The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. The Prize is awarded in partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Crafoord Foundation in Lund. The Academy is responsible for selecting the Crafoord Laureates. The prize is awarded in four categories: astronomy and mathematics; geosciences; biosciences, with particular emphasis on ecology; and polyarthritis, the disease from which Holger severely suffered in his last years.
According to the Academy, "these disciplines are chosen so as to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded". Only one award is given each year, according to a rotating scheme – astronomy and mathematics; then geosciences; then biosciences. A Crafoord Prize in polyarthritis is only awarded when a special committee decides that substantial progress in the field has been made. The recipient of the Crafoord Prize is announced each year in mid-January; on Crafoord Day in April, the prize is presented by the King of Sweden, who also presents the Nobel Prizes at the ceremony in December. The prize money, which as of 2018 is 6,000,000 kr (or US$745,000), is intended to fund further research by the laureate.
The inaugural laureates, Vladimir Arnold and Louis Nirenberg, were cited by the Academy for their work in the field of non-linear differential equations. The first woman to be awarded the prize was astronomer Andrea Ghez in 2012.
|The Crafoord Prize|
|Awarded for||in astronomy and mathematics, biosciences, geosciences or polyarthritis research, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences|
|Presented by||Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences|
The Crafoord prize is awarded annually to the following scientists:
|1982||Mathematics||Vladimir Arnold||Russian||Theory of non-linear differential equations|||
|Louis Nirenberg||Canadian American[A]|||
|1983||Geosciences||—||Edward Norton Lorenz||American||Geophysical hydrodynamics|||
|1984||Biosciences||Daniel H. Janzen||American||Co-evolution|||
|1985||Astronomy||Lyman Spitzer||American||Studies of the interstellar medium|||
|1986||Geosciences||Claude Allègre||French||Isotope geochemical relations|||
|—||Gerald J. Wasserburg||American|
|1987||Biosciences||—||Eugene Odum||American||Ecosystem ecology|||
|Howard T. Odum||American|
|1988||Mathematics||Pierre Deligne||Belgian||Algebraic geometry|||
|1989||Geosciences||James Van Allen||American||Exploration of space, the discovery of the Van Allen belts|||
|1990||Biosciences||Paul R. Ehrlich||American||Dynamics and genetics of fragmented populations|||
|E. O. Wilson||American||Theory of island biogeography|||
|1991||Astronomy||—||Allan Sandage||American||Study of galaxies|||
|1992||Geosciences||—||Adolf Seilacher||German||Research into evolution of life|||
|1993||Biosciences||—||W. D. Hamilton||British||Theories of kin selection and genetic relationship|||
|Seymour Benzer||American||Genetical and neurophysiological studies of fruit flies|||
|1994||Mathematics||Simon Donaldson||British||Four-dimensional geometry|||
|Shing-Tung Yau||American[C]||Non-linear techniques in differential geometry|||
|1995||Geosciences||—||Willi Dansgaard||Danish||Development of isotope geological analysis methods|||
|1996||Biosciences||Robert May||Australian||Ecological research|||
|1997||Astronomy||Fred Hoyle||British||Study of nuclear processes in stars, stellar evolution|||
|—||Edwin Ernest Salpeter||American|||
|1998||Geosciences||Don L. Anderson||American||Study of the structures and processes in the interior of the Earth|||
|Adam M. Dziewonski||Polish/American[D]|||
|1999||Biosciences||Ernst Mayr||American||Developing the concept of evolutionary biology|||
|John Maynard Smith||British|
|—||George C. Williams||American|
|2000||Polyarthritis||—||Marc Feldmann||British||Definition of TNF-alpha|||
|Ravinder N. Maini||British|
|2001||Mathematics||Alain Connes||French||Theory of operator algebras, founder of the non-commutative geometry|||
|2002||Geosciences||—||Dan McKenzie||British||Dynamics of the lithosphere|||
|2003||Biosciences||Carl Woese||American||Third domain of life|||
|2004||Polyarthritis||—||Eugene C. Butcher||American||Study of molecular mechanisms concerning white blood cells|||
|—||Timothy A. Springer||American|
|2005||Astronomy||James E. Gunn||American||Understanding the large-scale structure of the Universe|||
|2006||Geosciences||Wallace Smith Broecker||American||Research into the global carbon cycle|||
|2007||Biosciences||—||Robert Trivers||American||Analysis of social evolution|||
|2008||Astronomy||Rashid Alievich Sunyaev||Russian||Contributions to high-energy astrophysics and cosmology|||
|Mathematics||Maxim Kontsevich||Russian[E]||Contributions to mathematics from modern theoretical physics|||
|2009||Polyarthritis||Charles Dinarello||American||Isolation of interleukins, understanding their role in the onset of inflammatory diseases|||
|2010||Geosciences||Walter Munk||American||"for his pioneering and fundamental contributions to our understanding of ocean circulation, tides and waves, and their role in the Earth's dynamics".|||
