Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.[2] The organization has released several copyright-licenses, known as Creative Commons licenses, free of charge to the public. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses do not replace copyright but are based upon it. They replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner (licensor) and licensee, which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management, with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. The result is an agile, low-overhead and low-cost copyright-management regime, benefiting both copyright owners and licensees.

The organization was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, and Eric Eldred[3] with the support of Center for the Public Domain. The first article in a general interest publication about Creative Commons, written by Hal Plotkin, was published in February 2002.[4] The first set of copyright licenses was released in December 2002.[5] The founding management team that developed the licenses and built the Creative Commons infrastructure as we know it today included Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Glenn Otis Brown, Neeru Paharia, and Ben Adida.[6]

In 2002 the Open Content Project, a 1998 precursor project by David A. Wiley, announced the Creative Commons as successor project and Wiley joined as CC director.[7][8] Aaron Swartz played a role in the early stages of Creative Commons,[9] as did Matthew Haughey.[10]

As of May 2018 there were an estimated 1.4 billion works licensed under the various Creative Commons licenses.[11] Wikipedia uses one of these licenses.[12] As of May 2018, Flickr alone hosts over 415 million Creative Commons licensed photos.[13][14]

Creative Commons is governed by a board of directors. Their licenses have been embraced by many as a way for creators to take control of how they choose to share their copyrighted works.

Creative Commons
Creative Commons logo
FoundedJanuary 15, 2001[1]
FounderLawrence Lessig
Type501(c)(3)
04-3585301
FocusExpansion of "reasonable", flexible copyright
MethodCreative Commons license
Key people
Ryan Merkley (CEO)
Websitecreativecommons.org

Purpose and goal

Lawrence Lessig (9)
Lawrence Lessig (January 2008)
Creative Commons Japan Seminar-200709-1
Creative Commons Japan Seminar, Tokyo (2007)
CC some rights reserved
CC some rights reserved
Creativecommons spanien
A sign in a pub in Granada notifies customers that the music they are listening to is freely distributable under a Creative Commons license.
Made-with-cc.pdf
Made with Creative Commons, a 2017 book describing the value of CC licenses.

Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the copyleft movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer public domain by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" copyright, and has been dubbed "some rights reserved".[15] David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of intellectual property and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "commons" in the "information age". Beyond that, Creative Commons has provided "institutional, practical and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely."[16]

Creative Commons attempts to counter what Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons, considers to be a dominant and increasingly restrictive permission culture. Lessig describes this as "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past."[17] Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, and that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions.[18][19]

Creative Commons Network

Until April 2018 Creative Commons had over 100 affiliates working in over 75 jurisdictions to support and promote CC activities around the world.[20] In 2018 this affiliate network has been restructured into a network organisation.[21] The network no longer relies on affiliate organisation but on individual membership organised in Chapter.

South Korea

Creative Commons Korea (CC Korea) is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in South Korea. In March 2005, CC Korea was initiated by Jongsoo Yoon (in Korean: 윤종수), a Presiding Judge of Incheon District Court, as a project of Korea Association for Infomedia Law (KAFIL). The major Korean portal sites, including Daum and Naver, have been participating in the use of Creative Commons licences. In January 2009, the Creative Commons Korea Association was consequently founded as a non-profit incorporated association. Since then, CC Korea has been actively promoting the liberal and open culture of creation as well as leading the diffusion of Creative Common in the country.

  • Creative Commons Korea[22]
  • Creative Commons Asia Conference 2010[23]

Bassel Khartabil

Bassel Khartabil was a Palestinian Syrian open source software developer and has served as project lead and public affiliate for Creative Commons Syria.[24] From March 15, 2012 he was detained by the Syrian government in Damascus at Adra Prison. On October 17, 2015 Creative Commons Board of Directors approved a resolution calling for Bassel Khartabil's release.[25] In 2017 Bassel's wife received confirmation that Bassel had been executed shortly after she lost contact with him in 2015.[26]

