Crabeater seal

The crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga) is a true seal with a circumpolar distribution around the coast of Antarctica. They are medium- to large-sized (over 2 m in length), relatively slender and pale-colored, found primarily on the free-floating pack ice that extends seasonally out from the Antarctic coast, which they use as a platform for resting, mating, social aggregation and accessing their prey. They are by far the most abundant seal species in the world. While population estimates are uncertain, there are at least 7 million and possibly as many as 75 million individuals.[2] This success of this species is due to its specialized predation on the abundant Antarctic krill of the Southern Ocean, for which it has uniquely adapted, sieve-like tooth structure. Indeed, its scientific name, translated as "lobe-toothed (lobodon) crab eater (carcinophaga)", refers specifically to the finely lobed teeth adapted to filtering their small crustacean prey.[3] Despite its name, crabeater seals do not eat crabs. As well as being an important krill predator, the crabeater seal is an important component of the diet of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx), which consume about 80% of all crabeater pups.

Crabeater seal
Crabeater Seal in Pléneau Bay, Antarctica (6059168728)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Clade: Pinnipedia
Family: Phocidae
Genus: Lobodon
Gray, 1844
L. carcinophaga
Binomial name
Lobodon carcinophaga
Lobodon carcinophagus distribution
Distribution of crabeater seal

Lobodon carcinophagus

Taxonomy and evolution

The genus name of the crabeater seal, Lobodon, derives from Ancient Greek meaning "lobe-toothed", and the species name carcinophaga means "crab eater."[3] The crabeater seal shares a common recent ancestor with the other Antarctic seals, which are together known as the lobodontine seals. These include the leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), the Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii), and the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli).[4] These species, collectively belonging to the Lobodontini tribe of seals, share teeth adaptations including lobes and cusps useful for straining smaller prey items out of the water column. The ancestral Lobodontini likely diverged from their sister clade, the Mirounga (elephant seals) in the late Miocene to early Pliocene, when they migrated southward and diversified rapidly in the relative isolation around Antarctica.[4]


Crâne de Phoque crabier
Illustration of the skull

Adult seals (over five years old) grow to an average length of 2.3 m (7.5 ft) and an average weight of around 200 kg (440 lb). Females are on average 6 cm (2.4 in) longer and around 8 kilograms (18 lb) heavier than males, though their weights fluctuate substantially according to season; females can lose up to 50% of their body weight during lactation, and males lose a significant proportion of weight as they attend to their mating partners and fight off rivals.[5] During summer, males typically weigh 200 kilograms (440 lb), and females 215 kilograms (474 lb). A molecular genetic based technique has been established to confirm the sex of individuals in the laboratory.[6] Large crabeater seals can weigh up to 300 kg (660 lb).[7] Pups are about 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) in length and 20 to 30 kilograms (44 to 66 lb) at birth. While nursing, pups grow at a rate of about 4.2 kilograms (9.3 lb) a day, and grow to be around 100 kilograms (220 lb) when they are weaned at two or three weeks.[3][8]

These seals are covered mostly by brown or silver fur, with darker coloration around flippers. The color fades throughout the year, and recently molted seals appear darker than the silvery-white crabeater seals that are about to molt. Their body is comparatively more slender than other seals, and the snout is pointed. Crabeater seals can raise their heads and arch their backs while on ice, and they are able to move quickly if not subject to overheating. Crabeater seals exhibit scarring either from leopard seal attacks around the flippers or, for males, during the breeding season while fighting for mates around the throat and jaw.[3] Pups are born with a light brown, downy pelage (lanugo), until the first molt at weaning. Younger animals are marked by net-like, chocolate brown markings and flecks on the shoulders, sides and flanks, shading into the predominantly dark hind and fore flippers and head, often due to scarring from leopard seals. After molting, their fur is a darker brown fading to blonde on their bellies. The fur lightens throughout the year, becoming completely blonde in summer.