|2011||Biosciences||Ilkka Hanski||Finnish||"for his pioneering studies on how spatial variation affects the dynamics of animal and plant populations".|||
|2012||Astronomy||Reinhard Genzel||German||"for their observations of the stars orbiting the galactic centre, indicating the presence of a supermassive black hole".|||
|Andrea M. Ghez||American|
|Mathematics||Jean Bourgain||Belgian||"for their brilliant and groundbreaking work in harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, ergodic theory, number theory, combinatorics, functional analysis and theoretical computer science".|||
|Terence Tao||Australian American|
|2013||Polyarthritis||Peter K. Gregersen||American||"for their discoveries concerning the role of different genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis".|||
|Robert J. Winchester||American|
|2014||Geosciences||—||Peter Molnar||American||"for his ground-breaking contribution to the understanding of global tectonics, in particular the deformation of continents and the structure and evolution of mountain ranges, as well as the impact of tectonic processes on ocean-atmosphere circulation and climate".|||
|2015||Biosciences||—||Richard Lewontin||American||"for their pioneering analyses and fundamental contributions to the understanding of genetic polymorphism".|||
|2016||Astronomy||Roy Kerr||New Zealand||"for fundamental work concerning rotating black holes and their astrophysical consequences"|||
|Mathematics||Yakov Eliashberg||American[F]||"for the development of contact and symplectic topology and groundbreaking discoveries of rigidity and flexibility phenomena"|
|2017||Polyarthritis||Shimon Sakaguchi||Japanese||"for their discoveries relating to regulatory T cells, which counteract harmful immune reactions in arthritis and other autoimmune diseases."|||
|2018||Geosciences||—||Syukoro Manabe||Japanese / American||"for fundamental contributions to understanding the role of atmospheric trace gases in Earth’s climate system."|||
|2019||Biosciences||—||Sallie W. Chisholm||American||"for the discovery and pioneering studies of the most abundant photosynthesising organism on Earth, Prochlorococcus".|||
Alain Connes (French: [alɛ̃ kɔn]; born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the Collège de France, IHÉS, Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University. He was an Invited Professor at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (2000).Andrea M. Ghez
Andrea Mia Ghez (born June 16, 1965) is an American astronomer and professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UCLA. In 2004, Discover magazine listed Ghez as one of the top 20 scientists in the United States who have shown a high degree of understanding in their respective fields.Don L. Anderson
Don Lynn Anderson (March 5, 1933 – December 2, 2014) was an American geophysicist who made significant contributions to the understanding of the origin, evolution, structure, and composition of Earth and other planets. An expert in numerous scientific disciplines, Anderson's work combined seismology, solid state physics, geochemistry and petrology to explain how the Earth works. Anderson was best known for his contributions to the understanding of the Earth's deep interior, and more recently, for the hypothesis that hotspots are the product of plate tectonics rather than narrow plumes emanating from the deep Earth. Anderson was Professor (Emeritus) of Geophysics in the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). He received numerous awards from geophysical, geological and astronomical societies. In 1998 he was awarded the prestigious Crafoord Prize by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences along with Adam Dziewonski. Later that year, Anderson received the National Medal of Science. He held honorary doctorates from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (where he did his undergraduate work in geology and geophysics) and the University of Paris (Sorbonne), and served on numerous university advisory committees, including those at Harvard, Princeton, Yale, University of Chicago, Stanford, University of Paris, Purdue University, and Rice University. Anderson's wide-ranging research resulted in hundreds of published papers in the fields of planetary science, seismology, mineral physics, petrology, geochemistry, tectonics and the philosophy of science. He continued to work and publish until his death. His widely known textbooks, Theory of the Earth, and New Theory of the Earth are regarded by colleagues as compelling syntheses of the origins of the Earth and its inner workings by one of the great geophysical authorities of our time.Gerald J. Wasserburg
Gerald J. Wasserburg (March 25, 1927 – June 13, 2016) was an American geologist. At the time of his death, he was the John D. MacArthur Professor of Geology and Geophysics, Emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology. He was known for his work in the fields of isotope geochemistry, cosmochemistry, meteoritics, and astrophysics.
