Cremna (Greek Κρῆμνα), or Kremna, was an ancient town in Pisidia. It is situated in the district of Bucak. It stands in a remote valley on a high plateau dominating the ancient Cestrus River (today Aksu), with limited access and good defensive features.[1]

It was first taken by Amyntas, commander of the Galatian auxiliary army of Brutus and Cassius, who became king of Galatia and Pisidia on going over to the side of Mark Antony. Octavian allowed him to remain king until his death in 25 BC.[2] After this it became a Roman colony, as Strabo says; and there are imperial coins with the epigraph COL. IVL. AVG. CREMNA, which stands for Colonia Iulia Augusta [Felix] Cremnena. Its first coins appear to have been minted under Hadrian. Ptolemy mentions the Cremna Colonia, and according to him it is in the same longitude as Sagalassus.[3]

Its water supply posed particular problems and the aqueduct had to include complex and novel solutions. [4]

The donatio given by the emperor Aurelian (270–275) promised a period of great prosperity for Cremna; but in 276 the town was taken by an Isaurian robber, named Lydius, who used it as a base for looting the region,[5] giving rise to the only visit of a Roman Emperor to the region, that of Marcus Claudius Tacitus.[6] Later, the town was inserted in the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda. The name of only one of its bishops is known: Theodorus, present at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.[7][8] No longer a residential bishopric, Cremna is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[9]

At some time in the high Middle Ages the ancient site of the town was abandoned, the population transferring itself to the present village of Çamlık.

The ancient site was identified in 1874 and excavations began in 1970.

Kremna ruins vista May 2013
Site of Kremna



  1. ^ Princeton Encyclopedia, "Kremna".
  2. ^ Strabo, Geographia, xii. 7.
  3. ^ Ptolemy, Geographia, v. 5.
  4. ^ Owens, E. J. “The Kremna Aqueduct and Water Supply in Roman Cities.” Greece & Rome, vol. 38, no. 1, 1991, pp. 41–58. JSTOR,
  5. ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, i. 69.
  6. ^ John D. Grainger, The Cities of Pamphylia (Oxbow Books 2009 ISBN 978-1-78297295-2)
  7. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 1025-1026
  8. ^ Raymond Janin, v. Cremna, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIII, Paris 1956, col. 1019
  9. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 876



Coordinates: 37°30′00.50″N 30°41′27.96″E / 37.5001389°N 30.6911000°E


Year 278 (CCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Probus and Lupus (or, less frequently, year 1031 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 278 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Bucak, Burdur

Bucak (literally "sheltered nook" or "corner" in Turkish) is a district and the biggest town of Burdur Province, Turkey. The town's population was 35,621 at the 2007 census. It was formerly named "Oğuzhan"; the name was changed on 30 May 1926. It is said that the name Oğuzhan came from the Oghuz Turks who settled in this town.

Bucak has good connections to other parts of Turkey. Antalya lies 75 km to the south, Isparta 70 km to northeast and Burdur 40 km to the northwest. Neighbouring towns include Çeltikçi and Ağlasun to the north and Kemer to the west.

A few historic buildings and houses remain, but most of the buildings are modern. There are several historic sites remaining in the district, such as the ancient Cremna and Milyos and the Seljuk-era caravanserais of İncirhan and Susuz Kervansaray.

There are many marble resources around Bucak, and many of the inhabitants deal with marble, which is processed in the marble factories located around Bucak. The processed marble is exported all over the world.

Many entrepreneurs from Bucak have built high schools and educational institutions, including Bucak Hikmet Tolunay Vocational Institute, Bucak Zeliha Tolunay Practical Technology and Business Faculty, Bucak Adem Tolunay Science High School, and Mehmet Cadıl Anatolian Teacher Training High School.

Caladenia cremna

Caladenia cremna, commonly known as Don's spider orchid, is a plant in the orchid family Orchidaceae and is endemic to a small area in Victoria. It is a rare ground orchid with a single hairy leaf and a single yellow flower with red striations.


