Crafoord Prize

The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. The Prize is awarded in partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Crafoord Foundation in Lund. The Academy is responsible for selecting the Crafoord Laureates.[1] The prize is awarded in four categories: astronomy and mathematics; geosciences; biosciences, with particular emphasis on ecology; and polyarthritis, the disease from which Holger severely suffered in his last years.

According to the Academy, "these disciplines are chosen so as to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded".[2] Only one award is given each year, according to a rotating scheme – astronomy and mathematics; then geosciences; then biosciences.[2] A Crafoord Prize in polyarthritis is only awarded when a special committee decides that substantial progress in the field has been made.[2] The recipient of the Crafoord Prize is announced each year in mid-January; on Crafoord Day in April, the prize is presented by the King of Sweden, who also presents the Nobel Prizes at the ceremony in December.[2][3] The prize money, which as of 2018 is 6,000,000 kr (or US$745,000), is intended to fund further research by the laureate.

The inaugural laureates, Vladimir Arnold and Louis Nirenberg, were cited by the Academy for their work in the field of non-linear differential equations. The first woman to be awarded the prize was astronomer Andrea Ghez in 2012.

The Crafoord Prize
Awarded forin astronomy and mathematics, biosciences, geosciences or polyarthritis research, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
CountrySweden
Presented byRoyal Swedish Academy of Sciences
First awarded1982
Websitewww.crafoordprize.se

Laureates

The Crafoord prize is awarded annually to the following scientists:[4]

