Craiova (Romanian pronunciation: [kraˈjova] (listen)), Romania's 6th largest city and capital of Dolj County, is situated near the east bank of the river Jiu in central Oltenia. It is a longstanding political center, and is located at approximately equal distances from the Southern Carpathians (north) and the River Danube (south). Craiova is the chief commercial city west of Bucharest and the most important city of Oltenia. The city prospered as a regional trading centre despite an earthquake in 1790, a plague in 1795, and a Turkish assault in 1802 during which it was burned.
Eight villages are administered by the city: Făcăi, Mofleni, Popoveni, Șimnicu de Jos, Cernele, Cernelele de Sus, Izvoru Rece and Rovine. The last four were a separate commune called Cernele until 1996, when they were merged into the city.
Location of Craiova
|• Mayor||Mihail Genoiu (interim) (People's Movement Party)|
|• City||81.41 km2 (31.43 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,498.6 km2 (578.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||100 m (300 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2,994/km2 (7,750/sq mi)|
|• Metro||356,544 |
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area code(s)||(+40) 251|
There are two possible etymologies for Craiova: Old Slavonic kral ("king"), which has been borrowed in Romania as crai and Slavonic krajina ("border" or "edge"). Since no source prior to 1475 mentions the city, it is impossible to tell which of the two words is the real etymology. The name is probably of Bulgarian or Serbian origin, due to historical autochthonous minorities in the area.
Craiova, which occupied the site of the Dacian and Roman city Pelendava, was formerly the capital of Oltenia. Its ancient bans, the highest ranking boyars of the Wallachian state, were initially those of the Craioveşti family. The bans had the right of minting coins stamped with their own effigies – the origin of the Romanian word ban as used for coins.
The economic power of the Craioveşti family at the end of the 16th century was about 100 villages (182 financial goods). This power gave them a statute of political autonomy so big, that the hospodars ruling at that time were not able to keep in power without an alliance with this powerful dynasty. From the Craiovești family there were chosen a lot of hospodars to rule the country: Neagoe Basarab, Radu de la Afumați, Radu Șerban (1602–1611), Matei Basarab, Constantin Șerban, Șerban Cantacuzino, Constantin Brâncoveanu.
In 1395 Craiova was probably the scene of a victory won by the Wallachian Prince Mircea I of Wallachia over Bayezid I, Sultan of the Ottomans (see Battle of Rovine). Frequently referred to as "a city" after the first half of the 16th century, the Craiova area was always regarded as an important economic region of Wallachia and Romania at large. During the 1718–1739 Habsburg occupation of Oltenia, Craiova's status declined due to economic pressures and increased centralism, partly leading to an increase in hajduk actions, in parallel with protests of Craiovan boyars. In 1761, under Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos, the bans relocated to Bucharest, leaving behind kaymakams to represent them in Craiova.
Under Prince Emanuel Giani Ruset, Wallachia's seat was moved to Craiova (1770–1771), viewed as a place of refuge during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. A large part of the city was burned down by the rebel pasha Osman Pazvantoğlu in 1800.
During the Wallachian uprising of 1821, inhabitants of the present-day Dolj County joined Tudor Vladimirescu's Pandurs in great numbers, contributing to the expedition on Bucharest. During the first two decades of the 19th century, Craiova witnessed economic prosperity, centered on handicraft trades and public services. During Imperial Russian occupation and the early stages of Organic Statute rules (1828–1834), the city increased its economic output; in 1832 there were 595 shops, 197 made of which were barracks and 398 were houses built of brick. At the time, Craiova exported wheat, furs, leather, live animals and other products into the Austrian and Ottoman Empires.
Costache Romanescu, a citizen of Craiova, was among the leaders of the Provisional Government during the 1848 Wallachian revolution. Wallachia's last two rulers, Gheorghe Bibescu and Barbu Dimitrie Știrbei, came from an important boyar family residing in Craiova – the Bibescu family.
Around 1860, there were 4,633 buildings in Craiova, which were 3,220 houses, 26 churches, 11 schools and 60 factories and workshops. In all, the city also housed about 90 industrial establishments, of which 12 were mills, 3 breweries, 2 gas and oil factories, 4 tanning yards and 2 printing presses; 57% of the total number of craftsmen of Dolj County lived in Craiova (1,088 craftsmen, 687 journeymen and 485 apprentices).
