County of Roussillon

The County of Roussillon (Catalan: Comtat de Rosselló, IPA: [kumˈtad də rusəˈʎo], Latin: Comitatus Ruscinonensis) was one of the Catalan counties in the Marca Hispanica during the Middle Ages. The rulers of the county were the Counts of Roussillon, whose interests lay both north and south of the Pyrenees.

County of Roussillon

Comtat de Rosselló  (Catalan)
759–1172
The County of Roussillon and other Catalan counties
The County of Roussillon and other Catalan counties
CapitalPerpignan
Religion
Roman Catholic
GovernmentCounty
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Establishment
759
• Annexed into the Principality of Catalonia
1172
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Emirate of Córdoba
Principality of Catalonia
Today part of France
RoussillonCoA
Coat of arms of Roussillon (see also senyera).

Visigothic county

There was a Visigothic county around the city of Ruscino in the 6th and 7th centuries with a jurisdiction corresponding to the Diocese of Elna. This primitive county comprising the historic comarques of Plana del Roselló, Conflent, and Vallespir was created by Liuva I in 571. The Visigothic legacy in Roussillon survived in its courts, where Visigothic law was applied exclusively as late as the 11th century.[1]

Roussillon was occupied by the Moors in 721. It was probably conquered for the Frankish Empire by Pepin the Short and his Visigothic allies in 760, immediately following his conquest of Narbonne, though all that is certain is that it was in Frankish hands during the reign of Charlemagne.[2] Roussillon had been nearly completely depopulated, was not widely cultivated, and land use was very inefficient, which has often been explained by Moorish razzias and Frankish reprisals over a span of forty years.[3]

Pepin reestablished the old Gothic county with its seat at Ruscino. The new count—a Goth—built a castle at their capital: the castrum or castellum Rossilio, by which Ruscino came to be known as Castell-Rosselló. Beginning in 780, Charlemagne started granting aprisiones of unpopulated land in Roussillon and around Narbonne to incoming spani (or hispani, that is, Christian Spaniards of Gothic, Roman, and Basque origin).[4] These spani migrants, along with the native Gothic aristocracy, took part in the reconquest of the southern slopes of the Pyrenees and the Tarraconensian littoral which formed the new Marca Hispanica.[5]

Union with Empúries

The history of the Frankish county in the 8th and 9th centuries is not well known. In the Carolingian age, it may have formed the westernmost extent of non-Basque settlement in the Pyrenees.[6] It was affected by the second wave of monasticism which swept Catalonia in the first half of the 9th century and saw the foundation and imperial recognition of new monasteries, as at Saint-Genesius des Fonts, Saint-Clement de Regulla, and Saint-André de Sureda in 819 and 823 respectively.[7] In 859–860, a fleet of Vikings under Hasting and Bjorn plundered the abbeys of Roussillon before wintering in the Camargue.[8]

The first count known by name, Gaucelm, received the County of Empúries in 817 and those counties remained united until 989. They probably had separate viscounts, however; the office of viscount appeared in Roussillon early when a Richelm is mentioned as filling it in 859.[9] The original viscounts acted as missi dominici of the Margraves of Septimania.[10] Throughout this period, Roussillon gradually gained de facto independence from its nominal suzerain, the King of France. As late as 878, Louis the Stammerer could enforce his will in the selection of Roussillon's count, but by the end of the 9th century the royal writ rarely ran as far south as the Pyrenees. The counties of Roussillon and Empúries became relatively stable, hereditary possessions of the Bellonid family; Gausfred I even took the title dux (duke) in 975.[11]

Late in the 10th century, Alt Rosselló, Conflent, and inland Vallespir passed to the Counts of Cerdanya and Roussillon was reduced to the coastal regions of Roussillon and Vallespir. Throughout the century, Empúries was the centre of comital power and the counts had their seat there. It was only when Viking and Moorish pirates forced him to move from the coast to the more easily defensible inland that Gausfred I made his capital at Castelló d'Empúries. After his death, the counties were separated, with Roussillon going to his younger son, Giselbert I.

