Crataegus monogyna

Crataegus monogyna, known as common hawthorn, oneseed hawthorn, or single-seeded hawthorn, is a species of hawthorn native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. It has been introduced in many other parts of the world. It can be an invasive weed.

Crataegus monogyna
Common hawthorn
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Section: Crataegus sect. Crataegus
Series: Crataegus ser. Crataegus
Species:
C. monogyna
Binomial name
Crataegus monogyna
Synonyms

Many, including:

  • Crataegus elegans (Poir.) Mutel, 1834[2]

Names

Other common names include may, mayblossom, maythorn, quickthorn, whitethorn, motherdie, and haw.

This species is one of several that have been referred to as Crataegus oxyacantha, a name that has been rejected by the botanical community as too ambiguous. In 1793 Medikus published the name C. apiifolia for a European hawthorn now included in C. monogyna, but that name is illegitimate under the rules of botanical nomenclature.[3][4]

Description

The common hawthorn is a shrub or small tree 5–14 metres (15 to 45 feet) tall, with a dense crown. The bark is dull brown with vertical orange cracks. The younger stems bear sharp thorns, approximately 12. 5mm (half an inch) long. The leaves are 20 to 40 mm (1 to 1½ inches) long, obovate and deeply lobed, sometimes almost to the midrib, with the lobes spreading at a wide angle. The upper surface is dark green above and paler underneath.

The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in late spring (May to early June in its native area) in corymbs of 5–25 together; each flower is about 10 mm diameter, and has five white petals, numerous red stamens, and a single style; they are moderately fragrant. The flowers are pollinated by midges, bees and other insects and later in the year bear numerous haws. The haw is a small, oval dark red fruit about 10 mm long, berry-like, but structurally a pome containing a single seed. Haws are important for wildlife in winter, particularly thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and disperse the seeds in their droppings.

The common hawthorn is distinguished from the related but less widespread Midland hawthorn (C. laevigata) by its more upright growth, the leaves being deeply lobed, with spreading lobes, and in the flowers having just one style, not two or three. However they are inter-fertile and hybrids occur frequently; they are only entirely distinct in their more typical forms.

Common hawthorn flowers

Common Hawthorn flowers

Eenstijlige meidoorn (Crataegus monogyna branch)

Common Hawthorn thorns, leaves, and stipules

Hawthorn fruit

Common Hawthorn fruit

Pink and brown (4627395373)

Close-up

Hawthorn St Mars

Bole of ancient hawthorn at Saint-Mars-sur-la-Futaie, France

Hawthorn St Mars 2

General view of the Saint-Mars tree

The Holy Thorn, Glastonbury Abbey - geograph.org.uk - 217631

Replacement of the Glastonbury or Holy Thorn cut down by vandals in 2010

Hethel Thorn, Hethel - geograph.org.uk - 44746

The Hethel Old Thorn, Hethel

Joncret AR1cJPG

Crataegus monogyna in Joncret, Belgium

Crataegus monogyna (subsp. monogyna) sl30

Fruit containing a seed

Uses

Medicinal use

2013-05-23 07 24 06 Crataegus monogyna 'Crimson Cloud' blossoms in Elko Nevada
Crataegus monogyna 'Crimson Cloud' in Elko Nevada

Crataegus monogyna is one of the most common species used as the "hawthorn" of traditional herbalism. The plant parts used are usually sprigs with both leaves and flowers, or alternatively the fruit ("berries").[5] Hawthorne has been investigated by evidence-based medicine for treating cardiac insufficiency.[5]

Crataegus monogyna is a source of antioxidant phytochemicals, especially extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers.[6]

In gardening and agriculture

Common hawthorn is extensively planted as a hedge plant, especially for agricultural use. Its spines and close branching habit render it effectively stock- and human-proof, with some basic maintenance. The traditional practice of hedge laying is most commonly practised with this species. It is a good fire wood which burns with a good heat and little smoke.[7]

Numerous hybrids exist, some of which are used as garden shrubs. The most widely used hybrid is C. × media (C. monogyna × C. laevigata), of which several cultivars are known, including the very popular 'Paul's Scarlet' with dark pink double flowers. Other garden shrubs that have sometimes been suggested as possible hybrids involving the common hawthorn, include the various-leaved hawthorn of the Caucasus, which is only very occasionally found in parks and gardens.