Criticism

All current CC licenses (except the CC0 Public Domain Dedication tool) require attribution, which can be inconvenient for works based on multiple other works.[27] Critics feared that Creative Commons could erode the copyright system over time[28] or allow "some of our most precious resources – the creativity of individuals – to be simply tossed into the commons to be exploited by whomever has spare time and a magic marker."[29]

Critics also worried that the lack of rewards for content producers will dissuade artists from publishing their work, and questioned whether Creative Commons is the commons that it purports to be.[30]

Creative Commons founder Lawrence Lessig countered that copyright laws have not always offered the strong and seemingly indefinite protection that today's law provides. Rather, the duration of copyright used to be limited to much shorter terms of years, and some works never gained protection because they did not follow the now-abandoned compulsory format.[31]

The maintainers of Debian, a GNU and Linux distribution known for its strict adherence to a particular definition of software freedom,[32] rejected the Creative Commons Attribution License prior to version 3 as incompatible with the Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) due to the license's anti-DRM provisions (which might, due to ambiguity, be covering more than DRM) and its requirement that downstream users remove an author's credit upon request from the author.[33] Version 3.0 of the Creative Commons licenses addressed these concerns[34] and, except for the non commercial and no-derivative variants, are considered to be compatible with the DFSG.[35]

Kent Anderson, writing for The Scholarly Kitchen, a blog of the Society for Scholarly Publishing, criticizes CC as being dependent on copyright and not really departing from it, and as being more complex and complicating than the latter – thus the public does not scrutinize CC, reflexively accepting it as one would a software license – while at the same time weakening the rights provided by copyright. Anderson ends up concluding that this is the point, and that "Creative Commons receives significant funding from large information companies like Google, Nature Publishing Group, and RedHat", and that Google money is especially linked to CC's history; for him, CC is "an organization designed to promulgate the interests of technology companies and Silicon Valley generally".[36]

License proliferation and incompatibility

Mako Hill asserted that Creative Commons fails to establish a "base level of freedom" that all Creative Commons licenses must meet, and with which all licensors and users must comply. "By failing to take any firm ethical position and draw any line in the sand, CC is a missed opportunity. ... CC has replaced what could have been a call for a world where 'essential rights are unreservable' with the relatively hollow call for 'some rights reserved.'" He also argued that Creative Commons worsens license proliferation, by providing multiple licenses that are incompatible.[37]

The Creative Commons website states, "Since each of the six CC licenses functions differently, resources placed under different licenses may not necessarily be combined with one another without violating the license terms."[38] Works licensed under incompatible licenses may not be recombined in a derivative work without obtaining permission from the copyright owner.[39][40][41]

Richard Stallman of the FSF stated in 2005 that he couldn't support Creative Commons as an activity because "it adopted some additional licenses which do not give everyone that minimum freedom", that freedom being "the freedom to share, noncommercially, any published work".[42] Those licenses have since been retired by Creative Commons.[43]

License misuse

CC guidant les contributeurs
Creative Commons guiding the contributors. This image is a derivative work of Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix.

Creative Commons is only a service provider for standardized license text, not a party in any agreement. Abusive users can brand the copyrighted works of legitimate copyright holders with Creative Commons licenses and re-upload these works to the internet. No central database of Creative Commons works is controlling all licensed works and the responsibility of the Creative Commons system rests entirely with those using the licences.[44] This situation is, however, not specific to Creative Commons. All copyright owners must individually defend their rights and no central database of copyrighted works or existing license agreements exists. The United States Copyright Office does keep a database of all works registered with it, but absence of registration does not imply absence of copyright – and CC licensed works can be registered on the same terms as unlicenced works or works licensed under any other licences.