The division, however, was made under certain stipulations of the deceased count. First, both counts had a right to attend the synods and tribunals held in either county. Second, rights of justice were shared between the two counts. Third, the count of Roussillon had the right to make his residence in Empúries, the ancient capital. And finally, that either count could possess lands in either county. In 1014, Hugh I of Empúries invaded Roussillon, but in 1019 a pact was signed making the two counties permanently separate entities.

Tregua Dei

Roussillon was the site of the first promulgation of the Truce of God (tregua Dei). In 1027, a council of Elna was held in the meadow of Toulouges, because the throng of attendees was so great: clergymen, aristocrats, and poor men and women. The council first decreed a series of canons in keeping with the Peace of God (pax Dei) movement inaugurated at Charroux Abbey in 989 and which had spread across Aquitaine, Gascony, the Languedoc, and Catalonia like wildfire. The Elna council, however, went a step further than previous local councils. It also declared a truce effective from Saturday evening until Monday morning each week: "No one dwelling in the aforesaid county and diocese [of Roussillon] should assail any enemy of his from the ninth hour on Saturday to the first hour on Monday, so that everyone may render the honour owed to the Lord's day."[12] The truce spread rapidly through Languedoc and was soon extended so that it was generally understood that fighting was prohibited between Wednesday evening and dawn Monday.

Independent Roussillon

Giselbert moved the capital of Roussillon from Castellrosellón to a village named Perpignan, which was destined to be the first city of Roussillon, in preference to the episcopal seat of Elna. Giselbert II made a pact with Empúries concerning military and ecclesiastical possessions. During this period, Roussillon fell more under the influence of the Count of Toulouse to its north than the Count of Barcelona to its south, contrary to the path of most of the Catalan counties. It also suffered under a series of coastal raids by the navy of the taifa kingdom of Denia.[13]

In the mid-12th century, under Gausfred III, Roussillon experienced an epoch of turbulence with increased attacks from both Empúries and Moorish pirates. Gausfred's eldest son also rebelled. In order to quell his son's revolt, he made him Lord of Perpignan and heir apparent.

On the death of Gerard II without heirs in 1172, Roussillon passed, as per prior agreement of the nobles with the count, to Alfonso II of Aragon. It was thought that the Crown of Aragon could protect Roussillon from the pretensions of Empúries, which still possessed certain communal rights in Roussillon. In 1173, Alfonso called an assembly at Perpignan, where he declared a peace for all Roussillon and the diocese of Elna.

Roussillon in the Crown of Aragon

Roussillon was, along with Cerdanya and Conflent, the subject of a major cartulary under Alfonso II or perhaps Peter II: the Liber feudorum Ceritaniae. It is a record of charters, usually related to castle- and land-holding in the three counties, from the archive of the counts of Barcelona.

Notes

  1. ^ Lewis, 124–126.
  2. ^ Lewis, 25.
  3. ^ Lewis, 18.
  4. ^ Lewis, 39–40.
  5. ^ Lewis, 39–40.
  6. ^ Lewis, 5.
  7. ^ Lewis, 48, 82.
  8. ^ Lewis, 102.
  9. ^ Lewis, 115.
  10. ^ Lewis, 118.
  11. ^ Lewis, 198, 208.
  12. ^ Jordan, 26.
  13. ^ Lewis, 288.

Sources

  • Bisson, Thomas N. "Une paix peu connue pour le Roussillon (A.D. 1173)." Droit Privé et Institutions Régionales. Études Historiques Offertes à Jean Yver (Paris, 1976), pp. 69–76. Reprinted in Medieval France and her Pyrenean Neighbours: Studies in Early Institutional History (London: Hambledon, 1989), pp. 179–86.
  • Lewis, Archibald Ross. The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718–1050. University of Texas Press: Austin, 1965.
  • Jordan, William Chester. Europe in the High Middle Ages. London: Viking, 2003.
Aragonese Crusade

The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragon, a part of the larger War of the Sicilian Vespers, was declared by Pope Martin IV against the King of Aragon, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. Because of the recent conquest of Sicily by Peter, the Pope declared a crusade against him and officially deposed him as king, on the grounds that Sicily was a papal fief: Peter's grandfather and namesake, Peter II, had surrendered the kingdom as a fief to the Holy See. Martin bestowed Aragon on Charles, Count of Valois, son of the French king, Philip III, and nephew of Peter III.