Edible "berries", petals, and leaves

The fruit of hawthorn, called haws, are edible raw but are commonly made into jellies, jams, and syrups, used to make wine, or to add flavour to brandy. Botanically they are pomes, but they look similar to berries. A haw is small and oblong, similar in size and shape to a small olive or grape, and red when ripe. Haws develop in groups of two or three along smaller branches. They are pulpy and delicate in taste. In this species (C. monogyna) they have only one seed, but in other species of hawthorn there may be up to five seeds.

Petals are also edible,[8] as are the leaves, which if picked in spring when still young are tender enough to be used in salads.[9] Hawthorn petals are used in the medieval English recipe for spinee, an almond-milk based pottage[10][11] recorded in 'The Forme of Cury' by the Chief Master-Cook of King Richard II, c. 1390.

Notable trees

An ancient specimen, and reputedly the oldest tree of any species in France, is to be found alongside the church at Saint Mars sur la Futaie, Mayenne.[12] The tree has a height of 9 m (30 feet), and a girth of 265 cm (8'8") (2009). The inscription on the plaque beneath reads: "This hawthorn is probably the oldest tree in France. Its origin goes back to St Julien (3rd century)", but such claims are impossible to verify.

A famous specimen in England was the Glastonbury or Holy Thorn which, according to legend, sprouted from the staff of Joseph of Arimathea after he thrust it into the ground while visiting Glastonbury in the 1st century AD. The tree was noteworthy because it flowered twice in a year, once in the late spring which is normal, but also once after the harshness of midwinter had passed. The original tree at Glastonbury Abbey, felled in the 1640s during the English Civil War,[13] has been propagated as the cultivar 'Biflora'.[14] A replacement was planted by the local council in 1951, but was cut down by vandals in 2010.[13]

The oldest known living specimen in East Anglia, and possibly in the United Kingdom, is known as The Hethel Old Thorn,[15] and is located in the churchyard in the small village of Hethel, south of Norwich, in Norfolk. It is reputed to be more than 700 years old, having been planted in the 13th century.[15]

In culture

The hawthorn is associated with Faerie in Ireland, and as such is not disturbed by those who believe in the danger fairies traditionally represent.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://oldredlist.iucnredlist.org/details/203426/0
  2. ^ Mutel, Fl. Franç. 1: 358 (1834)
  3. ^ Christensen, Knud Ib (1992). Revision of Crataegus sect. Crataegus and nothosect. Crataeguineae (Rosaceae-Maloideae) in the Old World. American Society of Plant Taxonomists. ISBN 978-0-912861-35-7.
  4. ^ International Plant Names Index
  5. ^ a b "Hawthorn", University of Maryland Medical Center: Complementary and Alternative Medicine Guide, retrieved 3 October 2016
  6. ^ Oztürk N, Tunçel M (2011). "Assessment of Phenolic Acid Content and In Vitro Antiradical Characteristics of Hawthorn". J Med Food.
  7. ^ "The burning properties of wood" (PDF). Scouts.
  8. ^ "Crataegus monogyna". Survival and Self Sufficiency. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  9. ^ Richard Mabey, Food for Free, Collins, October 2001.
  10. ^ "Foods of England". Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  11. ^ Jaine, T. (1987), Oxford Symposium on Food & Cookery, 1986: The Cooking Medium: Proceedings, Prospect Books, ISBN 9780907325369 p. 70
  12. ^ "Fiche AFFO: L'Aubépine monogyne". Pagesperso-orange.fr. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  13. ^ a b "BBC News – The mystery over who attacked the Holy Thorn Tree". BBC News. 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  14. ^ Phipps, J.B.; O’Kennon, R.J.; Lance, R.W. 2003. Hawthorns and medlars. Royal Horticultural Society, Cambridge, U.K.
  15. ^ a b "Hethel Old Thorn". Wildlifetrusts.org/. Archived from the original on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2007.

References

  • Philips, R. (1979). Trees of North America and Europe, Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-394-50259-0.

Further reading

  • Bahorun, Theeshan, et al. (2003). "Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacities of Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) callus extracts". Food/Nahrung 47.3 (2003): 191–198.

External links

Arboretum Apenninicum

The Arboretum Apenninicum (9 hectares) is an arboretum operated by the University of Camerino, and located in Tuseggia, Camerino, Province of Macerata, Marche, Italy.

The arboretum was established in 1990 in an agricultural area, and is currently being developed with a primary emphasis on the woody plants of central Italy, though exotics are also being cultivated. Its collection includes Abies alba, Acer campestre, Ailanthus altissima, Carpinus betulus, Castanea sativa, Corylus avellana, Crataegus monogyna, Juglans regia, Populus tremula, Prunus spinosa, Quercus pubescens, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Spartium junceum.