Although Creative Commons offers multiple licenses for different uses, some critics suggested that the licenses still do not address the differences among the media or among the various concerns that different authors have.[30]

Lessig wrote that the point of Creative Commons is to provide a middle ground between two extreme views of copyright protection – one demanding that all rights be controlled, and the other arguing that none should be controlled. Creative Commons provides a third option that allows authors to pick and choose which rights they want to control and which they want to grant to others. The multitude of licenses reflects the multitude of rights that can be passed on to subsequent creators.[31]

Criticism of the non-commercial license

Erik Möller raised concerns about the use of Creative Commons' non-commercial license. Works distributed under the Creative Commons Non-Commercial license are not compatible with many open-content sites, including Wikipedia, which explicitly allow and encourage some commercial uses. Möller explained that "the people who are likely to be hurt by an -NC license are not large corporations, but small publications like weblogs, advertising-funded radio stations, or local newspapers."[45]

Lessig responded that the current copyright regime also harms compatibility and that authors can lessen this incompatibility by choosing the least restrictive license.[46] Additionally, the non-commercial license is useful for preventing someone else from capitalizing on an author's work when the author still plans to do so in the future.[46][47] The non-commercial licenses have also been criticized for being too vague about which uses count as "commercial" and "non-commercial".[48][49]

Great Minds, a non-profit educational publisher that released works under an -NC license, sued FedEx for violating the license because a school had used its services to mass-produce photocopies of the work, thus commercially exploiting the works. A U.S. judge dismissed the case in February 2017, ruling that FedEx was an intermediary, and that the provision of the license "does not limit a licensee's ability to use third parties in exercising the rights granted [by the licensor]."[50] Great Minds appealed the decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit later that year.[51] The 2nd Circuit upheld the lower court's decision in March 2018,[52] concluding that FedEx neither infringed copyrights nor violated the license. One of circuit judges Susan L. Carney argued in the court statement:

We hold that, in view of the absence of any clear license language to the contrary, licensees may use third‐party agents such as commercial reproduction services in furtherance of their own permitted noncommercial uses. Because FedEx acted as the mere agent of licensee school districts when it reproduced Great Minds' materials, and because there is no dispute that the school districts themselves sought to use Great Minds' materials for permissible purposes, we conclude that FedEx's activities did not breach the license or violate Great Minds' copyright.[53][54]

Personality rights

In 2007, Virgin Mobile Australia launched a bus stop advertising campaign which promoted its mobile phone text messaging service using the work of amateur photographers who uploaded their work to the photo-sharing site Flickr using a Creative Commons by Attribution license. Users licensing their images this way freed their work for use by any other entity, as long as the original creator was attributed credit, without any other compensation being required. Virgin upheld this single restriction by printing a URL, leading to the photographer's Flickr page, on each of their ads. However, one picture depicted 15-year-old Alison Chang posing for a photo at her church's fund-raising carwash, with the superimposed, mocking slogan "Dump Your Pen Friend".[55][56] Chang sued Virgin Mobile and Creative Commons. The photo was taken by Chang's church youth counsellor, Justin Ho-Wee Wong, who uploaded the image to Flickr under the Creative Commons license.[56]

The case hinges on privacy, the right of people not to have their likeness used in an ad without permission. So, while Mr. Wong may have given away his rights as a photographer, he did not, and could not, give away Alison's rights. In the lawsuit, which Mr. Wong is also a party to, there is an argument that Virgin did not honor all the terms of the nonrestrictive license.[56]

On 27 November 2007, Chang filed for a voluntary dismissal of the lawsuit against Creative Commons, focusing their lawsuit against Virgin Mobile.[57] The case was thrown out of court due to lack of jurisdiction and subsequently Virgin Mobile did not incur any damages towards the plaintiff.[58]