The crusade soon caused civil war within Aragon, as Peter's brother, King James II of Majorca, joined the French. James had also inherited the County of Roussillon and thus stood between the dominions of the French and Aragonese monarchs. Peter had opposed James' inheritance as a younger son and reaped the consequence of such rivalry in the crusade.

Peter's eldest son, the future Alfonso III, was placed in charge of defending the border with Navarre, which was ruled by Philip III's son, Philip the Fair. Although Peter feared a full-scale invasion from Navarre, there were only some cross-border raids. The Navarrese king joined the main invading army under his father.In 1284, the first French armies under Philip and Charles entered Roussillon. They included 16,000 cavalry, 17,000 crossbowmen, and 100,000 infantry, along with 100 ships in south French ports. Though they had James' support, the local populace rose against them. The city of Elne was valiantly defended by the so-called Bâtard de Roussillon (Bastard of Roussillon), the illegitimate son of Nuño Sánchez, late count of Roussillon (1212–1242). Eventually he was overcome and the cathedral was burned, despite the presence of papal legates, while the population was massacred, all save the Bâtard. He succeeded in negotiating his surrender and accompanied the advancing royal forces as a prisoner.

In 1285, Philip the Bold entrenched himself before Girona in an attempt to besiege it. The resistance was strong, but the city was taken. Charles was crowned there, but without an actual crown. On 28 April, Cardinal Jean Cholet placed his own hat on the count's head. For this, Charles was derisively but not unaffectionately nicknamed roi du chapeau ("king of the hat").

The French soon experienced a reversal, however, at the hands of Peter III's admiral, Roger de Lauria. The French fleet was defeated and destroyed at the Battle of Les Formigues. As well, the French camp was hit hard by an epidemic of dysentery. Philip himself was afflicted. The heir to the French throne, Philip of Navarre, opened negotiations with Peter for free passage for the royal family through the Pyrenees. But the troops were not offered such passage and were decimated at the Battle of the Col de Panissars. The king of France himself died at Perpignan, the capital of James of Majorca, and was buried in Narbonne. Peter did not long survive him.

Historian H. J. Chaytor described the Aragonese Crusade as "perhaps the most unjust, unnecessary and calamitous enterprise ever undertaken by the Capetian monarchy." W. C. Jordan has blamed it for the young Philip's opposition to papal interference in French foreign policy upon his succession, which had long-reaching consequences for Europe. The crusade's legacy to France was slight, but Majorca was devastated as an independent polity. Alfonso III annexed Majorca, Ibiza, and Menorca in the following years. In 1295, the Treaty of Anagni returned the islands to James and the Treaty of Tarascon of 1291 officially restored Aragon to Alfonso and lifted the ban of the church.

Berenguier de Palazol

Berenguier de Palazol, Palol, or Palou (fl. 1160–1209) was a Catalan troubadour from Palol in the County of Roussillon. Of his total output twelve cansos survive, and a relatively high proportion—eight—with melodies.Only some sketchy details of Berenguier's life can be gleaned from surviving records. According to his vida he was a poor knight, but well-trained and skilled in arms. Other evidence suggests that his family was well-off. He appears in five documents of Roussillon between 1196 and 1209, all under the Latin name Berengarius de Palatiolo (or Palaciolo). The earliest dates of his career are determined by the fact that he was a vassal of Gausfred III of Roussillon, who died in 1164 and receives mention in several of Berenguier's works. It is quite possible that Berenguier was one of the earliest troubadours, and the poems that mention Jaufres (Gausfred) may date as early as 1150. Berenguier does not seem to have had much contact with his fellow troubadours. He may have met Pons d'Ortaffa late in life, and the latter may address him in one of his songs as Senher En Berenguier.