Blastodacna hellerella

Blastodacna hellerella is a moth in the family Elachistidae. It is found in most of Europe except the north. In the east, the range extends up to the Caucasus.

The wingspan is 10–13 mm. Adults are on wing from the May to August in one generation per year.

The larvae feed on Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna. There are also unconfirmed records for Prunus spinosa, Prunus domestica and Malus. They feed on the fruit of their host plant. Larvae can be found from summer to fall. Pupation takes place in late fall in a cocoon under the soil.

Bucculatrix bechsteinella

Bucculatrix bechsteinella is a moth of the Bucculatricidae family. It is found in most of Europe, except Greece and Bulgaria.

The wingspan is 7–9 mm. Adults are on wing from mid-May to mid-August.The larvae feed on Amelanchier, Chaenomeles, Cotoneaster, Crataegus douglasii, Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna, Cydonia oblonga, Malus domestica, Mespilus germanica, Prunus insititia, Prunus spinosa, Pyracantha coccinea, Pyrus communis, Sorbus aria, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus torminalis. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine has the form of a small, hook-like corridor, mostly in a vein axle. The frass is deposited in a thick central line. The larvae soon leave their mine and resumes feeding living freely on the leaf. Larvae can be found from June to August. They are greenish yellow with a darker head. Pupation takes place in a white, ribbed cocoon on detritus.

Coleophora chiclanensis

Coleophora chiclanensis is a moth of the family Coleophoridae. It is found in Spain and on Sardinia.

The larvae feed on Crataegus monogyna. They create a brownish, three-valved, tubular leaf case with a mouth angle of about 60°. Larvae can be found up to April.

Coleophora trigeminella

Coleophora trigeminella is a moth of the family Coleophoridae. It is found in most of Europe, except Ireland, the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean islands.

The larvae feed on Amelanchier ovalis, Cotoneaster, Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna, Malus sylvestris, Prunus avium, Prunus spinosa, Sorbus aria and Sorbus aucuparia. They create a reddish-brown, tubular silken case of 5–6 mm. The case is weakly constricted near the anal end, and strongly just behind the mouth. The mouth angle is 0°. Normally, the fully developed case is trivalved. The larvae are found on the underside of the leaf. Fully developed cases can be found in late April and early May.

Dasineura

Dasineura is a genus of midges in the family Cecidomyiidae, some of which cause galls on plants such as Dasineura crataegi on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and Dasineura fraxinea on ash (Fraxinus excelsior).

Ectoedemia atricollis

Ectoedemia atricollis is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found from Scandinavia to the Pyrenees, Italy, and Romania and from Ireland to Ukraine and the Volga and Ural regions of Russia. It has also been recorded from Tajikistan, where it is probably an introduced species.

The wingspan is 5–6 mm. Adults are on wing in June. There is one generation per year.

The larvae feed on Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna, Malus domestica, Malus sylvestris, Mespilus germanica, Pyrus communis, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus insititia, Prunus mahaleb and Staphylea pinnata. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a full depth corridor that gradually widens into an irregular elliptic blotch. The corridor generally follows the leaf margin over a long distance. The frass is blackish brown in the corridor and black in the blotch. Pupation takes place outside of the mine.

Ledgers Wood

Ledgers Wood is a 7-hectare (17-acre) nature reserve in Chelsham in Surrey. It is owned by Surrey County Council and managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust.This semi-natural wood is mainly oak, with other trees such as silver birch, ash, holly, Crataegus monogyna and sweet chestnut. Flowering plants include bluebell, lesser celandine and primrose.There is access by a track from Church Lane.

Leucoptera malifoliella

The pear leaf blister moth, ribbed apple leaf miner or apple leaf miner (Leucoptera malifoliella) is a moth of the Lyonetiidae family that can be found in all of Europe.

This wingspan is about 8 millimetres (0.31 in). Adults are on wing from June to July.The larvae feed on Alnus incana, Amelanchier ovalis, Aronia, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Chaenomeles japonica, Cotoneaster integerrimus, Crataegus crus-galli, Crataegus monogyna, Cydonia oblonga, Malus baccata, Malus domestica, Malus floribunda, Malus sylvestris, Mespilus germanica, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus domestica, Prunus fruticosa, Prunus insititia, Prunus spinosa, Prunus subhirtella, Pyrus communis and Sorbus aucuparia. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a large, circular blotch without a trace of a preceding corridor. Around the dark centre the frass, glued to the upper epidermis, is found in distinct arcs. Pupation takes place outside of the mine.