After leaving the US army, where he received the Combat Infantryman Badge, he graduated from high school and attended college on the G.I. Bill. Wasserburg completed his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1954, with a thesis on the development of K–Ar dating, done under the sponsorship of Prof. H. C. Urey and Prof M. G. Inghram. He joined the faculty at Caltech in 1955 as Assistant Professor. He became Associate Professor in 1959 and Professor of Geology and Geophysics in 1962. In 1982 he became the John D. MacArthur Professor of Geology and Geophysics; he retired in 2001. He, Typhoon Lee and D.A. Papanastassiou discovered the presence of short-lived radioactive 26Al in the early solar system and short-lived 107Pd with William R. Kelly.Wasserburg was deeply involved in the Apollo Program with the returned Lunar samples, including being a member of the so-called "Four Horsemen", along with Bob Walker, Jim Arnold, and Paul Werner Gast. He pioneered the precise measurement of ultra-small samples under strict clean room conditions with minimal contamination. He was the co-inventor of the Lunatic Spectrometer (the first fully digital mass spectrometer with computer-controlled magnetic field scanning & rapid switching) and founder of the "Lunatic Asylum" research laboratory at Caltech specializing in high precision, high sensitivity isotopic analyses of meteorites, lunar and terrestrial samples. He and his co-workers were major contributors to establishing a chronology for the Moon and proposed the hypothesis of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) of the whole inner solar system at near 4.0 Gy ago (with F. Tera, D. A. Papanastassiou).
Wasserburg's research led to a better understanding of the origins and history of the solar system and its component bodies and the precursor stellar sources contributing to the solar system; this research established a time scale for the development of the early solar system, including the processes of nucleosynthesis and the formation and evolution of the planets, the Moon and the meteorites. More recently, he investigated models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy.
He was a member of the U.S. National Academy of Science, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. He won the Arthur L. Day Medal in 1970, the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal in 1972 and 1978, the Wollaston Medal in 1985, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1991 and the Bowie Medal in 2008. He was co-winner, with Claude Allègre, of the Crafoord Prize in Geosciences in 1986. He was the recipient of several honorary degrees. He was recipient of the J.F.Kemp Medal with Paul W. Gast Columbia Univ 1973,the H. Hess Medal of the American Geophysical Union in 1985,the Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Soc. 1975,the J.Lawrence Smith Medal of the National Academy of Science 1985, the Arthur L. Day Prize & Lectureship of the National Academy of Science 1981, the Holmes Medal of the European Union of Geosciences in 1986 and the V. M. Goldschmidt medal of the Geochemical society in 1978.Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques
The Institut des hautes études scientifiques (IHÉS; English: Institute of Advanced Scientific Studies) is a French institute supporting advanced research in mathematics and theoretical physics. It is located in Bures-sur-Yvette just south of Paris. It is now part of the federal University of Paris-Saclay as an advanced studies institute.List of Columbia University people
This is a partially sorted list of notable persons who have had ties to Columbia University. For further listing of notable Columbians see: Notable alumni at Columbia College of Columbia University; Columbia University School of General Studies; Columbia Law School; Columbia Business School; Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism; Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation; Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons; Columbia University Graduate School of Education (Teachers College); Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science; Columbia Graduate School of Arts and Sciences; Columbia University School of Professional Studies; Columbia University School of the Arts; and the School of International and Public Affairs. The following lists are incomplete.List of geophysicists
This is a list of geophysicists, people who made notable contributions to geophysics, whether or not geophysics was their primary field. These include historical figures who laid the foundations for the field of geophysics. More recently, some of the top awards for geophysicists are the Vetlesen Prize (intended to be the equivalent of a Nobel Prize for geology or geophysics); the William Bowie Medal (the top award of the American Geophysical Union); and the Crafoord Prize for geosciences. Some geophysicists have also won more general prizes such as the Nobel Prize and the Kyoto Prize.Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
The Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics is a Max Planck Institute, located in Garching, near Munich, Germany.
In 1991 the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics split up into the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, the Max Planck Institute for Physics and the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics. The Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics was founded as sub-institute in 1963. The
scientific activities of the institute are mostly devoted to astrophysics with telescopes orbiting in space. A large amount of the resources
are spent for studying black holes in the galaxy and in the remote universe.Maxim Kontsevich
Maxim Lvovich Kontsevich (Russian: Макси́м Льво́вич Конце́вич;[mɐˈksʲim lʲˈvovʲit͡ɕ konˈt͡sɛvʲit͡ɕ] ; born 25 August 1964) is a Russian and French mathematician. He is a professor at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques and a distinguished professor at the University of Miami. He received the Henri Poincaré Prize in 1997, the Fields Medal in 1998, the Crafoord Prize in 2008, the Shaw Prize and Fundamental Physics Prize in 2012, and the Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics in 2014.Peter K. Gregersen
Peter K. Gregersen (born 1950) is a geneticist who heads the Robert S. Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics at Northwell's Feinstein Institute for Medical Research in Manhasset, New York, and is a Professor of Molecular Medicine at Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. He received his MD from Columbia University in 1976.