Year Category Image Laureate Nationality Work Ref.
1982 Mathematics Vladimir Arnold-1.jpg Vladimir Arnold Russian Theory of non-linear differential equations [5][6]
Louis Nirenberg Louis Nirenberg Canadian American[A] [5][7]
1983 Geosciences Edward Norton Lorenz American Geophysical hydrodynamics [5][8]
Henry Stommel Henry Stommel American
1984 Biosciences Daniel Janzen Daniel H. Janzen American Co-evolution [5][9]
1985 Astronomy Lyman Spitzer Lyman Spitzer American Studies of the interstellar medium [5][10]
1986 Geosciences Claude Allègre Claude Allègre French Isotope geochemical relations [5][11]
Gerald J. Wasserburg American
1987 Biosciences Eugene Odum American Ecosystem ecology [5][12]
Howard T. Odum American
1988 Mathematics Pierre Deligne, seated, facing left and away from the camera Pierre Deligne Belgian Algebraic geometry [5][13]
Alexander Grothendieck.jpg Alexander Grothendieck None[B] [5][14]
1989 Geosciences James Van Allen James Van Allen American Exploration of space, the discovery of the Van Allen belts [5][11]
1990 Biosciences Paul R. Ehrlich Paul R. Ehrlich American Dynamics and genetics of fragmented populations [5][15]
Edward Osborne Wilson E. O. Wilson American Theory of island biogeography [5][16]
1991 Astronomy Allan Sandage American Study of galaxies [5][17]
1992 Geosciences Adolf Seilacher German Research into evolution of life [5][11]
1993 Biosciences W. D. Hamilton British Theories of kin selection and genetic relationship [5][18]
Seymour Benzer in his office at Caltech in 1974 with a big model of Drosophila Seymour Benzer American Genetical and neurophysiological studies of fruit flies [5][19]
1994 Mathematics Simon Donaldson Simon Donaldson British Four-dimensional geometry [5][20]
Shing-Tung Yau Shing-Tung Yau American[C] Non-linear techniques in differential geometry [5][21]
1995 Geosciences Willi Dansgaard Danish Development of isotope geological analysis methods [5][11]
Nicholas Shackleton Nicholas Shackleton British
1996 Biosciences Robert May Robert May Australian Ecological research [5][22]
1997 Astronomy Fred Hoyle Fred Hoyle British Study of nuclear processes in stars, stellar evolution [5][23]
Edwin Ernest Salpeter American [5][24]
1998 Geosciences Don L. Anderson Don L. Anderson American Study of the structures and processes in the interior of the Earth [5][19]
Adam Dziewoński Adam M. Dziewonski Polish/American[D] [5][25]
1999 Biosciences Ernst Mayr in 1994, after receiving an honorary degree at the University of Konstanz Ernst Mayr American Developing the concept of evolutionary biology [5][26]
John Maynard Smith.jpg John Maynard Smith British
George C. Williams American
2000 Polyarthritis Marc Feldmann British Definition of TNF-alpha [3][5]
Ravinder N. Maini Ravinder N. Maini British
2001 Mathematics Alain Connes Alain Connes French Theory of operator algebras, founder of the non-commutative geometry [5][27]
2002 Geosciences Dan McKenzie British Dynamics of the lithosphere [5][28]
2003 Biosciences Carl Woese Carl Woese American Third domain of life [5][29]
2004 Polyarthritis Eugene C. Butcher American Study of molecular mechanisms concerning white blood cells [5][30]
Timothy A. Springer American
2005 Astronomy James E. Gunn James E. Gunn American Understanding the large-scale structure of the Universe [5][19]
James Peebles James Peebles American [5][31]
Martin Rees delivering a lecture at Jodrell Bank Martin Rees British
2006 Geosciences Wallace Smith Broecker Wallace Smith Broecker American Research into the global carbon cycle [5][32]
2007 Biosciences Robert Trivers American Analysis of social evolution [5][33]
2008 Astronomy Rashid Sunyaev Rashid Alievich Sunyaev Russian Contributions to high-energy astrophysics and cosmology [5][34]
Mathematics Maxim Kontsevich Maxim Kontsevich Russian[E] Contributions to mathematics from modern theoretical physics [5][35]
Edward Witten writing on a blackboard Edward Witten American
2009 Polyarthritis Charles Dinarello Charles Dinarello American Isolation of interleukins, understanding their role in the onset of inflammatory diseases [5][36]
Tadamitsu Kishimoto Tadamitsu Kishimoto Japanese
Toshio Hirano Toshio Hirano Japanese
2010 Geosciences Walter Munk Walter Munk American "for his pioneering and fundamental contributions to our understanding of ocean circulation, tides and waves, and their role in the Earth's dynamics". [5][19]
2011 Biosciences Ilkka Hanski Ilkka Hanski Finnish "for his pioneering studies on how spatial variation affects the dynamics of animal and plant populations". [5][37]
2012 Astronomy Reinhard Genzel Reinhard Genzel German "for their observations of the stars orbiting the galactic centre, indicating the presence of a supermassive black hole". [5][38]
Andrea M. Ghez American
Mathematics Jean Bourgain Jean Bourgain Belgian "for their brilliant and groundbreaking work in harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, ergodic theory, number theory, combinatorics, functional analysis and theoretical computer science". [5][39]
Terence Tao Terence Tao Australian American
2013 Polyarthritis Peter K. Gregersen Peter K. Gregersen American "for their discoveries concerning the role of different genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis". [5][40]
Lars Klareskog Lars Klareskog Swedish
Robert J. Winchester Robert J. Winchester American
2014 Geosciences Peter Molnar American "for his ground-breaking contribution to the understanding of global tectonics, in particular the deformation of continents and the structure and evolution of mountain ranges, as well as the impact of tectonic processes on ocean-atmosphere circulation and climate". [5][41]
2015 Biosciences Richard Lewontin American "for their pioneering analyses and fundamental contributions to the understanding of genetic polymorphism". [5][42]
Tomoko Ohta Japanese
2016 Astronomy Roy Kerr 2016 01.jpg Roy Kerr New Zealand "for fundamental work concerning rotating black holes and their astrophysical consequences" [43][44]
Roger Blandford Roger Blandford American
Mathematics Yakov Eliashberg Yakov Eliashberg American[F] "for the development of contact and symplectic topology and groundbreaking discoveries of rigidity and flexibility phenomena"
2017 Polyarthritis Shimon Sakaguchi Shimon Sakaguchi Japanese "for their discoveries relating to regulatory T cells, which counteract harmful immune reactions in arthritis and other autoimmune diseases." [45]
Fred Ramsdell American
Alexander Rudensky Alexander Rudensky American[G]
2018 Geosciences Syukoro Manabe Japanese / American "for fundamental contributions to understanding the role of atmospheric trace gases in Earth’s climate system." [46]
Susan Solomon American
2019 Biosciences Sallie W. Chisholm American "for the discovery and pioneering studies of the most abundant photosynthesising organism on Earth, Prochlorococcus". [47]

Notes

a Nirenberg was born in Canada.[7]

b Grothendieck was born in Germany, but spent most of his life in France and was legally stateless. He declined his prize.[14]

c Shing-Tung Yau was born in China.[48]

d Dziewonski was born in Poland.[25]

e Kontsevich was born in Russia.[35]

f Eliashberg was born in Russia.[44]

g Rudensky was born in Russia.[49]

See also

References

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  47. ^ Crafoord Prize 2019
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External links

Alain Connes

Alain Connes (French: [alɛ̃ kɔn]; born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the Collège de France, IHÉS, Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University. He was an Invited Professor at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (2000).