Phyllonorycter corylifoliella

The hawthorn red midget moth (Phyllonorycter corylifoliella) is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found in all of Europe.

The wingspan is 8–9 mm. Adults are on wing in May and again in August in two generations.

The larvae feed on Amelanchier lamarckii, Amelanchier ovalis, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Chaenomeles japonica, Cotoneaster nebrodensis, Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna, Cydonia oblonga, Malus domestica, Malus sylvestris, Mespilus germanica, Prunus avium, Pyrus amygdaliformis, Pyrus communis, Sorbus aria, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus domestica, Sorbus torminalis and Spiraea species. They mine the leaves of their host plant. They create a silvery, upper-surface, epidermal tentiform mine, which is centred over the midrib or a large lateral vein. The epidermis remains without folds until the mine becomes strongly contracted. Young mines have the appearance of a streak of silver on top of a vein.

Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae

Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found in all of Europe except the Balkan Peninsula.

The wingspan is 6–8 mm. The moth flies in two generations in May and in August.

The larvae feed on Crataegus and Rosaceae species. Other recorded foodplants include Crataegomespilus arnieresi, Crataegus chrysocarpa, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus oxyacantha, Crataegus pentagyna, Crataegus rivularis, Cydonia oblonga, Mespilus germanica, Pyracantha coccinea, Pyrus communis, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus torminalis.

Plaster's Green Meadows

Plaster's Green Meadows (grid reference ST532611) is a 4.3 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest near the village of Nempnett Thrubwell, Bath and North East Somerset, notified in 1989.

This is an area of unimproved and traditionally managed species-rich meadows which support a neutral grassland community of a

type which is now rare throughout Britain. The site is situated on the slopes fringing the Lias Tablelands and is underlain by Rhaetic clays and, lower down the slope Keuper Red Marl. The slowly permeable clay soils are slightly calcareous in nature and this is reflected in elements of the flora.

The site is characterised by the nationally rare Common Knapweed (Centaurea nigra) and Crested Dog’s-tail (Cynosurus cristatus) and dominant grasses include Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), Crested Dog’s-tail and Yorkshire Fog (Holcus lanatus), while Quaking Grass (Briza media) and Yellow Oat-grass (Trisetum flavescens) are also frequent.

There is a high component of herb species throughout the meadows including Saw-wort (Serratuta tinctoria), Dyer’s Greenweed (Genista tinctoria), Common Knapweed, Pepper-saxifrage (Silaum silaus), Devil’s-bit Scabious (Succisa pratensis), Betony (Stachys officinalis) and Spiny Restharrow (Ononis spinosa). The calcareous nature of the soil is reflected by the presence of Cowslip (Primula veris), Fairy Flax (Linum catharticum), Glaucous Sedge (Carex flacca), Lady’s Bedstraw (Galium verum) and occasional Salad Burnet (Sanguisorba minor).

The meadows are bounded by hedges supporting numerous species including Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), Wych Elm (Ulmus glabra), English Elm (Ulmus procera), Hazel (Corylus avellana) and Field Maple (Acer campestre). Hedgerow trees include Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa), Holly (Ilex aquifolium) and Oak (Quercus spp.).

Procyanidin B2

Procyanidin B2 is a B type proanthocyanidin. Its structure is (−)-Epicatechin-(4β→8)-(−)-epicatechin.

Procyanidin B2 can be found in Cinchona pubescens (Chinchona, in the rind, bark and cortex), in Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon, in the rind, bark and cortex), in Crataegus monogyna (Common hawthorn, in the flower and blossom), in Uncaria guianensis (Cat's claw, in the root), in Vitis vinifera (Common grape vine, in the leaf), in Litchi chinensis (litchi, in the pericarp), in the apple, and in Ecdysanthera utilis.Procyanidin B2 can be converted into procyanidin A2 by radical oxidation using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals under neutral conditions.Procyanidin B2 has been shown to inhibit the formation of the advanced glycation end-products pentosidine, carboxymethyllysine (CML), and methylglyoxal (MGO).

Spuleria

Spuleria is a genus of moths of the family Elachistidae. It contains only one species Spuleria flavicaput, which is found in most of Europe and Anatolia.

The wingspan is 12–14 mm. Adults are on wing from May to June.

