Police-reported Crime Severity Indexes, by census metropolitan area, 2014". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  15. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Table 3 Police-reported Crime Severity Indexes, by census metropolitan area, 2015". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  16. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Table 3 Police-reported Crime Severity Indexes, by census metropolitan area, 2016". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  17. ^ a b "Table 35-10-0177-01 Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  18. ^ "Police officers by level of policing, by province and territory, 2012" (PDF). Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2014-03-03.
  19. ^ "Police personnel". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
  20. ^ "Police officers, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
  21. ^ "Table 10 Self-reported victimizations reported to police, 1999, 2004 and 2009". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  22. ^ a b "Criminal victimization in Canada, 2009". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  23. ^ "Executions in Canada from 1860 to abolition". Capitalpunishmentuk.org. Retrieved 14 May 2015..
  24. ^ Feasibility Study on Crime Comparisons Between Canada and the United States Maire Gannon, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada, Cat. no. 85F0035XIE. Retrieved June 28, 2009.
  25. ^ a b Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Crimes, by type of violation, and by province and territory (Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick)". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ "2011 Census QuickStats : Australia". Censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Crime in England and Wales, Year Ending December 2012" (PDF). Ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
  29. ^ "Crime Statistics". Ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  30. ^ "Population Estimates for England and Wales". Ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  31. ^ "Garda Recorded Crime Statistics : 2007-2011" (PDF). Cso.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
  32. ^ "Irish population in 2011 at highest in 150 years". Finfacts.ie. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  33. ^ "New Zealand Crime Statistics 2012" (PDF). Police.govt.nz. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
  34. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 10 December 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  35. ^ "Publications". Nisra.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  36. ^ "RECORDED CRIME IN SCOTLAND, 2012-13" (PDF). Scotland.gov.uk. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
  37. ^ "Scotland Population (2017) - World Population Review". Worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  38. ^ "Crime Stats SA - Crime Stats Simplified". Crimestatssa.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  39. ^ "SA population at 51.8 million - Census". News24.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  40. ^ Crime in the United States 2014 By Volume and Rate per 100,000 Inhabitants, 1995–2014. FBI.
  41. ^ Criminal Victimization, 2014 - cv14.pdf. US Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  42. ^ Christopher Effgen (2001-09-11). "United States Crime Rates 1960 - 2008". Disastercenter.com. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  43. ^ a b "Bureau of Justice Statistics Key Facts at a Glance Homicide Rate Trends". 24 October 2006. Archived from the original on 24 October 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  44. ^ "85-002-XIE2006006.indd" (PDF). Statcan.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  45. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 11 April 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  46. ^ Crime in the United States 2012. By Volume and Rate per 100,000 Inhabitants, 1993–2012. FBI.
  47. ^ "Homicide in Canada, 2011". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  48. ^ Expanded Homicide Data Table 10 (FBI). Note that I did not include gang homicides as "stranger killings" as there is some affiliation between rival gangs, it's not necessarily random like being killed in an attempted robbery. Retrieved May 2014
  49. ^ 1.6*50=80, meaning 80 people of every 100,000 are murdered in 50 years. 80/100,000*0.16=0.000128%. The same formula is used for the U.S. rate
  50. ^ "Homicides, by most common type of method, Canada, 1961 to 2011". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  51. ^ "Expanded Homicide Data Table 8: Murder Victims by Weapon, 2008–2012" (XLS). Fbi.gov. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  52. ^ "Are stab wounds as dangerous as gun shot wounds?". 16 November 2014. Archived from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2017.

Further reading

External links

Boyd Gang

The Boyd Gang was a notorious criminal gang based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, named for member Edwin Alonzo Boyd. The gang was a favourite of the media at the time because of their sensational actions, which included bank robberies, jail breaks, beautiful women, gun fights, manhunts, and daring captures.

Commisso 'ndrina

The Commisso 'ndrina (Italian: [komˈmisso]) is a powerful clan of the 'Ndrangheta, a criminal and mafia-type organisation in Calabria, Italy. The 'ndrina is based in Siderno, but has an important branch of the Siderno Group in the Greater Toronto Area in Canada.

Connections (film)

Connections: An Investigation into Organized Crime in Canada was a two-part television documentary program, created and broadcast by CBC Television in June 1977 and March 1979. It covered the growth of organized crime in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Each part ran for 90 minutes. The series was commissioned by Peter Herrndorf from Bill Macadam of Norfolk Communications, written and directed by Martyn Burke, and research directed and associate produced by James Dubro.