See also

References

  1. ^ "CreativeCommons.org WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info – DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Creative Commons. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  3. ^ "Creative Commons: History". Archived from the original on 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
  4. ^ Plotkin, Hal (11 February 2002). "All Hail Creative Commons / Stanford professor and author Lawrence Lessig plans a legal insurrection". SFGate.com. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
  5. ^ "History of Creative Commons". Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  6. ^ Haughey, Matt (2002-09-18). "Creative Commons Announces New Management Team". creativecommons.org. Archived from the original on 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
  7. ^ Wiley, David A. (30 June 2003). "OpenContent is officially closed. And that's just fine". opencontent.org. Archived from the original on 2003-08-02. Retrieved 2016-02-21. I'm closing OpenContent because I think Creative Commons is doing a better job of providing licensing options which will stand up in court
  8. ^ Creative Commons Welcomes David Wiley as Educational Use License Project Lead by matt on creativecommons.org (June 23rd, 2003)
  9. ^ Lessig, Lawrence (2013-01-12). "Remembering Aaron Swartz". creativecommons.org. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
  10. ^ "Matt Haughey - Creative Commons". Creative Commons. 2005-04-04. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  11. ^ "State of the Commons – Creative Commons 2017". stateof.creativecommons.org. Retrieved 2018-01-13.
  12. ^ "Wikimedia Foundation Terms of Use". Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  13. ^ "Flickr: Creative Commons". www.flickr.com. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
  14. ^ "State of the Commons 2017". State of the Commons 2017. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
  15. ^ Broussard, Sharee L. (September 2007). "The copyleft movement: creative commons licensing" (PDF). Communication Research Trends. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
  16. ^ Berry, David (15 July 2005). "On the "Creative Commons": a critique of the commons without commonalty". Free Software Magazine. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  17. ^ Lessig, Lawrence (2004). Free Culture (PDF). New York: Penguin Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-59420-006-9. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
  18. ^ Ermert, Monika (2004-06-15). "Germany debuts Creative Commons". The Register.
  19. ^ Lessig, Lawrence (2006). "Lawrence Lessig on Creative Commons and the Remix Culture". Talking with Talis. Archived from the original (mp3) on 2008-02-05. Retrieved 2006-04-07.
  20. ^ "CC Affiliate Network". Creative Commons. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  21. ^ "Network Strategy - Creative Commons".
  22. ^ "Creative Commons Korea". CCkorea.org. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  23. ^ "CC Asia Conference 2010". Creative Commons. 21 July 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  24. ^ "Syria". creativecommons.org.
  25. ^ Board of Directors approves resolution calling for Bassel Khartabil release – Creative Commons Blog. Creative Commons (2015-10-17). Retrieved on 2016-11-02.
  26. ^ McKernan, Bethan (2 August 2017). "Bassel Khartabil Safadi dead: One of Syria's most famous activists has been executed in prison, widow confirms". The Independent.
  27. ^ Paley, Nina (2010-03-04). "The Limits of Attribution". Nina Paley's Blog. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
  28. ^ Dvorak, John (July 2005). "Creative Commons Humbug". PC Magazine.
  29. ^ Schaeffer, Maritza (2009). "Note and Comment: Contemporary Issues in the Visual Art Realm: How Useful are Creative Commons Licenses?" (PDF). Journal of Law and Policy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-04. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
  30. ^ a b Elkin-Koren, Niva (2006). "Exploring Creative Commons: A Skeptical View of a Worthy Pursuit". The Future of the Public Domain (P. Bernt Hugenholtz and Lucie Guibault, eds.). SSRN 885466. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  31. ^ a b Lessig, Lawrence (2004). "The Creative Commons". 65 Mont. L. Rev. 1. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  32. ^ "Debian Social Contract". Debian. 2004-04-26. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