All of Berenguier's surviving works deal with the theme of courtly love. One of his cansos was a model for a sirventes by his contemporary Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, who may have set it to the same tune, Berenguier's most "florid". The chief object of the love of his songs is Ermessen d'Avinyo, wife of Arnaut d'Avinyo. According to Berenguier's vida, Arnaut was a son of Maria de Peiralada, but this is probably a confusion with Maria domina de Petralata, the mother of Soremonda, the lover of Guillem de Cabestany.Berenguier's well-preserved music is generally syllabic with a few melismatic phrase endings; conservative, generally staying within an octave; and motivically structured, having something in common with that of Bernart de Ventadorn.

Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac

Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac (1360 – 12 June 1418) was Count of Armagnac and Constable of France. He was the son of John II and Jeanne de Périgord. He succeeded in Armagnac at the death of his brother, John III, in 1391. After prolonged fighting, he also became Count of Comminges in 1412.

When his brother, who claimed the Kingdom of Majorca, invaded northern Catalonia late in 1389 in an attempt to seize the kingdom's continental possessions (the County of Roussillon), Bernard commanded part of his forces.

Bernard's wife was Bonne, the daughter of John, Duke of Berry, and widow of Count Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy. He first gained influence at the French court when Louis, Duke of Orléans married Valentina Visconti, the daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. Bernard's sister Beatrice married Valentina's brother Carlo.

After Louis' assassination in 1407, Armagnac remained attached to the cause of Orléans. He married his daughter Bonne to the young Charles, Duke of Orléans in 1410. Bernard d'Armagnac became the nominal head of the faction which opposed John the Fearless in the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War, and the faction came to be called the "Armagnacs" as a consequence.

He became constable of France in 1415 and was the head of the government of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII, until the Burgundians invaded Paris in the night of 28-29 May 1418. On 12 June 1418, he was one of the first victims of the massacres in which over 550 of his real or suspected followers were killed in the course of weeks throughout the summer.

Cançoneret de Ripoll

The Cançoneret de Ripoll (Catalan pronunciation: [kənsunəˈɾɛd də riˈpoʎ], Latin: Carmina Riulpullensa), now manuscript 129 of Ripoll in the Arxiu de la Corona d'Aragó, is a short Catalan-Occitan chansonnier produced in the mid-fourteenth century but after 1346, when Peter IV of Aragon held a poetry competition which is mentioned in the chansonnier. Influenced by Cerverí de Girona, the chansonnier and its ideology serve as transition in the history of Catalan literature between the dominance of the troubadours and the new developments of Ausiàs March.

The provenance of the manuscript has been debated. Arguments in favour of an origin with the monastic community of Ripoll, where the manuscript is first recorded in the library before heading to the archives in Barcelona, include the use of Latin headings to introduce some of the poems and the abundance of authors of clerical background cited. On the other hand, an aristocratic or "courtly" provenance has been taught, notably by Martín de Riquer, on the basis of the references to Peter, Count of Ribagorza, to people and places in the County of Roussillon and the Kingdom of Majorca, and evidence of Goliardic influence.

The Cançoneret contains a copy of the Regles de trobar of Jaufre de Foixa and an anonymous untitled continuation thereof, dealing mainly with poetic genre and form. Eighteen complete poems and one fragment accompany the grammatical treatise to illustrate the points. All the cited poets are Catalans but only five or six are named. The generic classifications of the Cançoneret follow those of the Doctrina de compondre dictats, possibly of Raimon Vidal, and the "rules" of the Consistori del Gay Saber, codified in the Leys d'amors. The following genres are recognised: cançó, tençó, sirventès (serventesch), cobles d'acuyndamens, cobles de qüestions, vers, dança (dans), desdança (desdansa), and viadera. The Cançoneret confirms that the vers was merely a canso de matèria tota moral (of entirely moral material) and that the viadera (traveller's song) was la pus jusana spècies qui és en los cantàs (the most humble genre of song there is). The distinction between cobles, exchanges of stanzas between troubadours, that are d'acuyndamens and those de qüestions is unique to the Cançoneret. Cobles d'acuyndamens broke bonds of vassallage, love, or fidelity.