Crabeaters have relatively slender bodies and long skulls and snouts compared to other phocids. Perhaps their most distinctive adaptation is the unique dentition that enables this species to sieve Antarctic krill. The postcanine teeth are finely divided with multiple cusps. Together with the tight fit of the upper and lower jaw, a bony protuberance near the back of the mouth completes a near-perfect sieve within which krill are trapped.[3]

Distribution and population

Crabeater seals have a continuous circumpolar distribution surrounding Antarctica, with only occasional sightings or strandings in the extreme southern coasts of Brazil, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.[3] They spend the entire year on the pack ice zone as it advances and retreat seasonally, primarily staying within the continental shelf area in waters less than 600 m deep.[9] They colonized Antarctica during the late Miocene or early Pliocene (15-25 million years ago), at a time when the region was much warmer than today. The population is connected and fairly well mixed (panmictic), and genetic evidence does not suggest any subspecies separations.[10] A genetic survey did not detect evidence of a recent, sustained genetic bottleneck in this species,[11] which suggests that populations do not appear to have suffered a substantial and sustained decline in the recent past.

Currently, no reliable estimates of the total crabeater seal population are available. Past estimates relied on minimal opportunistic sighting and much speculation, ranging from 2 million[12] to 50-75 million individuals.[13] Genetic evidence suggests that crabeater population numbers may have increased during the Pleistocene.[14] The most recent point estimate is 7 million individuals,[15] but this, too, is considered a likely underestimate.[1] An international effort, the Antarctic Pack Ice Seal initiative, is currently underway to evaluate systematically collected survey data and obtain reliable estimates of all Antarctic seal abundances.[3]


Crabeater Seals (js)
Two crabeater seals

Crabeater seals have an atypical, serpentine gait when on ice or land, combining retractions of the foreflippers with undulations of the lumbar region.[2] This method of locomotion leaves a distinctive sinuous body track and can be extremely effective. When not subject to overheating (i.e. on cold days), speeds on land of 19–26 km/h (12–16 mph) have been recorded for short distances.[2] Satellite tracking data have resulted in conservative estimates of swimming speeds of 66 km/day and 12.7 km/h. While swimming, crabeaters have been known to engage in porpoising (leaping entirely out of the water) and spyhopping (raising the body vertically out of the water for visual inspection) behaviors.[2]

The most gregarious of the Antarctic seals, crabeaters have been observed on the ice in aggregations of up to 1,000 hauled out animals and in swimming groups of several hundred individuals, breathing and diving almost synchronously. These aggregations consist primarily of younger animals. Adults are more typically encountered alone or in small groups of up to three on the ice or in the water.[3]

Crabeater seals give birth during the Antarctic spring from September to December.[16] Rather than aggregate in reproductive rookeries, females haul out on ice to give birth singly. Adult males attend female-pup pairs until the female begins estrus one to two weeks after the pup is weaned before mating. Copulation has not been observed directly and presumably occurs in water. Pups are weaned in about three weeks,[17] at which time they are also beginning to molt into a subadult coat similar to the adult pelage.[2]

Curiously, crabeater seals have been known to wander further inland than any other pinniped. Carcasses have been found over 100 km from the water and over 1000 m above sea level, where they can be mummified in the dry, cold air and conserved for centuries.[18]



Lobodon carcinophaga teeth
Illustration of the teeth of crabeater seals which are used to strain krill from the water

Despite its name, the crabeater seal does not feed on crabs (the few crab species in its range are mostly found in very deep water[19]). Rather, it is a specialist predator on Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), which comprise over 90% of the diet.[2] Their high abundance is a testament to the extreme success of Antarctic krill, the single species with the greatest biomass on the planet.[20] There is little seasonality in their prey preference, but they may target adult and male krill.[2] Other prey items include cephalopods and diverse Antarctic fish species.[2] Although the crabeater seal is sympatric with the other Antarctic seal species (Weddell, Ross and leopard seals), the specialization on krill minimizes interspecific food competition. Among krill-feeding whales, only blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) and minke whales (B. acutorostrata) extend their range as far south as the pack ice where the crabeater seals are most frequent.[2]

While no reliable historical population estimates have been done, population models suggest crabeater seal populations may have increased at rates up to 9% a year in the 20th century, due to the removal of large baleen whales (especially the blue whale) during the period of industrial whaling and the subsequent explosion in krill biomass and removal of important competitive forces.[21]