Andrea M. Ghez

Andrea Mia Ghez (born June 16, 1965) is an American astronomer and professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UCLA. In 2004, Discover magazine listed Ghez as one of the top 20 scientists in the United States who have shown a high degree of understanding in their respective fields.

Don L. Anderson

Don Lynn Anderson (March 5, 1933 – December 2, 2014) was an American geophysicist who made significant contributions to the understanding of the origin, evolution, structure, and composition of Earth and other planets. An expert in numerous scientific disciplines, Anderson's work combined seismology, solid state physics, geochemistry and petrology to explain how the Earth works. Anderson was best known for his contributions to the understanding of the Earth's deep interior, and more recently, for the hypothesis that hotspots are the product of plate tectonics rather than narrow plumes emanating from the deep Earth. Anderson was Professor (Emeritus) of Geophysics in the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). He received numerous awards from geophysical, geological and astronomical societies. In 1998 he was awarded the prestigious Crafoord Prize by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences along with Adam Dziewonski. Later that year, Anderson received the National Medal of Science. He held honorary doctorates from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (where he did his undergraduate work in geology and geophysics) and the University of Paris (Sorbonne), and served on numerous university advisory committees, including those at Harvard, Princeton, Yale, University of Chicago, Stanford, University of Paris, Purdue University, and Rice University. Anderson's wide-ranging research resulted in hundreds of published papers in the fields of planetary science, seismology, mineral physics, petrology, geochemistry, tectonics and the philosophy of science. He continued to work and publish until his death. His widely known textbooks, Theory of the Earth, and New Theory of the Earth are regarded by colleagues as compelling syntheses of the origins of the Earth and its inner workings by one of the great geophysical authorities of our time.

Gerald J. Wasserburg

Gerald J. Wasserburg (March 25, 1927 – June 13, 2016) was an American geologist. At the time of his death, he was the John D. MacArthur Professor of Geology and Geophysics, Emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology. He was known for his work in the fields of isotope geochemistry, cosmochemistry, meteoritics, and astrophysics.

After leaving the US army, where he received the Combat Infantryman Badge, he graduated from high school and attended college on the G.I. Bill. Wasserburg completed his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1954, with a thesis on the development of K–Ar dating, done under the sponsorship of Prof. H. C. Urey and Prof M. G. Inghram. He joined the faculty at Caltech in 1955 as Assistant Professor. He became Associate Professor in 1959 and Professor of Geology and Geophysics in 1962. In 1982 he became the John D. MacArthur Professor of Geology and Geophysics; he retired in 2001. He, Typhoon Lee and D.A. Papanastassiou discovered the presence of short-lived radioactive 26Al in the early solar system and short-lived 107Pd with William R. Kelly.Wasserburg was deeply involved in the Apollo Program with the returned Lunar samples, including being a member of the so-called "Four Horsemen", along with Bob Walker, Jim Arnold, and Paul Werner Gast. He pioneered the precise measurement of ultra-small samples under strict clean room conditions with minimal contamination. He was the co-inventor of the Lunatic Spectrometer (the first fully digital mass spectrometer with computer-controlled magnetic field scanning & rapid switching) and founder of the "Lunatic Asylum" research laboratory at Caltech specializing in high precision, high sensitivity isotopic analyses of meteorites, lunar and terrestrial samples. He and his co-workers were major contributors to establishing a chronology for the Moon and proposed the hypothesis of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) of the whole inner solar system at near 4.0 Gy ago (with F. Tera, D. A. Papanastassiou).

Wasserburg's research led to a better understanding of the origins and history of the solar system and its component bodies and the precursor stellar sources contributing to the solar system; this research established a time scale for the development of the early solar system, including the processes of nucleosynthesis and the formation and evolution of the planets, the Moon and the meteorites. More recently, he investigated models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy.