The period following the Independence War was a time of economic and cultural progress. As a result, at the end of the 19th century, the city of Craiova, with its 40,000 inhabitants, had developed small factories (producing chemicals, farming utilities, and construction materials) and textile factories. On October 26, 1896, the Craiova power station entered service (with AEG equipment working at 310 CP, supplying 365 streetlights on 39 streets, forming a 30 km-long network); Craiova was the first city in the country to be supplied with electric power by internal combustion engines.
In 1900, Craiova had 43.1% of the industrial units of Oltenia; these numbered 924 industrial companies (including 20 large industrial establishments, employing 1,078 workers). The number of large industrial establishments rose to 40 by 1925. Banking also developed at the beginning of the 20th century (when 6 banks and 2 bureaux de change were already operating).
In the interwar period, Craiova, as the centre of an agricultural region, experienced little further industrialization; the number of industrial workers remained comparatively small. In 1939, Craiova had 7 industrial units with over 100 workers: the clothing industry companies Oltenia and Scrisul Românesc were well-known all over the country and abroad.
In the early 1960s, under the Communist regime, the city became a noted centre for the automotive and engine building industries, as well as for aerospace manufacturing, chemical industry, food industry, construction, electrical engineering, mining and the electrical power industry. The construction of housing estates also begins at this time, with Brazda lui Novac being the one of the first in 1967-1968, followed by Siloz-Valea Roșie in the same years. Later on in the 1980s the Craiovița Nouă, Rovine, 1 Mai, Sărari and Lăpuș-Argeș housing estates are built.
After the 1989 Revolution brought the re-establishment of a free market and decentralisation in overall management, several industries became subject to privatisation, while the market opened itself to private initiatives. Industry, although affected by economic changes, remains an important branch, representing ca. 70% of Craiova's output
|Historical population of Craiova|
As of 2011, 269,506 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the figure recorded in 2002, making it the sixth most populous city in Romania. Ethnic composition:
Craiova has a continental climate with Mediterranean influences, with a July high/low average of 30 °C (86 °F)/18 °C (65 °F) and a January high/low average of 4 °C (39 °F)/-3 °C (26 °F).
|Climate data for Craiova (1981–2010, extremes 1931–1990)|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.8
|Average high °C (°F)||2.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−30.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||37.0
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||13.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||10.5||9.3||10.5||11.2||11.2||10.6||8.6||7.4||7.6||7.8||10.7||11.8||117.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||89||87||81||75||75||75||73||72||73||80||88||91||80|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||82||117||159||200||261||278||308||295||219||162||93||68||2,242|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization, Ogimet (mean temperatures and sun 1981–2010)|
|Source #2: NOAA (snowfall 1961–1990), Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity, 1973–1992)|
In the first two decades of the 19th century Craiova was characterized by economical growth, multiplication of its inhabitants' preoccupations in the areas of trade, commerce, and public services. In comparison with other great urban centers, Craiova is situated as a commercial, administrative and cultural centre.
During the Tsarist take-over (1828–1834), Craiova goes through important economic growths. In 1832, there were a number of 595 shops, of which "187 of wood and 398 of stone wall". The city is maintained as the commercial centre of Oltenia; it was exporting to Austria and Turkey cereal, skins, wax, animals, tallow and cervices. As a follow-up of the permanent high demands of export, at Craiova was established, in 1846, the first Romanian society on share holds for cereal transport by ship on the Danube, to Brăila.
Around 1860 in Craiova there were 4633 buildings, of which 3220 were houses, 26 churches, 11 schools, 60 factories - workshops. There were also approximately 90 establishments with an industrial character, of which: 12 wind mills, 3 beer factories, 2 gas and oil factories, 4 tanneries, 2 printings. Statistics show that there was, at Craiova, a percent of 57,7% of the total number of craftsmen from the Dolj County (1088 craftsmen, 687 journeymen and 485 apprentices). Towards the ending of the 19th century, Craiova was a city that had small factories and workshops with chemical products, agricultural machines, graphics art, tanneries, textiles, construction materials, etc. At 26 October 1896 Craiova's power plant starts working (with AEG equipment - Allgemeine Elekticitats Gesellschaft), having an installed power of 310 power horse, and supplying 365 lamps on 39 streets in a network of 30 km (18.64 mi). Craiova was the first city of the country powered up with electricity based on engines with internal combustion.