Antarctic, Crabeater Seal (js) 9
Crabeater seal with visible scars on the neck

Young crabeater seals experience significant predation by leopard seals. Indeed, first-year mortality is exceedingly high, possibly reaching 80%, and up to 78% of crabeaters that survive through their first year have injuries and scars from leopard seal attacks.[1] Long scars and sets of parallel scars, visible on the otherwise pale and relatively unmarked pelage of crabeaters, are present on nearly all young seals. The incidence of visible scars falls off significantly after the first year, suggesting leopard seals primarily target the young of the year.[22] The high predation pressure has clear impacts on the demography and life history of crabeater seals, and has likely had an important role in shaping social behaviors, including aggregation of subadults.[2]

Predation by killer whales (Orcinus orca) is poorly documented, though all ages are hunted.[23] While most predation occurs in the water, coordinated attacks by groups of killer whales creating a wave to wash the hauled-out seal off floating ice have been observed.[24]


Antarctic (js) 7
Phoque crabier - Crabeater Seal
Two crab-eater seals on the ice, Weddell Sea (4792722735)

See also


  1. ^ a b c Southwell, C. (2008). "Lobodon carcinophaga". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Adam, P.J. (2005). "Lobodon carcinophaga". Mammalian Species. 772: 1–14. doi:10.1644/1545-1410(2005)772[0001:lc];2.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Bengtson, J. A. (2002). "Crabeater seal Lobodon carcinophaga". In Perrin, W. F.; Wursig, B.; Thiewissen, J. G. M. Encyclopedia of marine mammals. London, UK: Academic Press. pp. 290–292.
  4. ^ a b Fyler, C.A.; Reeder, T.W.; Berta, A.; Antonelis, G.; Aguilar, A.; Androukaki (2005). "Historical biogeography and phylogeny of monachine seals (Pinnipedia: Phocidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data". Journal of Biogeography. 32 (7): 1267–1279. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01281.x.
  5. ^ Laws, R.; Baird, A.; Bryden, M. (2003). "Size and growth of the crabeater seal Lobodon carcinophagus (Mammalia: Carnivora)". Journal of Zoology. 259 (1): 103–108. CiteSeerX doi:10.1017/s0952836902003072.
  6. ^ Curtis, Caitlin; Stewart, Brent S.; Karl, Stephen A. (2007-05-01). "Sexing Pinnipeds with ZFX and ZFY Loci". Journal of Heredity. 98 (3): 280–285. doi:10.1093/jhered/esm023. ISSN 0022-1503. PMID 17548861.
  7. ^ [1] (2011).
  8. ^ Shaughnessy, P.; Kerry, K. (2006). "Crabeater seals Lobodon carcinophagus during the breeding season: observations on five groups near Enderby Land, Antarctica". Marine Mammal Science. 5 (1): 68–77. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1989.tb00214.x.
  9. ^ Burns, J., Costa, D., Fedak, M., Hindell, M., Bradshaw, C., Gales, N., McDonald, B., Trumble, S. & Crocker, D. (2004). Winter habitat use and foraging behavior of crabeater seals along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 51 (17-19), 2279-2303.
