Credo

A credo (pronounced [ˈkɾeːdoː], Latin for "I believe") is a statement of religious belief, such as the Apostles' Creed. The term especially refers to the use of the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (or less often, the Apostles' Creed) in the Mass, either as spoken text, or sung as Gregorian chant or other musical settings of the Mass.

History

Bwv232-credo
An example: the autograph first page of the Symbolum Nicenum (the Credo) from Johann Sebastian Bach's Mass in B minor

After the formulation of the Nicene Creed, its initial liturgical use was in baptism, which explains why the text uses the singular "I ...." instead of "we...." The text was gradually incorporated into the liturgies, first in the east and in Spain, and gradually into the north, from the sixth to the ninth century. In 1014 it was accepted by the Church of Rome as a legitimate part of the Mass. It is recited in the Western Mass directly after the Homily on all Sundays and Solemnities; in modern celebrations of the Tridentine Mass as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, the Credo is recited on all Sundays, feasts of the I class, II class feasts of the Lord and of the Blessed Virgin, on the days within the octaves of Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost, and on the "birthday" feasts of the apostles and evangelists (including the feasts of St. Peter's Chair and of St. Barnabas).[1] It is recited in the Orthodox Liturgy following the Litany of Supplication on all occasions.

Probably because of its late adoption, and the length of the text (the longest in the Ordinary of the Mass), there are relatively few chant settings of it. What is identified as "Credo I" in the Liber Usualis was apparently widely considered the only authentic Credo, and it is the element of the ordinary that was most strongly associated with a single melody. The Liber Usualis contains only two other settings, designated as "Credo V" and "Credo VI," which is far fewer than for other settings of the Ordinary.

In musical settings of the Credo, as in the Gloria, the first line is intoned by the celebrant alone (Credo in unum Deum), or by a soloist, while the choir or congregation joins in with the second line. This tradition continued through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and is even followed in more recent settings. In Stravinsky's Mass, for example, a soloist intones the first line, which is from the plainchant Credo I. In Mass settings of the Baroque, Classical and Romantic period the Credo line is usually set for whole choir, such as in the Symbolum Nicenum (Nicene Creed) of Bach's Mass in B minor, where the composer uses plainchant as the theme for a fugue, in the later Masses of Haydn, and the Missa Solemnis of Beethoven.

The melody of Credo I first appears in eleventh-century manuscripts, but it is believed to be much older, and perhaps Greek in origin. It is almost entirely syllabic, probably because of the length of the text, and consists of a great deal of repetition of melodic formulas.

In polyphonic settings of the Mass, the Credo is usually the longest movement, but is usually set more homophonically than other movements, probably because the length of the text demanded a more syllabic approach, as was seen with chant as well. A few composers (notably Heinrich Isaac) have set Credos independently from the rest of the ordinary, presumably to allow their insertion into missae breves or their omission where a said or chanted Credo is the custom.

Credo as section of the Mass ordinary

Text

Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem,
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty,
factorem cæli et terræ, visibilium omnium et invisibilium.
maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible:
Et in unum Dominum, Jesum Christum,
And in one Lord, Jesus Christ,
Filium Dei unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia sæcula.
the only-begotten Son of God, born of the Father before all ages;
Deum de Deo, Lumen de Lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero,
God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God;
genitum non factum, consubstantialem Patri;
begotten, not made, consubstantial with the Father,
per quem omnia facta sunt.
by whom all things were made;
Qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de cælis.
who for us men and for our salvation descended from heaven.
Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine, et homo factus est.
He was incarnate by the Holy Ghost out of the Virgin Mary, and was made man.
Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est,
He was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried:
et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturas,
And he rose again on the third day according to the Scriptures:
et ascendit in cælum, sedet ad dexteram Patris.
And ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father:
Et iterum venturus est cum gloria, iudicare vivos et mortuos,
And the same shall come again, with glory, to judge the living and the dead:
cuius regni non erit finis;
Of whose kingdom there shall be no end;
Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem,
And (I believe) in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and life-giver,
qui ex Patre Filioque procedit.
who proceeds from the Father and the Son,
Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur:
who, with the Father and the Son, together is worshiped and glorified,
qui locutus est per prophetas.
who has spoken through the prophets.
Et unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam.
And (I believe in) one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church,
Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum.
I confess one baptism for the remission of sins.
Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum,
And I await the resurrection of the dead:
et vitam venturi sæculi. Amen.
and the life of the coming age. Amen.