Among the classical troubadours cited by the treatise are Guillem de Cabestany, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, Arnaut Daniel, Peire Cardenal, and Folquet de Marselha (though the reference is a mistake, the poet should be Pons Fabre d'Uzès). Among the named Catalan poets whose pieces are preserved as exemplars are Dalmau de Castellnou, Pere Alamany, and the Capellà de Bolquera. The incipit of another Catalan piece, De l'ordre suy de noble infant En Pedro, by Pere de Vilademany is also mentioned in the treatise. There are several unidentifiable authors with works in the Cançoneret: a "poeta anònim" (anonymous poet), a "frare" (friar), "dos frares" (two friars), a "monja" (nun), "frayr'Uguó, prior" (brother Hugh, prior), "Francesc", and an "arxiprest" (archpriest).

Catalonia

Catalonia (; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə]; Aranese: Catalonha [kataˈluɲɔ]; Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa];) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales, Occitanie). It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria) to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, the lineages of the rulers of Catalonia and rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, when the King of Aragon married his daughter to the Count of Barcelona. The de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese rulers in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts (parliament), and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.

During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees, suppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.

In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence.

On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including President Carles Puigdemont, fled to other European countries.

Counts of Roussillon

This is a list of the counts of Roussillon (Catalan: Comtes de Rosselló).

County of Empúries

The County of Empúries (Catalan: Comtat d'Empúries, IPA: [kumˈtad dəmˈpuɾiəs]), also known as the County of Ampurias (Spanish: Condado de Ampurias), was a medieval county centred on the town of Empúries and enclosing the Catalan region of Peralada. It corresponds to the historic comarca of Empordà.

After the Franks conquered the regions in 785, Empúries and Peralada came under the authority of the County of Girona. Around 813, Empúries, with Peralada, became a separate county under Ermenguer. He and the other early counts were probably of Visigothic origin. In 817, Empúries was merged with the County of Roussillon, a union which lasted until 989. One of the ninth-century counts of Empúries assembled a fleet powerful enough to conquer the Balearic Islands, but only for a brief time. From 835 to 844, Sunyer I ruled Empúries and Peralada while Alaric I ruled Roussillon and Vallespir.

At the death of Gausfred I in 989, Roussillon and Empúries were separated. Gausfred's elder son Hugh I received Empúries while Giselbert I received Roussillon. Hugh's comital dynasty lasted until 1322, when Empúries passed to a collateral branch of his family. The last count, Hugh VI, sold the county to Peter IV of Ribagorza in 1325 in exchange for the barony of Pego and the towns of Xaló and Laguar, all located within the Kingdom of Valencia. Peter later traded it with Ramon Berenguer d'Aragona for the county of Prades in 1341. From that point on, Empúries was an apanage of the Crown of Aragon.

In a letter of December 1002, Pope Sylvester II confirmed the county of Empúries and the "county of Pedralbes" as a part of the diocese of Girona. The latter is probably to be identified with the Peralada region in the north of Empúries. A portion of the "taxes of the port", consisting of dues and anchorage, were passed on to the diocese.

Elne Cathedral

Elne Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Sainte-Eulalie-et-Sainte-Julie d'Elne, Catalan: Catedral de Santa Eulàlia d'Elna) is a Roman Catholic church and former cathedral located in the town of Elne in the County of Roussillon, France.

It was the seat of the former Bishopric of Elne, which was transferred to the Bishopric and cathedral of Perpignan in 1601.

The cathedral was consecrated in 1069. In 1285, during the Aragonese Crusade, French troops sacked the town and massacred the townspeople who had taken refuge in the cathedral.

Gaucelm

Gaucelm (died 834) was a Frankish count and leading magnate in Gothia during the reign of Louis the Pious. He was initially the Count of Roussillon from about 800, but he received Empúries in 817 and was thenceforward the chief representative of imperial authority in that region.