The larvae feed on Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus laevigata. They mine the young twigs of their host plant in summer and the beginning of fall. Pupation takes place in the mine. Before pupation, the larva seal the mine entrance with a spinning. Larvae can be found from September to March or April.

Stigmella crataegella

Stigmella crataegella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found from Fennoscandia to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and Macedonia, and from Ireland to Poland and Romania.

The wingspan is 4–5 mm. The head is black, collar white.Antennal eyecaps white. Forewings are a shining golden brown basal to a brassy fascia. Distad beyond this is dark purple brown. Hindwings grey brown. Male has black scent scales Adults are on wing from May to early June. There is one generation per year.

The larvae feed on Crataegus laciniata, Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus pentagyna, Crataegus rivularis , Crataegus spathulata and Prunus spinosa. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a corridor. In the first part of the corridor, the frass is concentrated in a central line, later it is clearly coiled. The corridor makes several hairpin turns, usually resulting in a secondary blotch.

Stigmella paradoxa

Stigmella paradoxa is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found in most of Europe (except the Benelux, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Norway, Finland and most of the Baltic region), east to the Near East and the eastern part of the Palearctic ecozone.

The wingspan is 4–5 mm. The thick erect hairs on the head vertex are rust yellow and the collar white. Antennal eyecapsare white. Forewings are shiny bronze brown with a tip dark purple brown,apex.Hindwings are brown grey.

Adults are on wing from June to July.

The larvae feed on Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus pentagyna. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The damage consists of blotch in the tip of a leaf segment, without any preceding corridor.

Stigmella perpygmaeella

Stigmella perpygmaeella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found in most of Europe, east to Russia.

The wingspan is 5–6 mm.The thick erect hairs on the head vertex are yellow-white and the collar is also yellow-white. Antennal eyecaps yellow-white. Forewings are dark grey brown wth purple at the apex. Hindwings are grey.

Adults are on wing from April to May and again from June to August.

The larvae feed on Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a corridor that quickly widens into a secondary blotch. The mine is constrained between two veins or, less frequently, a lateral vein and the leaf margin.

Stigmella regiella

Stigmella regiella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found in most of Europe (except Iceland, Ireland, Portugal, Norway, Finland, the Baltic region and the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula), east to the eastern part of the Palearctic ecozone.

The wingspan is 4.5–5 mm.

The larvae feed on Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna and Mespilus germanica. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine begins as a corridor that usually follows the leaf margin. After a moult, an elongated blotch is found, generally the direction of this blotch is opposite to that of the corridor.

Thorpe Hay Meadow

Thorpe Hay Meadow is a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest west of Staines-upon-Thames in Surrey. It is owned and managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust.Its habitat is (acid-alkali) neutral grassland and it contains Cynosurus cristatus - Centaurea nigra grassland as a notified feature.

The site is thought to be the last remaining example of a Thames valley hay meadow in Surrey. It contains a range of lime-loving (calcicole) plants which are characteristic of this type of meadow. The grassland is dominated by rough-stalked meadow grass Poa trivialis, crested dog’s-tail grass Cynosurus cristatus, and lesser knapweed Centaurea nigra. Yellow rattle Rhinanthus minor, meadow-fescue grass Festuca pratensis, meadow barley Hordeum secalinum, smooth hawk’s-beard Crepis capillaris and common reed Phragmites australis are locally abundant, the last species being unusual in such dry situations. Other frequent species include meadow brome Bromus commutatus, a grass only recorded from one other Surrey location in recent years, meadow foxtail grass Alopecurus pratensis, Yorkshire-fog grass Holcus lanatus, pepper saxifrage Silaum silaus and meadow-sweet Filipendula ulmaria. Associated calcicole species include meadow cranesbill Geranium pratense, clustered bell-flower Campanula glomerata, cowslip Primula veris, hoary plantain Plantago media, salad burnet Sanguisorba minor and lady’s bedstraw Galium verum.

The meadow is surrounded by old hedgerows with a variety of species such as ash Fraxinus excelsior, hawthorn Crataegus monogyna, field maple Acer campestre, spindle Euonymus europaeus, dogwood Cornus sanguinea, and buckthorn Rhamnus catharticus. A drainage ditch along two sides of the site supports five species of willow including purple willow Salix purpurea and almond willow Salix triandra. Common comfrey Symphytum officinale, ragged robin Lychnis flos-cuculi, cyperus sedge Carex pseudocyperus and the uncommon aquatic liverwort Riccia fluitans...along this ditch.

A footpath from Staines passes through the site.

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