  33. ^ Prodromou, Evan (3 April 2005). "Summary of Creative Commons 2.0 Licenses". debian-legal (mailing list). Archived from the original on 19 May 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  34. ^ Garlick, Mia (2007-02-23). "Version 3.0 Launched". Creative Commons. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
  35. ^ "The DFSG and Software Licenses – Creative Commons Share-Alike (CC-SA) v3.0". Debian Wiki. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
  36. ^ Anderson, Kent (April 2, 2014). "Does Creative Commons Make Sense?". The Scholarly Kitchen. Society for Scholarly Publishing. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  37. ^ Hill, Benjamin Mako (29 July 2005). "Towards a Standard of Freedom: Creative Commons and the Free Software Movement".
  38. ^ "CC Learn Explanations: Remixing OER: A guide to License Compatibility" (PDF). Creative Commons CC Learn. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  39. ^ "Can I combine two different Creative Commons licensed works? Can I combine a Creative Commons licensed work with another non-CC licensed work?". FAQ. Creative Commons. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
  40. ^ "Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Unported". Creative Commons. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  41. ^ "Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 Unported". Creative Commons. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  42. ^ Stallman, Richard M. "Fireworks in Montreal". FSF Blogs. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  43. ^ "NonCommercial 1.0 Generic (CC NC 1.0)". Creative Commons. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  44. ^ Orlowski, Andrew (July 2009). "The Tragedy of the Creative Commons".
  45. ^ Moeller, Erik (2006). "The Case for Free Use: Reasons Not to Use a Creative Commons -NC License" (PDF). Open Source Jahrbuch.
  46. ^ a b Lessig, Lawrence (2005). "CC in Review: Lawrence Lessig on Important Freedoms". Creative Commons. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
  47. ^ "On Free, and the Differences between Culture and Code" (video). 23C3 Who can you trust?. 2006. google video docid=7661663613180520595. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
  48. ^ Haff, Gordon (2007-11-26). "Does the Noncommercial Creative Commons license make sense?". CNET. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
  49. ^ Prodromou, Evan (2005-04-19). "Use cases for NonCommercial license clause". cc-licenses mailing list. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
  50. ^ "Odd lawsuit fails to ding FedEx for allowing copies of CC-licensed material". Ars Technica. 2017-02-27. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  51. ^ Cavanagh, Sean (July 20, 2017). "Open Ed. Provider Appealing Decision in Closely Watched Lawsuit". EdWeek Market Brief. Editorial Projects in Education, Inc. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  52. ^ Vogt, RJ (March 21, 2018). "2nd Circ. Upholds FedEx Win In Textbook Copying Suit". Law360. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  53. ^ Klasfeld, Adam (March 21, 2018). "Second Circuit Clears FedEx in Education Copyright Case". Courthouse News Service. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  54. ^ Great Minds v. FedEx Office and Print Services, Inc. (2d Cir. March 21, 2018). Text
  55. ^ "Lawsuit over Virgin Mobile's use of Flickr girl blames Creative Commons". Out-law.com. 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
  56. ^ a b c Cohen, Noam (2007-10-01). "Use My Photo? Not Without Permission". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-07-24. One moment, Alison Chang, a 15-year-old student from Dallas, is cheerfully goofing around at a local church-sponsored car wash, posing with a friend for a photo. Weeks later, that photo is posted online and catches the eye of an ad agency in Australia, and the altered image of Alison appears on a billboard in Adelaide as part of a Virgin Mobile advertising campaign.
  57. ^ Gross, Grant (2007-12-01). "Lawsuit Against Creative Commons Dropped". PC World. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
  58. ^ LaVine, Lindsay (2012-12-20). "Use Photos in Advertisements? Take These Steps to Avoid a Lawsuit". NBC News. Retrieved 2013-07-24.