He was a member of the U.S. National Academy of Science, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. He won the Arthur L. Day Medal in 1970, the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal in 1972 and 1978, the Wollaston Medal in 1985, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1991 and the Bowie Medal in 2008. He was co-winner, with Claude Allègre, of the Crafoord Prize in Geosciences in 1986. He was the recipient of several honorary degrees. He was recipient of the J.F.Kemp Medal with Paul W. Gast Columbia Univ 1973,the H. Hess Medal of the American Geophysical Union in 1985,the Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Soc. 1975,the J.Lawrence Smith Medal of the National Academy of Science 1985, the Arthur L. Day Prize & Lectureship of the National Academy of Science 1981, the Holmes Medal of the European Union of Geosciences in 1986 and the V. M. Goldschmidt medal of the Geochemical society in 1978.

Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques

The Institut des hautes études scientifiques (IHÉS; English: Institute of Advanced Scientific Studies) is a French institute supporting advanced research in mathematics and theoretical physics. It is located in Bures-sur-Yvette just south of Paris. It is now part of the federal University of Paris-Saclay as an advanced studies institute.

List of Columbia University people

This is a partially sorted list of notable persons who have had ties to Columbia University. For further listing of notable Columbians see: Notable alumni at Columbia College of Columbia University; Columbia University School of General Studies; Columbia Law School; Columbia Business School; Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism; Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation; Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons; Columbia University Graduate School of Education (Teachers College); Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science; Columbia Graduate School of Arts and Sciences; Columbia University School of Professional Studies; Columbia University School of the Arts; and the School of International and Public Affairs. The following lists are incomplete.

List of geophysicists

This is a list of geophysicists, people who made notable contributions to geophysics, whether or not geophysics was their primary field. These include historical figures who laid the foundations for the field of geophysics. More recently, some of the top awards for geophysicists are the Vetlesen Prize (intended to be the equivalent of a Nobel Prize for geology or geophysics); the William Bowie Medal (the top award of the American Geophysical Union); and the Crafoord Prize for geosciences. Some geophysicists have also won more general prizes such as the Nobel Prize and the Kyoto Prize.

Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics

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In 1991 the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics split up into the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, the Max Planck Institute for Physics and the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics. The Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics was founded as sub-institute in 1963. The

scientific activities of the institute are mostly devoted to astrophysics with telescopes orbiting in space. A large amount of the resources

are spent for studying black holes in the galaxy and in the remote universe.

Maxim Kontsevich

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Peter K. Gregersen

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Gregersen and his team conduct genome-wide scans to identify polymorphisms that are associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Myasthenia Gravis.

Along with Dr. Lars Klareskog and Robert J. Winchester, Gregersen, received the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences's 2013 Crafoord Prize "for their discoveries concerning the role of different genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis."Gregersen leads the North American Rheumatology Consortium to collect, analyze and make available clinical and genetic data on 1,000 sibling pairs with rheumatoid arthritis.

Peter Molnar (geophysicist)

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He is a winner of the Crafoord Prize and a fellow of the American Geophysical Union. He won the Crafoord Prize in 2014 for discovering "the driving forces behind plate motions and the place of continents in the plate tectonic model of Earth's evolution. Innovatively combining geological and geophysical methods of inquiry with satellite measurements and modelling, the Laureate has also paved the way to a new understanding of the formation of mountain ranges and their role in global tectonics."

Pierre Deligne

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Robert Trivers

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Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the royal academies of Sweden. It is an independent, non-governmental scientific organisation which takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.

Its purpose is to;

Att främja vetenskaperna och stärka deras inflytande i samhället(To promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society)Every year the academy awards the Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the Crafoord Prize, the Sjöberg Prize and several other prizes.

Sallie W. Chisholm

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Wallace Smith Broecker

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Yakov Eliashberg

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He received his Ph.D. from Leningrad University in 1972 under the direction of Vladimir Rokhlin. From 1972 to 1979 he taught at the Syktyvkar State University of Komi Republic of Russia and from 1980 to 1987 worked in industry as the head of a computer software group. In 1988 Eliashberg moved to the United States, and since 1989 he has been a professor of mathematics at Stanford University.

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