Crescentchest

The crescentchests are a genus, Melanopareia, of birds from South America. The genus has long been placed with the tapaculos in the Rhinocryptidae family. Their placement there has been questioned and in 2007 the genus was placed in its own family, Melanopareiidae, by the South American Classification Committee.[1] Subsequently, the family was accepted by the International Ornithological Congress Bird List and the Clements Checklist.[2][3] The family Melanopareiidae was formally erected in 2009.[4]

The crescentchests range in length from 14 to 16 cm (5.5–6.3 in), in weight from 16 to 23 g (0.56–0.81 oz) and have relatively long tails compared to the tapaculos. The plumage is striking with a distinctive band across the chest that gives the group their name.[5]

The crescentchests are birds of arid scrub. They generally forage on the ground, but their diet has not yet been recorded. Two species, the collared crescentchest and olive-crowned crescentchest, are widely distributed across central and southern Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and northern Argentina. The double-collared crescentchest, which was recently split from the collared crescentchest, is found in eastern Bolivia, whilst the other two species, the elegant crescentchest and Marañón crescentchest, have a more restricted distribution in Peru and Ecuador.[5]

Little is known about the behaviour of the crescentchests. The only species about which anything is known about the breeding behaviour is the olive-crowned crescentchest. That species is a seasonal breeder. The nest of that species is a 15 cm high cup made of vegetable fibres and palm fronds, hidden in grasses or low shrubs close to the ground. The clutch size is two to three eggs, the eggs are white with blotches or black spots.[5]

No species of crescentchest is considered by the IUCN to be threatened by human activities, but the Marañón crescentchest is listed as near threatened. Although the species is apparently tolerant of some disturbance it has a tiny global range and is uncommon even within that range.[5]

Melanopareia
Melanopareia torquata - Collared Crescentchest
Collared crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Melanopareiidae
Ericson et al 2010
Genus: Melanopareia
L. Reichenbach, 1853
Species

4, see text

Species

The genus contains the following five species:[6]

References

  1. ^ Cadena, C (2006) Proposal #239) to South American Classification Committee: Remove Melanopareia from the Rhinocryptidae and create family Melanopareiidae Archived 2008-05-16 at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded 9 October 2008
  2. ^ IOC (2009). "IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 29 December 2009.
  3. ^ Clements Checklist team (2009). "Updates & Corrections – Dec 2009". The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
  4. ^ Ericson, Per; Olson, Storrs L.; Irestedt, Martin; Alvarenga, Herculano; Fjeldså, Jon (2010). "Circumscription of a monophyletic family for the tapaculos (Aves: Rhinocryptidae): Psiloramphus in and Melanopareia out". Journal of Ornithology. 151 (2): 337–345. doi:10.1007/s10336-009-0460-9.
  5. ^ a b c d Krabbe, N.K., and T.S. Schulenberg. (2003). Family Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos), pp. 748 –788 in del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott & D.A. Christie, (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol. 8.Broadbills to Tapaculos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-50-4
  6. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Antthrushes, antpittas, gnateaters, tapaculos, crescentchests". World Bird List Version 8.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 4 February 2018.

External links

Collared crescentchest

The collared crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) is a species of bird in the Melanopareiidae family. It is found in the Cerrado to northeastern Bolivia and northern Paraguay.

Its natural habitat is dry savanna.

Double-collared crescentchest

The double-collared crescentchest (Melanopareia bitorquata) is a species of bird in the family Melanopareiidae. It is found in eastern Bolivia. Its natural habitat is dry savanna.

Elegant crescentchest

The elegant crescentchest (Melanopareia elegans) is a species of bird in the Melanopareiidae family.

It is found in Ecuador and Peru.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests.

List of birds of Argentina

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Argentina. The avifauna of Argentina has 1006 confirmed species, of which 16 are endemic, eight have been introduced by humans, 41 are rare or vagrants, and four are extinct or extirpated. An additional 58 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Argentina

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Argentina

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Argentina as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Bolivia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bolivia. The avifauna of Bolivia has 1384 confirmed species. Fifteen are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, and 20 are rare or vagrants. An additional 38 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Bolivia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Bolivia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Bolivia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Brazil

Brazil has one of the richest bird diversities in the world. The avifauna of Brazil include a total of 1806 confirmed species, of which 235 are endemic. Four have been introduced by humans, 70 are rare or vagrants, and four are extinct or extirpated. An additional 24 species are hypothetical (see below).