Gregersen and his team conduct genome-wide scans to identify polymorphisms that are associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Myasthenia Gravis.
Along with Dr. Lars Klareskog and Robert J. Winchester, Gregersen, received the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences's 2013 Crafoord Prize "for their discoveries concerning the role of different genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis."Gregersen leads the North American Rheumatology Consortium to collect, analyze and make available clinical and genetic data on 1,000 sibling pairs with rheumatoid arthritis.Peter Molnar (geophysicist)
Peter Molnar is a professor in geological sciences at the University of Colorado. His research focuses on aspects of how mountain ranges form and continental lithosphere deforms.
He is a winner of the Crafoord Prize and a fellow of the American Geophysical Union. He won the Crafoord Prize in 2014 for discovering "the driving forces behind plate motions and the place of continents in the plate tectonic model of Earth's evolution. Innovatively combining geological and geophysical methods of inquiry with satellite measurements and modelling, the Laureate has also paved the way to a new understanding of the formation of mountain ranges and their role in global tectonics."Pierre Deligne
Pierre René, Viscount Deligne (French: [dəliɲ]; born 3 October 1944) is a Belgian mathematician. He is known for work on the Weil conjectures, leading to a complete proof in 1973. He is the winner of the 2013 Abel Prize, 2008 Wolf Prize, 1988 Crafoord Prize, and 1978 Fields Medal.Robert Trivers
Robert Ludlow "Bob" Trivers (; born February 19, 1943) is an American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist. Trivers proposed the theories of reciprocal altruism (1971), parental investment (1972), facultative sex ratio determination (1973), and parent–offspring conflict (1974). He has also contributed by explaining self-deception as an adaptive evolutionary strategy (first described in 1976) and discussing intragenomic conflict.Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the royal academies of Sweden. It is an independent, non-governmental scientific organisation which takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.
Its purpose is to;
Att främja vetenskaperna och stärka deras inflytande i samhället(To promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society)Every year the academy awards the Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the Crafoord Prize, the Sjöberg Prize and several other prizes.Sallie W. Chisholm
Sallie Watson (Penny) Chisholm (born in 1947 in Marquette, USA) is a U.S. biological oceanographer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is an expert in the ecology and evolution of ocean microbes.Terence Tao
Terence Chi-Shen Tao (born 17 July 1975) is an Australian born American mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics. He currently focuses on harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, algebraic combinatorics, arithmetic combinatorics, geometric combinatorics, compressed sensing and analytic number theory. As of 2015, he holds the James and Carol Collins chair in mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles. Tao was a co-recipient of the 2006 Fields Medal and the 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics.Tomoko Ohta
Tomoko Ohta (太田 朋子, Ōta Tomoko, born Tomoko Harada 原田 朋子 September 7, 1933, Miyoshi, Aichi) is a Japanese scientist working on population genetics/molecular evolution. She and Richard Lewontin were jointly awarded the Crafoord Prize for 2015 "for their pioneering analyses and fundamental contributions to the understanding of genetic polymorphism".Wallace Smith Broecker
Wallace Smith Broecker (November 29, 1931 – February 18, 2019) was an American geophysicist. He was the Newberry Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University, a scientist at Columbia's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and a sustainability fellow at Arizona State University. He developed the idea of a global "conveyor belt" linking the circulation of the global ocean and made major contributions to the science of the carbon cycle and the use of chemical tracers and isotope dating in oceanography. Broecker received the Crafoord Prize and the Vetlesen Prize.Yakov Eliashberg
Yakov Eliashberg (Russian: Яков Матвеевич Элиашберг; born 11 December 1946) is an American mathematician who was born in Leningrad, USSR.
He received his Ph.D. from Leningrad University in 1972 under the direction of Vladimir Rokhlin. From 1972 to 1979 he taught at the Syktyvkar State University of Komi Republic of Russia and from 1980 to 1987 worked in industry as the head of a computer software group. In 1988 Eliashberg moved to the United States, and since 1989 he has been a professor of mathematics at Stanford University.