He was the son of William of Gellone and his first wife, Gunegunde (Cunegonde), a Frankish lady. It was from his father, sometime after 790, that he received the county of Roussillon to govern within his father's vast holdings in Septimania, centered on Toulouse. At that time, Roussillon included Vallespir. Gaucelm, thoroughly Frankish, supported ongoing war with the Moors and was supported by his brother, Bernard of Septimania. Bera, the Visigothic Count of Razès and Conflent since 790, and Count of Barcelona since 801, supported the local Goth population who desired peace with the Moors to their south.

In January 820, at an assembly in Aachen, Sanila, Gaucelm's Gothic lieutenant, probably on orders from Gaucelm, accused Bera of infidelity and perfidy. Bera was deposed, but Gaucelm did not receive his honores as he had wanted. However, he did later obtain two of them (Barcelona and Besalú) for his brother Bernard (February 826). The third, Girona, went either to Bernard or Gaucelm himself, but which is unclear. After taking part in the defeat of the son of Bera, Guillemundus, and his lieutenant, Aisso, in Barcelona and Girona (to 827), he received the counties of Razès and Conflent (both previously ruled by Guillemundus). While Bernard was absent from Septimania (April to April, 829 – 830), Gaucelm also ruled his honores: Uzès, Nîmes, Melguelh, Agde, Béziers, Narbonne, Besalú, and Barcelona.

In Autumn 831, Pepin I of Aquitaine revolted against his father, Emperor Louis the Pious. Bernard and Gaucelm supported Pepin. Subsequently invading royal forces quickly occupied Bernard's lands. In another assembly at Aachen in February 832, the whole region was assigned to Charles the Bald, while Gaucelm and Bernard were deposed later that same year. Gaucelm tried to resist and held out in Ampurias. Finally, in 833, after mediation with Ansegisus, Abbot of Fontanelle, he resigned and retired with Sanila to some familial properties in Burgundy.

Gaucelm and Sanila were killed in the battle of Chalon-sur-Saône the next year, while fighting for Louis the Pious against his son Lothair.

Guillem de Cabestany

Guillem de Cabestany (Catalan pronunciation: [ɡiˈʎɛm də kəβəsˈtaɲ]; 1162–1212) was a Catalan troubadour from Cabestany in the County of Roussillon. He is often known by his Old Occitan name, Guilhem de Cabestaing, Cabestang, Cabestan, or Cabestanh (pronounced IPA: [ɡiˈʎɛm de kabesˈtaɲ]).

Hippogriff

The hippogriff, or sometimes spelled hippogryph (Greek: Ιππόγρυπας), is a legendary creature which has the front half of an eagle and the hind half of a horse.

The first recorded mention of the hippogriff was made by the Latin poet Virgil in his Eclogues. Though sometimes depicted during the Classical Era and during the rule of the Merovingians, it was used by Ludovico Ariosto in his Orlando Furioso, at the beginning of the 16th century. Within the poem, the hippogriff is a steed born of a mare and a griffin—it is extremely fast and is presented as being able to fly around the world and to the Moon. It is ridden by magicians and the wandering knight Ruggiero, who, from the creature’s back, frees the beautiful Angelica. Astolfo also borrows the hippogriff from Bradamante to go search for Roland's wits.

Sometimes depicted on coats of arms, the hippogriff became a subject of visual art in the 19th century, when it was often drawn by Gustave Doré.

The word hippogriff, also spelled hippogryph, is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἵππος híppos, meaning "horse", and the Italian grifo meaning "griffin" (from Latin gryp or gryphus), which denotes another mythical creature, with the head of an eagle and body of a lion, that is purported to be the father of the hippogriff. The word hippogriff was adopted into English shortly before 1615.

Languedoc-Roussillon

Languedoc-Roussillon (French pronunciation: ​[lɑ̃ɡdɔk ʁusijɔ̃]; Occitan: Lengadòc-Rosselhon; Catalan: Llenguadoc-Rosselló) is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Occitanie. It comprises five departments, and borders the other French regions of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Auvergne, Midi-Pyrénées on the one side, and Spain, Andorra and the Mediterranean Sea on the other side. It is the southernmost region of mainland France.