In 1900, Craiova was holding 43, 1% of the number of the industrial units of Oltenia, having 924 industrial firms (of which 20 establishments were belonging to the big industry, using 1078 workers). In 1925, the number of establishments of the "big industry" was up to 49, and in 1930 the number of workers was of 5530. The bank commerce was affirming as well, at the beginning of the 20th century already existing 6 banks and 2 exchange offices.
In the Interbelic period, the city, situated in an area eminently agricultural, was moving forward with too small steps toward the industrial way, in comparison with other urban areas of the country. The number of those who got close to industry was extremely small.
In 1939, in Craiova were only 7 industrial units with over 100 workers: The cloth factory "Oltenia", "Scrisul Romanesc" ("The Romanian Writing"), the macaroni factory "Concordia", the bread and macaroni factory "Barbu Druga", "Semanatoarea", The electrical factory and the bread factory "Traiul". The only industrial branch that had industrial units comparable with similar units of other centers of the country was the industry of graphic art. The two printings "Ramuri" and "Scrisul romanesc" were well known all over the country and abroad.
Starting with the 1960s the city becomes a powerful industrial center; it develops the industry of machine and tools construction, planes, the chemical industry, food industry, easy industry, of construction materials, electro technical, extractive, energetic industry. The Romanian Revolution of 1989 led to important changes in economy, by realizing a free market and by decentralizing the management of all national economic sectors. A value for the property sense was reinstated by liberating the particular initiative and privatization of goods that belonged exclusively to the state. In industry a drop of all capacity production was noticed, determined by the fact that they couldn't anticipate the direction of the impact of change and size of the shocks that followed the modification of the economical-social system. Still, the industry continues to represent the branch of activity with great influence over the city's economy (70%).
During the post-Revolution period, telecommunication services, banking and insurance, management consulting (CDIMM, Romanian-American Center) began expanding. The number of joint ventures and the value of invested capital at county level have increased to large numbers — Dolj County being the first in respect to these aspects. The Automobile Craiova factory, formerly owned by Daewoo and renationalised after Daewoo's bankruptcy, was sold in September 2007 to Ford.
Ford will produce in Romania the B-Max model, a small class mono volume. The aspect of the new model will be somewhere between Ford Fiesta and C-Max, but smaller than the latter. The American manufacturer expects to become the second biggest seller in Romania after Dacia. In 2009, Craiova works delivered 300 Ford Transit Connect units to the market.
Of the city's working population (about 110,000 persons), 38% are employed in industry, 15% in trade and repair services, 10% in transport and storage, 8% in education, 5.7% in the medical field.
The Tram was first introduced in 1987, on an 18,4 km (2.49 mi) double-track line, as a result of the state's intention of keeping energy consumption low. The public transport in Craiova today consists of 3 trolley tram lines and 17 bus lines. It is operated by the Regia Autonomă de Transport Craiova (RAT Craiova), a corporation run by City Hall. There are 190 buses and 35 trams serving the city today.
There are daily trains with service from Craiova to: Bucharest (3 hours), Brașov (6 – 8 hours - via connecting service), Cluj-Napoca (8 – 10 hours - connecting service), Sibiu (4 – 7 hours), Sighișoara (8 – 11 hours - connecting service), Timișoara ( 5 hours)
The city is served by Craiova Airport, which has recently been modernised.
The first school in Craiova was founded in 1759 by Constantin Obedeanu. In the spring of 1826 Obedeanu's school took the name Școala Naţională de Limba Română which means National School of Romanian Language. This was the second Romanian high school after Saint Sava high school in Bucharest (founded in 1818).
The first football teams in Craiova appeared in 1921, Craiovan Craiova and Rovine Griviţa Craiova. They merged in 1940, forming a team, FC Craiova, that won the unofficial war championship. Later, another team from the city, Universitatea Craiova, became the first Romanian football team to reach the semi-finals of a European tournament, during the UEFA Cup in 1982-83.
The Craiova Municipal Council, chosen at the 2016 local election, is made up of 27 councillors, with the following party composition:
|Social Democratic Party||19|
|National Liberal Party||6|
|Alliance of Liberals and Democrats||2|
Media related to Craiova at Wikimedia Commons2018 Supercupa României
The 2018 Supercupa României was the 20th edition of the Supercupa României, the annual super cup in Romania.