  10. ^ Davis C, Stirling I, Strobeck C (2000) Genetic diversity of Antarctic pack ice seals in relation to life history characteristics. In: Antarctic Ecosystems: Models for Wider Ecological Understanding (eds Davison W, Howard-Williams C, Broady P), pp. 56-62. The Caxton Press, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  11. ^ Curtis, Caitlin; Stewart, Brent S.; Karl, Stephen A. (2011-07-07). "Genetically effective population sizes of Antarctic seals estimated from nuclear genes". Conservation Genetics. 12 (6): 1435–1446. doi:10.1007/s10592-011-0241-x. ISSN 1566-0621.
  12. ^ Scheffer, V. B. (1958). Seals, sea lions and walruses: A review of the Pinnipedia. Stanford University Press, Stanford, USA.
  13. ^ Erickson, A. W., Siniff, D. B., Cline, D. R. and Hofman, R. J. (1971). Distributional ecology of Antarctic seals. In: G. Deacon (ed.), Symposium on Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, pp. 55-76. Sci. Comm. Antarct Res., Cambridge, UK.
  14. ^ Curtis, Caitlin; Stewart, Brent S; Karl, Stephen A (2009). "Pleistocene population expansions of Antarctic seals". Molecular Ecology. 18 (10): 2112–2121. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04166.x. ISSN 1365-294X. PMID 19344354.
  15. ^ Erickson, A. W. and Hanson, M. B. (1990). Continental estimates and population trends of antarctic ice seals. In: K. R. Kerry and G. Hempel (eds), Antarctic Ecosystems. Ecological change and conservation, pp. 253-264. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
  16. ^ Southwell, C.; Kerry, K.; Ensor, P.; Woehler, E. J.; Rogers, T. (2003). "The timing of pupping by pack-ice seals in East Antarctica". Polar Biology. 26 (10): 648–652. doi:10.1007/s00300-003-0534-8.
  17. ^ Southwell, C.; Paxton, C. G. M.; Borchers, D.; Boveng, P.; de la Mare, W. (2008). "Taking account of dependent species in management of the Southern Ocean krill fishery: estimating crabeater seal abundance off east Antarctica". Journal of Applied Ecology. 45 (2): 622–631. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01399.x.
  18. ^ Stirling, I.; Kooyman, G.L. (1971). "The crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophagus) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, and the origin of the mummified seals". Journal of Mammalogy. 52 (1): 175–180. doi:10.2307/1378440. JSTOR 1378440.
  19. ^ H.J. Griffiths; R.J. Whittle; S.J. Roberts; M. Belchier; K. Linse (2013). "Antarctic Crabs: Invasive or Endurance?". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e66981. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066981. PMC 3700924. PMID 23843974.
  20. ^ Nicol, S.; Endo, Y. (1997). Fisheries Technical Paper 367: Krill Fisheries of the World. FAO.
  21. ^ Mori, M.; Butterworth, D. (2006). "A first step towards modelling the krill-predator dynamics of the Antarctic ecosystem". CCAMLR Science. 13: 217–277.
  22. ^ Siniff, D.B.; Bengston, J.L. (1977). "Observations and hypotheses concerning the interactions about crabeater seals, leopard seals and killer whales". Journal of Mammalogy. 58 (3): 414–416. doi:10.2307/1379341. JSTOR 1379341.
  23. ^ Siniff, D. B. (1991). "An overview of the ecology of Antarctic seals". American Zoologist. 31: 143–149. doi:10.1093/icb/31.1.143.
  24. ^ Smith, T. G.; Siniff, D. B.; Reichle, R.; Stone, S. (1981). "Coordinated behavior of killer whales (Orcinus orca) hunting a crabeater seal, Lobodon carcinophagus". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 59 (6): 1185–1189. doi:10.1139/z81-167.