Bibliography

External links

20 minutos

20 minutos is a Spanish free newspaper, with local editions in several Spanish cities, published by Multiprensa & Mas S.L..

Multiprensa & Mas S.L. was founded in Madrid in 1999. The founder of 20 minutos is José Antonio Martínez Soler.

20 minutos is published under an Attribution-ShareAlike Creative Commons licence, which entitles anyone to freely copy, distribute, display, make derivative works and commercial use of the work. Additionally, the newspaper can be downloaded from their site.The company is a pioneer in publishing quality free daily newspapers in Spain. Its majority stockholder is 20 Min Holding, a leader in free daily newspapers in Switzerland (20 minutes in French and 20 Minuten in German), France (20 minutes), and Spain. 20 Min Holding's majority stockholder is Schibsted, a Norwegian communication group that was founded in 1839, listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange, and has a strong presence in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Estonia, Finland, France, and Spain, where it is the owner of both paid and free newspapers, television stations, radio stations, multimedia, etc.

For many years in Spain it battled rival free newspapers ADN, Metro and Qué!, all of whom finally stopped due to the crisis, and since 2011, 20 minutos has dominated and remains in circulation in many parts of Spain.

The CEO of 20 Min Holding is Sverre Munck and was born in 1953. He is a Norwegian economist, with a PhD from Stanford and Yale. He is also Executive VP (International Operations) at Schibsted ASA, President of Multiprensa Holding, owner of Multiprensa & Mas, the publisher of "20 Minutes" in Spain, and President of the 20 Min Holding group.

Australasia

Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is more often considered to be part of Melanesia). Charles de Brosses coined the term (as French Australasie) in Histoire des navigations aux terres australes (1756). He derived it from the Latin for "south of Asia" and differentiated the area from Polynesia (to the east) and the southeast Pacific (Magellanica). The bulk of Australasia sits on the Indo-Australian Plate, together with India.

Creative Commons license

A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted "work". A CC license is used when an author wants to give other people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that he or she (that author) has created. CC provides an author flexibility (for example, he or she might choose to allow only non-commercial uses of a given work) and protects the people who use or redistribute an author's work from concerns of copyright infringement as long as they abide by the conditions that are specified in the license by which the author distributes the work.There are several types of Creative Commons licenses. The licenses differ by several combinations that condition the terms of distribution. They were initially released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001. There have also been five versions of the suite of licenses, numbered 1.0 through 4.0. As of December 2018, the 4.0 license suite is the most current.

In October 2014 the Open Knowledge Foundation approved the Creative Commons CC BY, CC BY-SA and CC0 licenses as conformant with the "Open Definition" for content and data.

Definition of Free Cultural Works

The Definition of Free Cultural Works is a definition of free content from 2006. The project evaluates and recommends compatible free content licenses.

Fars News Agency

The Fars News Agency is a news agency in Iran. While it describes itself as "Iran's leading independent news agency", it is widely described by news media to be a "semi-official" news agency of the Government of Iran. All its content is Creative Commons licensed.

Flickr

Flickr (pronounced "flicker") is an image hosting service and video hosting service. It was created by Ludicorp in 2004. It has changed ownership several times and has been owned by SmugMug since April 2018.The Verge reported in March 2013 that Flickr had a total of 87 million registered members and more than 3.5 million new images uploaded daily. In August 2011, the site reported that it was hosting more than 6 billion images. Photos and videos can be accessed from Flickr without the need to register an account, but an account must be made to upload content to the site. Registering an account also allows users to create a profile page containing photos and videos that the user has uploaded and also grants the ability to add another Flickr user as a contact. For mobile users, Flickr has official mobile apps for iOS, Android, and an optimized mobile site.

Free-culture movement

The free-culture movement is a social movement that promotes the freedom to distribute and modify the creative works of others in the form of free content or open content without compensation to, or the consent of, the work's original creators, by using the Internet and other forms of media.

The movement objects to what they consider over-restrictive copyright laws. Many members of the movement argue that such laws hinder creativity. They call this system "permission culture."Creative Commons is an organization started by Lawrence Lessig which provides licenses that permit sharing and remixing under various conditions, and also offers an online search of various Creative Commons-licensed works.

The free-culture movement, with its ethos of free exchange of ideas, is aligned with the free and open-source-software movement.

Today, the term stands for many other movements, including open access (OA), the remix culture, the hacker culture, the access to knowledge movement, the Open Source Learning, the copyleft movement and the public domain movement.

Free content

Free content, libre content, or free information, is any kind of functional work, work of art, or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work.

Freeware

Freeware is software, most often proprietary, that is distributed at no monetary cost to the end user. There is no agreed-upon set of rights, license, or EULA that defines freeware unambiguously; every publisher defines its own rules for the freeware it offers. For instance, modification, redistribution by third parties, and reverse engineering without the author's permission are permitted by some publishers but prohibited by others. Unlike with free and open-source software, which are also often distributed free of charge, the source code for freeware is typically not made available. Freeware may be intended to benefit its producer by, for example, encouraging sales of a more capable version, as in the freemium and shareware business models.Two historic examples of freeware are Skype and Adobe Acrobat Reader.