The series was notable for its use of advanced equipment - including high speed film and hidden microphones - and for interviews with criminal leaders.The show received an honourable mention from the Michener Award in 1977, as well as an Anik Award and ACTRA Award.

Cybercrime in Canada

Computer crime, or cybercrime in Canada, is an evolving international phenomenon. People and businesses in

a and other countries may be affected by computer crimes that may, or may not originate within the borders of their country. From a Canadian perspective, 'computer crime' may be considered to be defined by the Council of Europe – Convention on Cybercrime (November 23, 2001). Canada contributed, and is a signatory, to this international of criminal offences involving the use of computers:

Offences against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems;

Computer-related offences;

Content-related offences;

Offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights; and

Ancillary liability.Canada is also a signatory to the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime, concerning the criminalization of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems (January 28, 2003). As of July 25, 2008 Canada had not yet ratified the Convention on Cybercrime or the Additional Protocol to the Convention on cybercrime, concerning the criminalization of acts of a Discriminatory nature committed through computer systems.

Day parole

Day parole is a form of release under Canadian law that permits prisoner participation in public activities during the day, and requires they return to their prison or halfway house nightly. The Parole Board of Canada may waive this requirement, or choose to impose additional conditions. This is often preparatory for statutory release or full parole.

Fort Whoop-Up

Fort Whoop-Up was the nickname (eventually adopted as the official name) given to a whisky trading post, originally Fort Hamilton, near what is now Lethbridge, Alberta. During the late 19th century, the post served as a centre for trading activities, including the illegal whisky trade. The sale of whisky was outlawed but, due to the lack of law enforcement in the region prior to 1874, many whisky traders had settled in the area and taken to charging unusually high prices for their goods.

Fort Whoop-Up is also the name of a replica site and interpretive centre built in Indian Battle Park.

Frank Cotroni

Francesco "Frank" Cotroni (Italian: [koˈtroːni]; 1931 – August 17, 2004), also known as "The Big Guy", was an Italian-Canadian Mafia boss of the Cotroni crime family in Montreal.

Hate crime

A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of their membership (or perceived membership) in a certain social group or race.

Examples of such groups can include, and are almost exclusively limited to: sex, ethnicity, disability, language, nationality, physical appearance, religion, gender identity or sexual orientation. Non-criminal actions that are motivated by these reasons are often called "bias incidents".

"Hate crime" generally refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by bias against one or more of the social groups listed above, or by bias against their derivatives. Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, mate crime or offensive graffiti or letters (hate mail).A hate crime law is a law intended to deter bias-motivated violence. Hate crime laws are distinct from laws against hate speech: hate crime laws enhance the penalties associated with conduct which is already criminal under other laws, while hate speech laws criminalize a category of speech. Hate speech laws exist in many countries. In the United States, hate crime laws have been upheld by both the Supreme Court and lower courts, especially in the case of 'fighting' words and other violent speech, but they are thought by some people to be in conflict with the First Amendment right to freedom of speech, but hate crimes are only regulated through threats of injury or death.

Indo-Canadian organized crime

Indo-Canadian organized crime is a term denoting organized crime groups based in Canada that are predominantly of Indian origin. Collectively, these groups are the third major homegrown organized crime problem in Canada, next to the Outlaw motorcycle clubs and Native American criminal organizations. Annual police report ranked them third in terms of sophistication and strength in British Columbia, only behind the aforementioned biker gangs and Asian criminal organizations such as the Triads and Vietnamese drug clans.

Invisible Chains

Invisible Chains: Canada's Underground World of Human Trafficking is a 2010 book about human trafficking by Benjamin Perrin. Perrin wrote the book after researching human trafficking for ten years. In Invisible Chains, Perrin recounts a variety of stories of human trafficking in Canada, including that of the prostitution of a child in Ontario whose sexual services were advertised in the adult services section of Craigslist. The book was timed to be published within three weeks of the release of Joy Smith's proposal for the National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking. Perrin advocated adopting Smith's proposal, saying that Invisible Chains "shows that while traffickers have a plan, Canada doesn't," and that the victims are the ones who suffer from the lack of a national action plan. Perrin promoted the book in Winnipeg, Manitoba in October 2010. Mark Milke of the Calgary Herald said that Perrin's book is "not an enjoyable read. It's depressing... but it's a necessary read," going on to say that Invisible Chains "will do much good." University of Manitoba professor Joan Durrant praised Invisible Chains, calling it a powerful book. Chester Brown condemned Invisible Chains, saying that it purports "that johns are evil monsters." In response, Brown wrote Paying for It, a graphic novel written "from the john's point of view, since of course, I don’t think of myself as an evil monster." Perrin's book was nominated for a George Ryga Award for Social Awareness in Literature, but lost to One Story, One Song, an essay collection by Richard Wagamese.