External links


A crabeater is an animal species that feeds on crabs. It may refer to:

Cobia, a species of fish which also is commonly called crabeater

Crabeater seal, a species of seal

Crabeater gull, also known as Olrog's gull

Crab-eating fox, a canid species

Crab-eating raccoon, a raccoon species

Crab-eating mongoose, a mongoose species

Crab-plover, a shorebird species

Crab-eating frog, a frog species

Fordonia leucobalia, also known as crab-eating water snake

Crab-eating macaque, a simian species

Crabeater Point

Crabeater Point (68°46′S 64°10′W) is a headland at the southeast extremity of Mobiloil Inlet, 4 nautical miles (7 km) east of Victory Nunatak, on the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The point, the northwest extremity of a prominent ridge, was photographed from aircraft of the United States Antarctic Service on September 28, 1940, and by the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition (trimetrogon air photos), December 22, 1947. It was surveyed in December 1958 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey who gave the descriptive name. The ridge of which this point is the extremity resembles a recumbent crabeater seal when seen from the air.

Earless seal

The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia. All true seals are members of the family Phocidae . They are sometimes called crawling seals to distinguish them from the fur seals and sea lions of the family Otariidae. Seals live in the oceans of both hemispheres and, with the exception of the more tropical monk seals, are mostly confined to polar, subpolar, and temperate climates. The Baikal seal is the only species of exclusively freshwater seal.

East Antarctica

East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, separated from West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. It lies almost entirely within the Eastern Hemisphere and its name has been accepted for more than a century. It is generally higher than West Antarctica and includes the Gamburtsev Mountain Range in the centre.

Apart from small areas of the coast, East Antarctica is permanently covered by ice. The only terrestrial plant life is lichens, mosses and algae clinging to rocks, and there are a limited range of invertebrates including nematodes, springtails, mites and midges. The coasts are the breeding ground for various seabirds and penguins, and the leopard seal, Weddell seal, elephant seal, crabeater seal and Ross seal breed on the surrounding pack ice in summer.

Ice seal

Ice seal, or (in the Southern Hemisphere) pack-ice seal is a general term applied to any one of a number of pinniped species of the family Phocidae whose life cycle is completed largely on or about the sea ice of the Earth's polar regions.

The following are widely considered pagophilic or "ice-loving" species:[1][2]

Subfamily Monachinae

Ross seal

Crabeater seal

Leopard seal

Weddell sealSubfamily Phocinae

Bearded seal

Hooded seal

Harp seal

Ringed seal

Ribbon seal

Spotted seal or larga seal


Janjucetus is an extinct genus of cetacean, and a basal baleen whale (Mysticeti), from the Late Oligocene around 25 million years ago (mya) off southeast Australia, containing one species J. hunderi. Unlike modern mysticetes, it possessed large teeth for gripping and shredding prey, and lacked baleen, and so was likely to have been a predator that captured large single prey animals rather than filter feeding. However, its teeth may have interlocked, much like those of the modern-day filter feeding crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga), which would have allowed some filter feeding behavior. Its hunting behaviour was probably similar to the modern day leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), probably eating large fish. Like baleen whales, Janjucetus could not echolocate; however, it did have unusually large eyes, and so probably had an acute sense of vision. The only specimen was found on the Jan Juc beach, where the remains of the extinct whales Mammalodon, Prosqualodon, and Waipatia have also been discovered.

Leopard seal

The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal). Its only natural predators are the killer whale. It feeds on a wide range of prey including cephalopods, other pinnipeds, krill, birds and fish. It is the only species in the genus Hydrurga. Its closest relatives are the Ross seal, the crabeater seal and the Weddell seal, which together are known as the tribe of lobodontini seals. The name hydrurga means "water worker" and leptonyx is the Greek for "small clawed".

List of mammals of Victoria

This is a list of mammals of Victoria, Australia:

Acrobates pygmaeus (feathertail glider)

Aepyprymnus rufescens (rufous rat-kangaroo)

Antechinus agilis (agile antechinus)

Antechinus flavipes (yellow-footed antechinus)

Antechinus minimus (swamp antechinus)

Antechinus swainsonii (dusky antechinus)

Arctocephalus forsteri (New Zealand fur seal)

Arctocephalus pusillus (Cape fur seal)

Arctocephalus tropicalis (subantarctic fur seal)

Balaenoptera acutorostrata (minke whale)

Balaenoptera edeni (Bryde's whale)

Balaenoptera musculus (blue whale)

Balaenoptera physalus (fin whale)

Bettongia gaimardi (eastern bettong)

Bettongia penicillata (woylie)

Burramys parvus (mountain pygmy possum)

Canis lupus dingo (dingo)

Caperea marginata (pygmy right whale)

Capra hircus (goat) — naturalised

Cercartetus concinnus (southwestern pygmy possum)

Cercartetus lepidus (Tasmanian pygmy possum)

Cercartetus nanus (eastern pygmy possum)

Axis axis (axis deer) — naturalised

Dama dama (fallow deer) — naturalised

Cervus timorensis (rusa deer) — naturalised

Chalinolobus gouldii (Gould's wattled bat)

Chalinolobus morio (chocolate wattled bat)

Chaeropus ecaudatus (pig-footed bandicoot) - extinct

Conilurus albipes (white-footed rabbit-rat)