GNU Free Documentation License

The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project. It is similar to the GNU General Public License, giving readers the rights to copy, redistribute, and modify (except for "invariant sections") a work and requires all copies and derivatives to be available under the same license. Copies may also be sold commercially, but, if produced in larger quantities (greater than 100), the original document or source code must be made available to the work's recipient.

The GFDL was designed for manuals, textbooks, other reference and instructional materials, and documentation which often accompanies GNU software. However, it can be used for any text-based work, regardless of subject matter. For example, the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia uses the GFDL (coupled with the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike License) for all of its text.

GeoNames

GeoNames is a geographical database available and accessible through various web services, under a Creative Commons attribution license.

HistoryLink

HistoryLink is an online encyclopedia of Washington State history. The site has nearly 7,000 entries and attracts 5,000 daily visitors. It has 500 biographies and more than 14,000 images.The non-profit historical organization History Ink produces HistoryLink.org, stating that it is the nation's first online encyclopedia of local and state history created expressly for the Internet. Walt Crowley was the founding president and executive director.

Integrated Authority File

The Integrated Authority File (German: Gemeinsame Normdatei; also known as the Universal Authority File) or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives and museums. The GND is managed by the German National Library (German: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek; DNB) in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero (CC0) licence.The GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format.The Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued:

Name Authority File (German: Personennamendatei; PND)

Corporate Bodies Authority File (German: Gemeinsame Körperschaftsdatei; GKD)

Subject Headings Authority File (German: Schlagwortnormdatei; SWD)

Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv (German: Einheitssachtitel-Datei des Deutschen Musikarchivs; DMA-EST)At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.

Internet Speculative Fiction Database

The Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB) is a database of bibliographic information on genres considered speculative fiction, including science fiction and related genres such as fantasy fiction and horror fiction. The ISFDB is a volunteer effort, with both the database and wiki being open for editing and user contributions. The ISFDB database and code are available under Creative Commons licensing and there is support within both Wikipedia and ISFDB for interlinking. The data are reused by other organizations, such as Freebase, under the creative commons license.

Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.The works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, and most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, and all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are actively dedicated by their authors to the public domain (see waiver); some examples include reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms, the image-processing software ImageJ, created by the National Institutes of Health, and the CIA's World Factbook. The term public domain is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission".

As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country. The term public domain may also be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", and the "information commons".

Share-alike

Share-alike is a copyright licensing term, originally used by the Creative Commons project, to describe works or licences that require copies or adaptations of the work to be released under the same or similar licence as the original. Copyleft licences are free content or free software licences with a share-alike condition.

Two currently-supported Creative Commons licences have the ShareAlike condition: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (a copyleft, free content licence) and Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (a proprietary licence).

The term has also been used outside copyright law to refer to a similar plan for patent licensing.

Wikinews

Wikinews is a free-content news source wiki and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. The site works through collaborative journalism. Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has distinguished Wikinews from Wikipedia by saying "on Wikinews, each story is to be written as a news story as opposed to an encyclopedia article." The neutral point of view policy espoused in Wikinews distinguishes it from other citizen journalism efforts such as Indymedia and OhmyNews. In contrast to most projects of the Wikimedia Foundation, Wikinews allows original work under the form of original reporting and interviews.

Xeno-canto

xeno-canto is a citizen science project in which volunteers record, upload and annotate recordings of birdsong and bird calls. All the recordings are published under one of the Creative Commons licenses, including some with open licences.

The data has been re-used in scientific papers. The website is supported by a number of academic and birdwatching institutions worldwide, with its primary support being in the Netherlands.

ZooKeys

ZooKeys is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering zoological taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography. It was established in 2008 and the editor-in-chief is Terry Erwin (Smithsonian Institution). It is published by Pensoft Publishers.

ZooKeys provides all new taxa to the Encyclopedia of Life on the day of publication.

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