Lluçà

Lluçà (Catalan pronunciation: [ʎuˈsa]) is a municipality in the comarca of Osona in

Catalonia, Spain. It is subdivided into the town of Santa Eulàlia de Puigoriol, and the much smaller village of Lluçà. This village, prominent because of its monastery, gives its name to the surrounding natural comarca of Lluçanès.

In 2015, the municipality voted to join a proposed new comarca of Lluçanès, but the plan was put on hold due to insufficient support.

Occitanie

Occitanie (French: [ɔksitani] (listen); Occitan: Occitània [utsiˈtanjɔ]; Catalan: Occitània [uksiˈtaniə]) or Occitania is an administrative region of France that was created on January 1, 2016 from the former French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées. France's Conseil d'État approved Occitanie as the new name of the region on September 28, 2016, coming into effect on September 30, 2016.The modern administrative region is named after the cultural and historical region of Occitania, which covers a larger area. The region as it is today covers a territory similar to that ruled by the Counts of Toulouse in the 12th and 13th centuries. The banner of arms of the Counts of Toulouse, known colloquially as the Occitan cross, is used by the modern region and is also a popular cultural symbol.

The new region covers an area of more than 72,724 km2 (28,079 sq mi), and has a population of 5,626,858. It borders Nouvelle-Aquitaine, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Andorra (Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Ordino) and Spain (Aragon and Catalonia)

Perpignan

Perpignan (French: [pɛʁpiɲɑ̃]; Catalan: Perpinyà [pəɾpiˈɲa]) is the prefecture of the Pyrénées-Orientales department in Northern Catalonia, Southern France. Perpignan was the capital of the former province and County of Roussillon (Rosselló in Catalan) and continental capital of the Kingdom of Majorca in the 13th and 14th centuries.

In 2013 Perpignan had 118,238 inhabitants (Perpignanais(e) in French, Perpinyanés(a) in Catalan) in the commune proper. The metropolitan area had a total population of 305,837 in 2010.

Reapers' War

The Reapers' War (Catalan: Guerra dels Segadors, Eastern Catalan: [ˈɡɛrə ðəls səɣəˈðos], Spanish: Guerra de los Segadores), also known as Catalan Revolt was a conflict that affected a large part of the Principality of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659. It had an enduring effect in the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), which ceded the County of Roussillon and the northern half of the County of Cerdanya to France (see French Cerdagne), splitting these northern Catalan territories off from the Principality of Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon, and thereby receding the borders of Spain to the Pyrenees.

Roussillon (disambiguation)

Roussillon may refer to:

County of Roussillon, the medieval entity

Roussillon (Catalan Rosselló) Corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees) and which was one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia

The southern area of the Languedoc-Roussillon, a region of France

Roussillon Regional County Municipality, Quebec, a municipal county in Quebec, CanadaRoussillon is also the name several communes of France:

Roussillon, Vaucluse, in the Vaucluse département

Roussillon, Isère, in the Isère départementOther Uses

Roussillon, an alternative name for the Spanish/French wine grape Grenache

Alicante Bouschet, a Portuguese wine grape that is also known as Roussillon

Countess of Rousillon, Isabella of Majorca

Rousillon (horse) (1981-2009), a racehorse

Rousillon Rupes, a scarp on Titania, a moon of Uranus

Sancho, Count of Provence

Sancho (died 1223), also spelled Sanç or Sanche, was a Catalano-Aragonese nobleman and statesman, the youngest son of Queen Petronilla of Aragon and Count Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona. He was at different times the count of Cerdanya (c.1175–89), Provence (1181–85), Gévaudan, Rodez and Carlat (1183–85), and Roussillon (1208–12). He served as the regent of Provence from 1209 until 1218 during the minority of Count Raymond Berengar IV, and as regent of Aragon from 1214 until 1218, during the minority of King James I.

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