Dasyurus maculatus (tiger quoll)

Dasyurus geoffroii (western quoll)

Dasyurus viverrinus (eastern quoll)

Delphinus delphis (short-beaked common dolphin)

Equus caballus (horse) — naturalised

Eubalaena australis (southern right whale)

Falsistrellus tasmaniensis (eastern false pipistrelle)

Felis catus (cat) — naturalised

Globicephala melas (long-finned pilot whale)

Grampus griseus (Risso's dolphin)

Gymnobelideus leadbeateri (Leadbeater's possum)

Hydromys chrysogaster (water rat)

Hydrurga leptonyx (leopard seal)

Hyperoodon planifrons (bottlenose whale)

Isoodon obesulus (southern brown bandicoot)

Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale)

Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser's dolphin)

Lagorchestes leporides (eastern hare-wallaby) — extinct

Lepus europaeus (brown hare) — naturalised

Leporillus apicalis (lesser stick rat)

Lobodon carcinophaga (crabeater seal)

Macropus fuliginosus (western grey kangaroo)

Macropus giganteus (eastern grey kangaroo)

Macropus greyi (toolache wallaby) — extinct

Macropus robustus (eastern wallaroo)

Macropus rufogriseus (red-necked wallaby)

Macropus rufus (red kangaroo)

Macrotis lagotis (greater bilby)

Mastacomys fuscus (broad-toothed mouse)

Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale)

Mesoplodon bowdoini (Andrews' beaked whale)

Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon ginkgodens (ginkgo-toothed beaked whale)

Mesoplodon grayi (Gray's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon layardii (Layard's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon mirus (True's beaked whale)

Miniopterus schreibersii (common bentwing bat)

Mirounga leonina (southern elephant seal)

Mormopterus planiceps (southern free-tailed bat)

Mus musculus (house mouse) — naturalised

Myotis adversus (large-footed bat)

Neophoca cinerea (Australian sea lion)

Ningaui yvonneae (southern ningaui)

Notomys mitchellii (Mitchell's hopping mouse)

Nyctophilus geoffroyi (lesser long-eared bat)

Nyctophilus gouldi (Gould's long-eared bat)

Nyctophilus timoriensis (greater long-eared bat)

Onychogalea fraenata (bridled nail-tail wallaby)

Orcinus orca (orca)

Ornithorhynchus anatinus (platypus)

Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) — naturalised

Perameles bougainville (western barred bandicoot)

Perameles gunnii (eastern barred bandicoot)

Perameles nasuta (long-nosed bandicoot)

Petauroides volans (greater glider)

Petaurus australis (yellow-bellied glider)

Petaurus breviceps (sugar glider)

Petaurus norfolcensis (squirrel glider)

Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby)

Phascogale calura (red-tailed phascogale)

Phascogale tapoatafa (brush-tailed phascogale)

Phascolarctos cinereus (koala)

Physeter macrocephalus (sperm whale)

Planigale gilesi (paucident planigale)

Potorous longipes (long-footed potoroo)

Potorous tridactylus (long-nosed potoroo)

Pseudocheirus peregrinus (common ringtail possum)

Pseudomys apodemoides (silky mouse)

Pseudomys australis (plains rat)

Pseudomys bolami (Bolam's mouse)

Pseudomys desertor (brown desert mouse)

Pseudomys fumeus (smoky mouse)

Pseudomys gouldii (Gould's mouse)

Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland mouse)

Pseudomys shortridgei (heath mouse)

Pseudorca crassidens (false killer whale)

Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying-fox)

Pteropus scapulatus (little red flying-fox)

Rattus fuscipes (bush rat)

Rattus lutreolus (Australian swamp rat)

Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) — naturalised

Rattus rattus (black rat) — naturalised

Rhinolophus megaphyllus (smaller horseshoe bat)

Saccolaimus flaviventris (yellow-bellied pouched bat)

Scotorepens balstoni (western broad-nosed bat)

Scotorepens orion (eastern broad-nosed bat)

Sminthopsis crassicaudata (fat-tailed dunnart)

Sminthopsis leucopus (white-footed dunnart)