Jean-Pierre Charbonneau

Jean-Pierre Charbonneau (born January 3, 1950 in Saint-Eustache, Quebec) is a journalist and a former Quebec politician. He was the Quebec MNA member under the Parti Québécois for the provincial ridings of Borduas and Verchères in the Montérégie region.

Kidnapping in Canada

Kidnapping is a crime in Canada. Throughout its history, a number of incidents have taken place.

List of Chinese criminal organizations

Criminal gangs are found throughout China but are most active in Chongqing, Shanghai, Macau, Tianjin, Shenyang, and Guangzhou as well as in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. The number of people involved in organized crime on the mainland has risen from around 100,000 in 1986 to around 1.5 million in the year 2000.Since the new century, there are two academic books focusing on Chinese organized crime. Based on rich empirical work, these books offer how Chinese criminal organizations survive in the changing socio-economic and political environment. Y. K. Chu's Triads as Business looks at the role of Hong Kong Triads in legal, illegal and international markets. Peng Wang's The Chinese Mafia examines the rise of mainland Chinese organized crime and the political-criminal nexus (collusion between gangs and corrupt police officers) in reform and opening era of China.

List of Italian Mafia crime families

This is a list of independent Italian crime families around the world that are considered to be part of Cosa Nostra (the Mafia). This list does not include all Camorra, 'Ndrangheta or Sacra Corona Unita clans ("crime families").

Luppino crime family

The Luppino crime family, (Italian: [lupˈpiːno]) also known as the Luppino-Violi crime family, is a 'Ndrangheta organization based in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The Luppino clan is one of three centralized Mafia organizations in Hamilton, with the other two being the Musitano crime family and the weaker Papalia crime family. The Luppinos have had strong connections with the Buffalo crime family of Buffalo, New York.By 2018, the Violis had an increased role in the organization, particularly Domenico Violi, the son of Montreal mob boss Paolo Violi. He had reportedly been made the underboss of the Buffalo crime family and one of his duties was to "assume control over the operations of the Luppino-Violi crime family". By late 2018 however, Domenico was serving a prison term for drug trafficking, as was his brother Giuseppe. As of May 2019, Natale and Rocco Luppino (also "made men" in the Buffalo family) were believed to be the leaders of this Hamilton-based crime family.

Parole Board of Canada

The Parole Board of Canada (French: Commission des libérations conditionnelles du Canada; formerly known as the National Parole Board) is a Canadian government agency that operates under the auspices of Public Safety Canada.

Siderno Group

The Siderno Group is a criminal association in Canada and Australia related to the 'Ndrangheta, a Mafia-type organisation in Calabria. The association is labelled the "Siderno Group" because its members primarily came from the town of Siderno on the Ionian coast in Calabria and migrated to Canada and Australia in the 1950s.

Vincenzo Cotroni

Vincenzo "Vic" Cotroni (Italian: [vinˈtʃɛntso koˈtroːni]; 1911 – September 16, 1984), also known as "The Egg", was an Italian-Canadian caporegime of the Montreal-based Cotroni crime family, considered a branch of the Bonanno crime family.