The game was contested by the winners of the previous season's Liga I and Cupa României competitions, CFR Cluj and Universitatea Craiova respectively. It was played at the Ion Oblemenco Stadium in Craiova, on 14 July 2018.CFR Cluj claimed the trophy after defeating Universitatea Craiova 1–0, with Emmanuel Culio scoring the only goal of the game. Before the match, CFR had reached the Supercupa României four times, winning two (2009, 2010) and being runners-up two times (2012, 2016); U Craiova had never took part in the contest.Alexandru Mitriță
Alexandru Ionuț Mitriță (Romanian pronunciation: [alekˈsandru joˈnut͡s miˈtrit͡sə]; born 8 February 1995) is a Romanian professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder or a winger for American club New York City and the Romania national team.
He represented Turnu Severin, Viitorul Constanța and Steaua București before moving abroad to Pescara in 2015, aged 20. After two years, he returned to his country with Universitatea Craiova, where he won one Cupa României and became a regular goalscorer. His good display earned him a transfer to the Major League Soccer, joining New York City in February 2019 as a Designated Player.
At international level, Mitriță earned caps for several youth sides of Romania before making his full debut in March 2018.CS Turnu Severin
Clubul Sportiv Turnu Severin was a Romanian professional football club from Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Mehedinţi County, founded in 2007 and dissolved in 2013. In 2012, the team promoted to the Liga I for the first time in their short history. After just one year of top football it relegated and was dissolved.CS Universitatea Craiova
U Craiova 1948 Club Sportiv, commonly known as Universitatea Craiova (Romanian pronunciation: [universiˈtate̯a kraˈjova]), U Craiova, or CS U Craiova, is a Romanian a professional football team based in Craiova, Dolj County, currently playing in the Liga I, the top tier of the Romanian football league system.
It was founded in 1948 as the football section of the CSU Craiova sports club, of which it was originally part of until 1991. During that period, it had won 4 national titles and 5 national cups. For the next two decades, its tradition was taken further by FC U Craiova, which was reorganised several times, disaffiliated and retroactively deemed as an unofficial successor. In 2013, the sports club refounded the football department, which claimed to be the continuation of the original Universitatea Craiova; this has since been backed up by some court orders and the Liga Profesionistă de Fotbal, however the record is still being disputed with the also reestablished FC U entity and uncertainty persists. In 2018, "the White-Blues" won the Cupa României, representing their first trophy following the refoundation.
On the European stage, Universitatea Craiova's best performances are reaching the semi-finals of the 1982–83 UEFA Cup and the quarter-finals of the 1981–82 European Cup. They were the first Romanian team to reach the semi-finals of a UEFA tournament and remain the only one to have knocked out at least one club from each of five strongest countries in European football: England, France, Germany, Italy and Spain.
"The Students" play their home matches at the Stadionul Ion Oblemenco, which has a capacity of 30,929. Craiova holds several rivalries, the most notable being the one with Dinamo București.Cathedral of Saint Demetrius, Craiova
The Cathedral of Saint Demetrius (Romanian: Catedrala Sfântului Dumitru) is a Romanian Orthodox cathedral, see of the Metropolis of Oltenia. It is located at 14 Matei Basarab Street, Craiova, Romania, in the historic region of Oltenia. There was likely a church on the site by the 1490s, renovated in 1651 and, having fallen into disrepair, demolished in 1889. That year, work on a new church began, and this was completed and sanctified in 1933. The earlier church's close proximity to the headquarters of the Ban of Craiova gave it importance in the city's political life, as well as a defensive purpose, while the modern building's role ensures its continued significance.Emil Săndoi
Emil Săndoi (born 1 March 1965) is a Romanian football manager and former player.
He was born in Craiova and debuted in Divizia A with Universitatea Craiova in 1983.
Săndoi made his debut for the Romanian national team in 1987 against Greece, and was chosen for the 1990 FIFA World Cup squad.FC Caracal (2004)
FC Caracal was a Romanian professional football club from Caracal, Olt County, Romania.
Not to be confused with the old clubs that existed in the past in Caracal also named FC Caracal or FCM Caracal.FC Craiova
FC Craiova Football Club was founded in 1940 by the merging of two teams from Craiova and Dolj County: Craiu Craiovan Craiova and Rovine Griviţa Craiova. The newly created team qualified for Divizia A immediately, ranking ninth in the 1940–41 season. During the 1942–1943 Championship, FC Craiova ranked first place, but the competition did not take place officially, due to World War II.
The first official season after the war was the 1946–47 season, FC Craiova took last place, relegating it to Divizia B. Under the new name "AS Dolj", the team fell further, to Divizia C. During the 1948–49 season, AS Dolj ranked 8 in Divizia C Series I. Afterwards, the ranking season was abolished, dissolving the team.FC U Craiova 1948
FCU Craiova 1948 is a Romanian football club based in Craiova Dolj County, and currently a member of the Liga III.