Musical settings

Settings of alternative texts as a Credo outside the Mass, as a motet, are extremely rare. The first published polyphonic settings of the Symbolum Apostolorum were settings by the French composer Le Brung in 1540, and two further settings by the Spanish composer Fernando de las Infantas in 1578.

See also

References

  1. ^ Prior to the reforms of the Tridentine Mass of Pope John XXIII, the Credo was also recited on the feasts of doctors of the Church, as well as on the feast of St. Mary Magdalen.
  • Hoppin, Richard. Medieval Music. New York: Norton, 1978. Pages 136-138.
CREDO Mobile

CREDO Mobile (formerly Working Assets Wireless) is an American mobile virtual network operator headquartered in San Francisco, California. CREDO Mobile's mobile network operator is Verizon Wireless.CREDO Mobile is a division of Working Assets.

CREDO Mobile has a five star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Credo (The Human League album)

Credo is the ninth studio album by The Human League, released in 2011. It was their first studio album since Secrets in 2001. It was produced by fellow Sheffield act I Monster and released on Wall of Sound.

The first single from the album, "Night People" was released on 22 November 2010. Follow up single "Never Let Me Go" was released on 1 March 2011. "Egomaniac" was the second single in Germany, Austria and Switzerland because The Human League secured a slot on a major German TV show for a performance of 'Egomaniac'. The TV programme aired on Friday 4 March and the single was released the same day. In those three territories the album itself was released on Friday 11 March to narrow the gap between the TV airing and the album being available. In the rest of the EU the album was released on Monday 21 March to narrow the gap between the release in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and the rest of the continent. The third single, "Sky" was released on 25 July 2011.

Credo was digitally released in the United States on 16 August 2011, with a physical release one week later.In 2012 it was awarded a silver certification from the Independent Music Companies Association, which indicated sales of at least 20,000 copies throughout Europe.

Credo (Vivaldi)

The Credo in E minor (RV 591) is the only extant setting of the Nicene Creed by Antonio Vivaldi. Another setting exists (RV 592) but is of dubious authenticity.

Credo Reference

Credo Reference or Credo (formerly Xrefer) is an American company that offers online reference content by subscription and partners with libraries to develop information-literacy programs or produce library marketing plans and materials. Founded in 1999, Credo Reference provides full-text online versions of over 3,500 published reference works from more than 100 publishers in a variety of major subjects. These include general and subject dictionaries as well as encyclopedias. The company's customers are libraries, library systems, k-12 schools, and universities, which subscribe to the service for their patrons' use.In 2010, a review of general reference sources by Library Journal focused on Credo Reference and three similar services. The review noted Credo Reference’s internal linking within the site from one reference work to another.

Credo quia absurdum

Credo quia absurdum is a Latin phrase that means "I believe because it is absurd", originally misattributed to Tertullian in his De Carne Christi. The original phrase was "It is certain because it is unfitting" in an anti-Marcionite context, however, through early modern, Protestant and Enlightenment rhetoric against Catholicism and religion more broadly, was changed to "I believe because it is absurd" for a personally religious context.

Feature film

A feature film, feature-length film, or theatrical film is a film (also called a motion picture or movie) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The term feature film originally referred to the main, full-length film in a cinema program that also included a short film and often a newsreel. The notion of how long a feature film should be has varied according to time and place. According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute and the British Film Institute, a feature film runs for more than 40 minutes, while the Screen Actors Guild asserts that a feature's running time is 75 minutes or longer.

Most feature films are between 75 and 210 minutes long. The first narrative feature film was the 60-minute The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906, Australia). The first (proto)-feature-length adaptation was Les Misérables (1909, U.S.). Other early feature films include The Inferno (L'Inferno) (1911), Defence of Sevastopol (1911), Quo Vadis? (1913), Oliver Twist (1912), Richard III (1912), From the Manger to the Cross (1912) and Cleopatra (1912).

Forward in Faith

Forward in Faith (FiF) is an organisation operating in the Church of England and the Scottish Episcopal Church. It represents a traditionalist strand of Anglo-Catholicism and is characterised by its opposition to the ordination of women to the priesthood and episcopate. It also takes a traditionalist line on other matters of doctrine. Credo Cymru is its counterpart in Wales. Forward in Faith North America (FIFNA) operates in the U.S.

Mass (Stravinsky)

Igor Stravinsky composed his Mass between 1944 and 1948. This 19-minute setting of the Roman Catholic Mass exhibits the austere, Neoclassic, anti-Romantic aesthetic that characterizes his work from about 1923 to 1951. The Mass also represents one of only a handful of extant pieces by Stravinsky that was not commissioned. As such, part of the motivation behind its composition has been cited by Robert Craft and others as the product of a spiritual necessity.