West End Gang

The West End Gang is one of Canada's most influential organized crime groups. Active since the early 1900s and still active today, their rise to notoriety did not begin until the 1960s when they were known simply as the "Irish gang". Their criminal activities were focused on, but not restricted to, the west side of Montreal, Quebec. Most of the gang's earnings in the early days were derived from truck hijackings, home invasions, kidnapping, protection racket, drug trafficking, extortion and armed robbery.In the 1960s, West End Gang hitman Richard Blass was involved in minor fights with many Mafiosi, particularly those related to Frank Cotroni and brothers Joe and Vincenzo Di Maulo, all of which received death threats by Blass.The gang, which is dominated by – but not exclusively limited to – members of Irish descent, began to move into the drug trade in the 1970s. They began to import hashish and cocaine and developed important contacts in the United States, South America and Europe with some members working out of Florida.Since that time, the gang has formulated ties to the Montreal Mafia, the Cosa Nostra, the Hells Angels, and Colombian cartels. The three Montreal organizations (West End Gang, Montreal Mafia, Hells Angels) make up the "Consortium" (similar to New York City's "Commission") and, together, the three groups' leaders fix the price of drugs for the wholesale and retail markets. The majority of the drugs smuggled through Montreal are ultimately retailed in the United States, with the small remainder being distributed across Canada.

Police estimate that over a 15-year span from the late 1970s to the early 1990s, the gang trafficked more than 40 tons of cocaine and 300 tons of hashish, with an estimated street value of $150 billion.

Over the years many members have been murdered or convicted of murder, most notably the 1984 assassination of one time mob boss Frank "Dunie" Ryan. Subsequent revenge killings weeks later are believed to have been organized by replacement leader Allan "The Weasel" Ross.Montreal police estimate that the West End Gang currently consists of approximately 125 to 150 members and associates. The group often collaborates with the Montreal Mafia and the Hells Angels in enormous drug shipments and remains one of the most powerful and profitable criminal organizations in the country.In 2003 onetime gang associate Peter MacAllister wrote a novel called Dexter based on real stories from the gang.In 2005, a 300 kilogram shipment of a total 1,300 kilograms of cocaine, co-organized by Rizzuto crime family confidante, Francesco Del Balso and West End Gang member, Richard Griffin, was intercepted in Boucherville, Quebec by police. After Griffin invested $1.5 million in the purchase and transportation of the cocaine, he demanded $350,000 from the Rizzutos for not taking preventative measures in transporting the drugs. After arguments about the debts, Griffin was riddled with gunfire outside his home in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce on July 12, 2006.