In 1991, promptly after the CS Universitatea Craiova sports club dissolved its football department, Fotbal Club Universitatea Craiova took its place in the first division. It continued the original club's tradition for the next two decades, but was reorganised multiple times and retroactively deemed an unofficial successor. FC U's only major honour is the 1992–93 Cupa României, although it also claims the 4 national titles and 5 national cups won between 1948 and 1991.FC U Craiova was disaffiliated by the Romanian Football Federation on 14 May 2012, following their temporary banishment since 20 July 2011, and consequently retired from every competition. The Romanian Court confirmed that the 2012 dissafiliation was legal and in September 2014 the team was officially declared bankrupt. The club was reestablished in 2017 and commenced play in the fourth league.Ford Romania
Ford Romania is an automobile manufacturing company operated by Ford of Europe, located in Craiova, Romania.Ilie Balaci
Ilie Balaci (Romanian pronunciation: [iˈli.e ˈbalat͡ʃʲ]; 13 September 1956 – 21 October 2018) was a Romanian football midfielder and manager.
He spent 12 of his 15 years as a professional with Universitatea Craiova, appearing in more than 300 official games with the club and winning seven major titles. Nicknamed Minunea blondă ("the Blonde Wonder"), Balaci is considered one of the greatest Romanian footballers of all time.SCM Craiova (women's handball)
Sport Club Municipal Craiova, commonly referred to as simply SCM Craiova, is a professional women's handball club from Craiova, Oltenia, Romania, that competes in the Liga Naţională.SCM U Craiova (basketball)
SCM Universitatea Craiova is a Romanian professional basketball club, based in Craiova, Romania. The club competes in the Liga Națională.Sorin Cârțu
Sorin Cârțu (born 12 November 1955) is a former football striker and football coach. Cârțu won two Romanian Championships and four Romanian Cups with Universitatea Craiova. As a coach, he succeeded to win in the 1990–91 season with Universitatea Craiova both trophies in Romania, Liga I and the Romanian Cup.
During CFR's Champions League tie against Swiss Super League champions FC Basel at St. Jakob-Park, Cârțu destroyed a section of the dugout with his foot after his side conceded a 75th-minute goal. After the match, CFR Cluj sacked Cârțu, citing his behaviour in the game as the reason behind his dismissal.Stadionul CFR (Craiova)
CFR Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Craiova. It is the home ground of Gaz Metan CFR Craiova and has 3,000 seats.Stadionul Extensiv
Stadionul Extensiv is a multi-use stadium in Craiova, Romania. It is used mostly for football matches and it is the home ground of CS Universitatea II Craiova. The stadium holds 7,000 people. The stadium was the home ground of Extensiv Craiova. In 2005 when Extensiv Craiova dissolved, the stadium was abandoned: plants and flowers grew on the pitch and the chairs were broken, but it was saved by Craiova's old boys' team.Stadionul Ion Oblemenco
Stadionul Ion Oblemeco is a multi-purpose stadium in Craiova, Romania. Inaugurated in 2017, it is used mainly for football matches and is an all-seater with a capacity of 30,983.
The stadium ranked fourth on the Stadium DB list for Stadium of the Year 2017 surpassing expectations, ranking better than Wanda Metropolitano or Zenit Stadium. The Stadionul Ion Oblemenco was selected to be a finalist in the Jury Award Competition on 26 February 2018, after a group of architects winnowed a list of 27 candidates to 10 finalists. The publication generally agreed that the outcome was satisfying and the stadium with a budget that stayed within €51 million sounded like a decent investment.Stadionul Ion Oblemenco (1967)
Ion Oblemenco Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium in Craiova, Romania. It was used mostly for football matches and was the home ground of Universitatea Craiova. The stadium used to hold up to 25,252 people before it was demolished.
The stadium was entirely demolished and was be replaced by an all-seater that was opened in November 2017.Stadionul Municipal (Drobeta-Turnu Severin)
Municipal Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Romania. The stadium holds 20,054 people all on seats and is used mostly for football matches, being the home ground of Liga III side FC U Craiova.
In 2009 it was entirely renovated, 20,054 seats were mounted, becoming an all-seater stadium. A new modern scoreboard capable of playing replays was also mounted.The floodlighting system was inaugurated in 2010.