Mass (music)

The mass (Latin: missa), a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism) to music. Most masses are settings of the liturgy in Latin, the liturgical sacred language of the Catholic Church's Roman liturgy, but there are a significant number written in the languages of non-Catholic countries where vernacular worship has long been the norm. For example, there are many masses (often called "communion services") written in English for the Church of England. Musical masses take their name from the Catholic liturgy called "the mass" as well.

Masses can be a cappella, that is, without an independent accompaniment, or they can be accompanied by instrumental obbligatos up to and including a full orchestra. Many masses, especially later ones, were never intended to be performed during the celebration of an actual mass.

Mass in B minor

The Mass in B minor (BWV 232) by Johann Sebastian Bach is a musical setting of the complete Ordinary of the Latin Mass. The work was one of Bach's last compositions, not completed until 1749, the year before his death. Much of the Mass gave new form to vocal music that Bach had composed throughout his career, dating back (in the case of the Crucifixus) to 1714, but extensively revised. To complete the work, in the late 1740s Bach composed new sections of the Credo such as Et incarnatus est.

It was unusual for composers working in the Lutheran tradition to compose a Missa tota and Bach's motivations remain a matter of scholarly debate. The Mass was never performed in its entirety during Bach's lifetime; the first documented complete performance took place in 1859. Since the nineteenth century it has been widely hailed as one of the greatest compositions in musical history, and today it is frequently performed and recorded. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach archived this work as the Great Catholic Mass.

Mass in B minor structure

The Mass in B minor is Johann Sebastian Bach's only setting of the complete Latin text of the Ordinarium missae. Towards the end of his life, mainly in 1748 and 1749, he finished composing new sections and compiling it into a complex, unified structure.

Bach structured the work in four parts:

Missa

Symbolum Nicenum

Sanctus

Osanna, Benedictus, Agnus Dei et Dona nobis pacemThe four sections of the manuscript are numbered, and Bach's usual closing formula (S.D.G = Soli Deo Gloria) is found at the end of the Dona nobis pacem.

Some parts of the mass were used in Latin even in Lutheran Leipzig, and Bach had composed them: five settings of the Missa, containing the Kyrie and the Gloria, and several additional individual settings of the Kyrie and the Sanctus. To achieve the Missa tota, a setting of the complete text of the mass, he combined his most elaborate Missa, the Missa in B minor, written in 1733 for the court in Dresden, and a Sanctus written for Christmas of 1724. He added a few new compositions, but mostly derived movements from cantata movements, in a technique known as parody.

The Mass is a compendium of many different styles in vocal composition, in both the "stile antico" reminiscent of Renaissance music (even containing Gregorian chant) and the Baroque concertante style of his own time: fugal writing and dances, arias and a movement for two four-part choirs. Similar to architecture of the period, Bach achieved a symmetry of parts, with the profession of faith (Credo) in the center and the Crucifixus in its center. Bach scored the work for five vocal parts (two sopranos, alto, tenor and bass, SSATB). While some choral movements are for only four parts, the Sanctus is scored for six voices (SSAATB), and the Osanna even for two four-part choirs. Bach called for a rich instrumentation of brass, woodwinds and strings, assigning varied obbligato parts to different instruments.

Mass in C major, K. 257 "Credo"

The Credo Mass in C major, K. 257, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1776. It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, 2 oboes, 2 clarini (high trumpets), 3 trombones colla parte and basso continuo.

The Credo Mass has been classified as either a missa solemnis, a missa brevis or a missa brevis et solemnis – its performance time of approximately 25 minutes makes it difficult to categorise in a definitive manner. Its name derives from the long setting of the Credo, in which the word "Credo" is repeatedly sung in a two-note motif. It thus joins a tradition of so-called "Credo Masses", including Mozart's own Kleine Credo Messe (K. 192) and Beethoven's later Missa solemnis. The first performance was in Salzburg in November 1776. This is one of three masses Mozart composed in November and December 1776, all set in C major, including the Piccolominimesse (K. 258) and the Organ Solo Mass (K. 259).The work consists of six movements.