Crime Rates (per 100,000 residents) by Canadian Provinces & Territories[17]
Province/Territory Canada NL PE NS NB QC ON MB SK AB BC YT NT NU
Total of all violations 5904.54 6478.06 4949.24 5540.17 5291.89 4067.02 4031.72 9446.88 13305.3 8801.19 8674.51 24319.85 43457.24 35790.95
Violent Criminal Code violations (total) 1051.62 1327.42 785.74 1153.45 1176.56 950.41 789.81 1938.05 2027.58 1243.53 1139.34 4147.55 7836.92 8152.2
Homicide 1.68 1.32 0 1.37 1.45 0.8 1.47 3.19 4.69 2.73 1.83 10.67 6.75 2.7
Attempted murder 2.14 1.32 0 2.74 0.92 2.29 1.86 3.26 5.74 1.25 2.4 2.67 0 24.27
Sexual assault (not including against children) 57.91 58.85 47.09 65.93 48.63 49.19 53.39 108.57 103.94 63.45 50.17 200.05 310.33 418
Sexual violations against children 19.06 23.39 22.2 22.12 22.99 23.11 13.92 36.34 32.42 17.61 15.59 58.68 85.45 277.76
Assault (not including against a police officer) 574.05 693.61 399.6 561.56 623.16 483.88 421.06 1210.5 1289.38 721.63 589.2 2627.23 5313.81 5361.1
Assaults against a peace officer 27.47 25.47 6.73 34.54 30.79 30.42 18.69 62.13 49.89 30.9 26.05 85.35 139.42 204.95
Discharge firearm with intent 2.98 3.58 0.67 1.37 1.98 1.27 3.4 5.23 6.87 4.56 1.85 0 15.74 35.06
Robbery 60.05 42.07 12.11 28.44 29.86 44.45 59.01 156.21 85.87 71.41 62.17 58.68 69.71 26.97
Forcible confinement or kidnapping 10.43 6.98 2.69 10.64 4.89 16.69 7.16 10.92 13.3 12.51 7.01 21.34 47.22 59.33
Extortion 8.28 7.36 2.69 6.64 4.23 13.7 5.7 3.34 5.21 6.47 11.32 5.33 13.49 5.39
Criminal harassment 51.88 67.53 52.47 45.81 69.37 61.9 54.98 16.77 48.58 46.04 34.87 117.36 175.4 188.77
Uttering threats 166.59 329.73 151.36 242.65 257.01 180.2 104.06 246.26 266.72 179.38 200.31 701.48 1216.58 1092.17
Indecent/Harassing communications 41.96 45.08 78.04 102.79 59.33 8.56 21.81 44.38 68.31 58.29 115.1 181.37 353.05 374.84
Other violent violations 27.14 21.13 10.09 26.85 21.95 33.95 23.3 30.95 46.66 27.3 21.47 77.34 89.97 80.89
Property crime violations (total) 3206.84 3375.41 2916.94 2843.18 2696.16 1854.28 2286.89 5093.28 6553.36 5205.65 5001.44 9225.97 20661.58 15171.78
Breaking and entering 438.51 509.69 255.64 307.21 429.98 371.75 285.55 727.7 886.9 658.12 628.02 672.14 1014.19 1766.36
Theft of motor vehicle 216.91 92.81 59.87 96.05 124.34 143.24 123.17 313.1 492.16 536.13 294.76 469.43 526.21 323.61
Theft over $5000 (non-motor vehicle) 42.48 43.76 22.87 24.75 30.13 35.55 32.46 34.82 54.93 76.3 58.82 72.02 40.48 29.66
Theft under $5000 (non-motor vehicle) 1365.91 1004.1 1276.83 1221.06 1057.64 705.84 1108.64 1437.72 1882.97 2112.83 2578.37 2440.52 1931.68 725.42
Fraud 299.05 269.37 390.85 296.68 235.6 181.01 292.48 268.79 564.04 428.2 364.13 472.1 301.33 210.34
Identity theft and identity fraud 46.92 11.51 21.53 15.8 24.45 58.42 34.78 26.94 51.71 63.27 67.66 13.34 11.25 5.4
Mischief 717.44 1407.58 836.2 771.35 718.44 314.94 372.62 2157.98 2402.59 1112.89 913.18 4979.73 16697.02 11970.77
Other property crime violations 79.62 36.59 53.15 110.28 75.58 43.53 37.19 126.23 218.06 217.91 96.5 106.69 139.42 140.22
Other Criminal Code violations (total) 965.39 1221.59 619.58 882.25 823.62 442.21 531.65 1775.32 3164.78 1610.56 1597.37 9169.96 12089.32 11088.94
Child pornography (including making and distributing) 17.21 16.41 16.14 21.49 14.27 9.7 10.63 16.31 14.78 8.63 58 18.67 20.24 8.09
Disturb the peace 268.84 438.38 264.38 158.4 189.88 6.41 39.65 671.71 551.44 437.16 901.29 6244 8632.98 8146.81
Administration of justice violations 560.17 617.4 232.76 553.13 457.07 362.98 407.83 903.86 2294.91 980.56 432.32 2544.54 2797.45 2491.77
Other Criminal Code violations (all other violations) 119.17 149.4 106.3 149.23 162.4 63.12 73.54 183.44 303.65 184.21 205.76 362.75 638.65} 442.27
Criminal Code traffic violations (total) 341.53 325.2 397.58 326.07 300.09 480.02 201.4 324.7 811.12 407.11 330.18 1165.58 1738.29 790.14
Impaired driving 194.31 259.56 328.29 263.4 221.46 180.46 105.59 257.26 554.22 286.65 240.99 976.21 1490.93 644.52
Other Criminal Code traffic violations 147.22 65.64 69.29 62.67 78.63 299.56 95.81 67.44 256.9 120.46 89.19 189.37 247.36 145.62
Federal Statute violations (total) 339.16 228.44 229.4 335.23 295.46 340.1 221.97 315.52 748.46 334.34 606.17 610.8 1131.13 587.89
Drug violations (total) 262.96 185.24 187.69 287.62 221.6 293.93 179.63 206.35 300.36 275.63 452.63 450.76 859.03 544.74
Unreported Crime in Canada (2009)[22]
Reason for not reporting crime % of people gave this reason
Not important enough 68%
Police could not do anything about it 59%
Dealt with another way 42%
Incident was a personal matter 36%
Didn't want to get the police involved 35%
Police wouldn't help 22%
Insurance wouldn't cover it 15%
No confidence in criminal justice system 14%
No items taken/recovered 14%
Police would be biased 9%
Fear of revenge by the offender 7%
Fear of publicity/news coverage 5%
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