Sminthopsis murina (slender-tailed dunnart)

Sus scrofa (pig) — naturalised

Tachyglossus aculeatus (short-beaked echidna)

Tadarida australis (white-striped free-tailed bat)

Thylogale billardierii (Tasmanian pademelon)

Trichosurus caninus (short-eared possum)

Trichosurus vulpecula (common brushtail possum)

Tursiops australis (burrunan dolphin)

Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin)

Vespadelus baverstocki (inland forest bat)

Vespadelus darlingtoni (large forest bat)

Vespadelus regulus (southern forest bat)

Vespadelus vulturnus (little forest bat)

Vombatus ursinus (common wombat)

Vulpes vulpes (fox) — naturalised

Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby)

Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier's beaked whale)


Llanocetus (“Llano's whale”) is a genus of extinct toothed baleen whales from the Late Eocene of Antarctica. The whale reached gigantic proportions, with the juvenile specimen reaching an estimated 8 m (26 ft) in length. Like contemporary baleen whales, Llanocetus completely lacked baleen in its jaws. It was probably a suction feeder like the modern beaked and pygmy right whales.

Lobodon Island

Lobodon Island is an island lying 6 kilometres (3.5 nmi) east of Wauters Point, Two Hummock Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. It was photographed by the Falkland Islands and Dependencies Aerial Survey Expedition in December 1956, and was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1960 after Lobodon carcinophagus, the crabeater seal.


The true seal tribe Lobodontini, collectively known as the lobodontine seals, consist of four species of seals in four genera: the crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga), the leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli), and the Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii). All lobodontine seals have circumpolar distributions surrounding Antarctica. They include both the world's most abundant seal (the crabeater seal) and the only predominantly mammal-eating seal (the leopard seal). While the Weddell seal prefers the shore-fast ice, the other species live primarily on and around the off-shore pack ice. Thus, though they are collectively the most abundant group of seals in the world, the combination of remote range and inaccessible habitat make them among the least well studied of the world's seals.


Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.


Nyctereutes is an Old World genus of the family Canidae, consisting of just one living species, the raccoon dog of East Asia. Nyctereutes appeared about 9.0 million years ago (Mya), with all but one species becoming extinct before the Pleistocene.

Native to East Asia, the raccoon dog has been intensively bred for fur in Europe and especially in Russia during the twentieth century. Specimens have escaped or have been introduced to increase production and formed populations in Eastern Europe. It is currently expanding rapidly in the rest of Europe, where its presence is undesirable because it is considered to be a harmful and invasive species.

Rippon Glacier

Rippon Glacier is a small glacier located in Kemp Land, East Antarctica. It is close east of Seaton Glacier, flowing southward into Edward VIII Ice Shelf.

Ross seal

The Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii) is a true seal (family Phocidae) with a range confined entirely to the pack ice of Antarctica. It is the only species of the genus Ommatophoca. First described during the Ross expedition in 1841, it is the smallest, least abundant and least well known of the Antarctic pinnipeds. Its distinctive features include disproportionately large eyes, whence its scientific name (Ommato- meaning "eye", and phoca meaning "seal"), and complex, trilling and siren-like vocalizations. Ross seals are brachycephalic, as they have a short broad muzzle and have the shortest fur of any other seal.

Scotia Sea

The Scotia Sea is a sea located at the northern edge of the Southern Ocean at its boundary with the South Atlantic Ocean. It is bounded on the west by the Drake Passage and on the north, east, and south by the Scotia Arc, an undersea ridge and island arc system supporting various islands. The sea sits atop the Scotia Plate. It is named after the expedition ship Scotia.

View Point

View Point (63°33′S 57°22′W) is 150m long eastern tip of a promontory, on Antarctica, forming the west side of the entrance to Duse Bay on the south coast of Trinity Peninsula, on the northern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula. Situated 6.79 km east of Skomlya Hill and 6.45 km southeast of Boil Point. Discovered by a party under J. Gunnar Andersson of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1901-04. So named by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) following their survey of the area in 1945 because from this promontory, good panoramic photographs were obtained.

Extant Carnivora species

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