Kyrie Andante maestoso, C major, 3/4

"Kyrie eleison" Allegro, C major, common time

Gloria Allegro assai, C major, common time

Credo Molto allegro, C major, 3/4

"Et incarnatus est" Andante, C major, 6/8

"[Credo, credo] Et resurrexit..." Molto allegro, C major, 3/4

Sanctus Allegretto, C major, common time

"Hosanna in excelsis" Molto allegro, C major, common time

Benedictus Allegro, F major, common time

"Hosanna in excelsis" Molto allegro, C major, common time

Agnus Dei Andante maestoso, C major, 3/4

"Dona nobis pacem" Allegro vivace, C major, common time

Mass in F major, K. 192

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Missa brevis in F major, K. 192 (186f), was completed in Salzburg, on 24 June 1774. It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, 2 trumpets (which Mozart added later), 3 trombones, 2 violins, organ. AMA I/1 No. 6, NMA I:1/1/ii

The Credo of this mass features the "Do-Re-Fa-Mi" motif from the hymn Lucis creator, which Mozart later used as the main theme to the final of his Jupiter Symphony. Due to its repetition of this theme, it is classed as a Credo Mass; it is often known as the Kleine (small) Credo Mass to distinguish it from the Great Credo Mass, K. 257.

Missa brevis

Missa brevis (plural: Missae breves) is Latin for "short Mass". The term usually refers to a mass composition that is short because part of the text of the Mass ordinary that is usually set to music in a full mass is left out, or because its execution time is relatively short.

Missa solemnis (Beethoven)

The Missa solemnis in D major, Op. 123, is a solemn mass composed by Ludwig van Beethoven from 1819 to 1823. It was first performed on 7 April 1824 in Saint Petersburg, Russia, under the auspices of Beethoven's patron Prince Nikolai Galitzin; an incomplete performance was given in Vienna on 7 May 1824, when the Kyrie, Credo, and Agnus Dei were conducted by the composer. It is generally considered one of the composer's supreme achievements and, along with Bach's Mass in B minor, one of the most significant Mass settings of the common practice period.Despite critical recognition as one of Beethoven's great works from the height of his composing career, Missa solemnis has not achieved the same level of popular attention that many of his symphonies and sonatas have enjoyed. Written around the same time as his Ninth Symphony, it is Beethoven's second setting of the Mass, after his Mass in C major, Op. 86.

The mass is scored for 2 flutes; 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (in A, C, and B♭); 2 bassoons; contrabassoon; 4 horns (in D, E♭, B♭ basso, E, and G); 2 trumpets (D, B♭, and C); alto, tenor, and bass trombone; timpani; organ continuo; strings (violins I and II, violas, cellos, and basses); soprano, alto, tenor, and bass soloists; and mixed choir.

Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed (Greek: Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or, τῆς πίστεως, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea (present day İznik, Turkey) by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople, and the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.

The Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches use this profession of faith with the verbs in the original plural ("we believe"), but the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches convert those verbs to the singular ("I believe"). The Anglican and many Protestant denominations generally use the singular form, sometimes the plural.

The Apostles' Creed is also used in the Latin West, but not in the Eastern liturgies. On Sundays and solemnities, one of these two creeds is recited in the Roman Rite Mass after the homily. The Nicene Creed is also part of the profession of faith required of those undertaking important functions within the Catholic Church.In the Byzantine Rite, the Nicene Creed is sung or recited at the Divine Liturgy, immediately preceding the Anaphora (Eucharistic Prayer), and is also recited daily at compline.

Timo Tolkki

Timo Tapio Tolkki (born 3 March 1966) is a Finnish musician best known as the former guitarist, songwriter and producer of the power metal band Stratovarius. With his tenure lasting for more than twenty years, he was the longest standing member of the band before his departure in 2008. After leaving Stratovarius he formed two supergroups named Revolution Renaissance and Symfonia, both of which have since disbanded. In a 2011 article by Guitar World magazine, Tolkki was included in the all-time top 50 list of the world's fastest guitarists.

Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa

Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa (born 21 July 1921) is a Zulu sangoma (traditional healer) from South Africa. He is known as an author of books that draw upon African mythology, traditional Zulu folklore, extraterrestrial encounters and his own personal encounters. His most recent work is a graphic novel called the Tree of Life Trilogy based on his writings of his most famous book, Indaba my Children. In 2018 he was honoured with an USIBA award presented by the South African Department of Arts and Culture, for his work in Indigenous Wisdom.Credo calls himself a sanusi (common spelling isanuse) which is a type of Zulu diviner or sangoma. The term stems from a more historic time and is not widely used today, even in a traditional setting.Credo currently lives with his wife, Virginia, in Kuruman where they run a hospice clinic.

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