Brazil hosts about 60% of the bird species recorded for all of South America. These numbers are still increasing almost every year, due to new occurrences, new species being described, or splits of existing species. About 10% of the bird species found in Brazil are, nonetheless, threatened.

In June 2013 a simultaneous discovery of fifteen bird species in Brazil was announced, the first such since 1871, when August von Pelzeln described forty new species. The birds were from the families Corvidae, Thamnophilidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Tyrannidae, and Polioptilidae. Eleven of the new species are endemics of Brazil and four also inhabit Peru and Bolivia.Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The notes of population status, for instance (endangered), are those of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The status notes apply to the worldwide population, not solely the Brazilian population except for endemic species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Brazil

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Brazil

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Brazil as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Ecuador

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ecuador including those of the Galápagos Islands. The avifauna of Ecuador has 1635 confirmed species, of which seven are endemic to the mainland and 30 are endemic to the Galápagos. Four have been introduced by humans, 64 are rare or vagrants, and two have been extirpated. An additional 49 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ecuador

(EG) Endemic - Galápagos - a species endemic to the Galápagos Islands

(EM) Endemic - mainland - a species endemic to mainland Ecuador

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ecuador as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Paraguay

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Paraguay. The avifauna of Paraguay has 694 confirmed species, of which two have been introduced by humans, 39 are rare or vagrants, and five are extirpated or extinct. An additional 27 species are hypothetical (see below). None are endemic.

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Paraguay

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Paraguay

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Paraguay as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Peru

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Peru. The avifauna of Peru has 1802 confirmed species, of which 106 are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, and 44 are rare or vagrants. An additional 54 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Peru

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Peru

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Peru as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of least concern birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 8405 least concern avian species. 76% of all evaluated avian species are listed as least concern.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of least concern avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

List of near threatened birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 1012 near threatened avian species. 9.3% of all evaluated avian species are listed as near threatened.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of near threatened avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

Marañón crescentchest

The Marañón crescentchest (Melanopareia maranonica) is a species of bird in the Melanopareiidae family. It is found in the Andes of far southern Ecuador and northern Peru.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Mixed-species foraging flock

A mixed-species feeding flock, also termed a mixed-species foraging flock, mixed hunting party or informally bird wave, is a flock of usually insectivorous birds of different species that join each other and move together while foraging. These are different from feeding aggregations, which are congregations of several species of bird at areas of high food availability.

A mixed-species foraging flock typically has "nuclear" species that appear to be central to its formation and movement. Species that trail them are termed "attendants". Attendants tend to join the foraging flock only when the flock enters their territory.How such flocks are initiated is under investigation. In Sri Lanka, for example, vocal mimicry by the greater racket-tailed drongo might have a key role in the initiation of mixed-species foraging flocks, while in parts of the American tropics noisy packs of foraging golden-crowned warblers might play the same role. Forest structure is also believed to be an important factor deciding the propensity to form flocks. In tropical forests, birds that glean food from foliage were the most abundant species in mixed-species flocks.A typical Neotropic mixed feeding flock moves through the forest at about 0.3 kilometers per hour (0.19 mph), with different species foraging in their preferred niches (on the ground, on trunks, in high or low foliage, etc.). Some species follow the flock all day, while others – such as the long-billed gnatwren – join it only as long as it crosses their own territories.

Olive-crowned crescentchest

The olive-crowned crescentchest (Melanopareia maximiliani) is a species of bird in the Melanopareiidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland and subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland.

Serra Geral do Tocantins Ecological Station

Serra Geral do Tocantins Ecological Station (Portuguese: Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins) is an ecological station in the states of Bahia and Tocantins, Brazil. It is one of the largest such units in the country, and protects a sparsely populated area of the cerrado biome. The main threat comes from frequent fires set by the local people in order to create cattle pasturage.

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