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lycia et Pamphylia

Lycia et Pamphylia was the name of a province of the Roman empire, located in southern Anatolia. It was created by the emperor Vespasian (reigned AD 69- 79), who merged Lycia and Pamphylia into a single administrative unit. In 43 AD, the emperor Claudius had annexed Lycia. Pamphylia had been a part of the province of Galatia.

The borders drawn by Vespasian ran west of the River Indus (which flowed from its upper valley in Caria) from the Pisidian plateau up to Lake Ascanius (Burdur Gölü), to the south of Apamea. In the north and east it formed a line which followed the shores of the lakes Limna (Hoyran Gölü) and Caralis (Beyşehir Gölü), turned south towards the Gulf of Adalla (mare Pamphylium) and followed the Taurus Mountains (Toros Daǧlari) for some ten miles towards east up to Isauria. It then followed Cilicia Trachea to reach the sea to the west of Iotape. The borders were dawn taking into account geographical and economic factors. The whole of the basins of the rivers Xanthus, Cestrus (Ak Su) and Eurymedon (Köprü Irmak) were included. The main cities were at the mouth of the latter two rivers. In Pisidia e in Pamphylia they were in part followed by the few roads into the interior of Anatolia. The most important one was the road from Attalea (Antalya) to Apamea. In Lycia the road from Patara towards Laodicea on the Lycus followed the coast. Important cities were Side, Ptolemais, Gagae and Myra on the coast, Seleucia, inland and Cremna, Colbhasa and Comama,on the Pisidian Plateau, where Augustus had founded Roman colonies (settlements). on the Milyas plateau there were Oenoanda, Tlos, Nisa, Podalia, Termessus and Trebenna. Other important cities in Lycia were Pednelissus, Ariassus e Sagalassus; along the Eurymedon, Aspendus and Perge, which had a sanctuary of Artemis. The most important city in the region was Patara, at the mouth of the Xanthus.

Under the administrative reforms of emperor Diocletian (reigned AD 284-305), which doubled the number of Roman provinces by reducing their size, the Lycia et Pamphylia province was split into two separate provinces. The provinces were grouped into twelve dioceses which were under the four Praetorian prefectures of the empire. Lycia and Pamphylia were under of Diocese of Asia (Dioecesis Asiana), of the Praetorian Prefecture of Oriens (the East).


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.


The Mesosemiini are one of the tribes of metalmark butterflies (family Riodinidae). They are the basalmost living tribe of the Riodininae, outside the main radiation together with the slightly more advanced Eurybiini.

Napaea (butterfly)

Napaea is a genus in the butterfly family Riodinidae present only in the Neotropical ecozone.

Napaea contains strong butterflies with a robust body. The margin of the forewings is not projecting so far, the apex not so very falcate (sickle shaped), the costal of the forewing is not connected with the subcostal. They have a distinctive pattern of metallic blue or white or yellow comma-shaped marks, chevrons or punctiform spots, although in some species the markings are greatly reduced.They found in primary and degraded forest. The butterflies perch with the wings outspread in bushes near the skirts of the forests, out of which they may be beaten. They are not common.


Pisidia (; Greek: Πισιδία, Pisidía; Turkish: Pisidya) was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Lycia, bordering Caria, Lydia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, and corresponding roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey. Among Pisidia's settlements were Antioch(ia) in Pisidia, Termessos, Cremna, Sagalassos, Etenna, Neapolis, Selge, Tyriacum, Laodiceia Katakekaumene and Philomelium.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Kongolo

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Kongolo (Latin: Kongoloën(sis)) is a Latin suffragan diocese in the Ecclesiastical province of Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Its cathedral episcopal see is Cathédrale Sacré-Coeur-de-Marie (dedicated to Our Lady's Heart) in the city of Kongolo

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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