Country code top-level domain

A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code.

All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2018, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes.

Types

As of 2015, IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[1]

Delegation and management

IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control are then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs. Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering subdomains. There may be a local-presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as, for example, the Canadian (ca) and German (de) domains, or registration may be open.

History

The first registered ccTLDs were .us, .uk, and .il, all registered in 1985. In 1986, .au, .de, .fi, .fr, .jp, .kr, .nl, and .se were registered.

Relation to ISO 3166-1

The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.

Unused ISO 3166-1 codes

Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS. However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency Bouvet Island (bv) and the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen (sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is Norid policy to not assign any at present. Two French territories—bl (Saint Barthélemy) and mf (Saint Martin)—still await local assignment by France's government.

The code eh, although eligible as ccTLD for Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in gb[3] (ISO 3166-1 for the United Kingdom), and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use uk (see below).

The former .um ccTLD for the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules, .um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet user community.

ASCII ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1

Several ASCII ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.

  • uk (United Kingdom): The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. However, the JANET network had already selected uk as a top-level identifier for its pre-existing Name Registration Scheme, and this was incorporated into the DNS root. gb was assigned with the intention of a transition, but this never occurred and the use of uk is now entrenched.
  • su This obsolete ISO 3166 code for the Soviet Union was assigned when the Soviet Union was still extant; moreover, new su registrations are accepted.
  • ac (Ascension Island): This code is a vestige of IANA's decision in 1996 to allow the use of codes reserved in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 reserve list for use by the Universal Postal Union. The decision was later reversed, with Ascension Island now the sole outlier. (Three other ccTLDs, gg (Guernsey), im (Isle of Man) and je (Jersey) also fell under this category from 1996 until they received corresponding ISO 3166 codes in March 2006.)
  • eu (European Union): On September 25, 2000, ICANN decided to allow the use of any two-letter code in the ISO 3166-1 reserve list that is reserved for all purposes. Only EU currently meets this criterion. Following a decision by the EU's Council of Telecommunications Ministers in March 2002, progress was slow, but a registry (named EURid) was chosen by the European Commission, and criteria for allocation set: ICANN approved eu as a ccTLD, and it opened for registration on 7 December 2005 for the holders of prior rights. Since 7 April 2006, registration is open to all.

Historical ccTLDs

There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1: cs (for Czechoslovakia), zr (for Zaire) and tp (for East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1.

The historical country codes dd for the German Democratic Republic and yd for South Yemen were eligible for a ccTLD, but not allocated; see also de and ye.

The temporary reassignment of country code cs (Serbia and Montenegro) until its split into rs and me (Serbia and Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies[4][5] about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in language tags in 2006.

The previous ISO 3166-1 code for Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 2003-07-23, but the yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian rs and Montenegrin me, the .yu domain was phased out in March 2010.

Australia was originally assigned the oz country code, which was later changed to au with the .oz domains moved to .oz.au.

Internationalized ccTLDs

An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in its language-native script or alphabet, such as the Arabic alphabet, or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Chinese characters. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic regions.

ICANN started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009,[6] and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.[7]

ICANN requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.

Unconventional usage

Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various domain hacks. Domain names such as I.am, tip.it, start.at and go.to form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as blo.gs of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (gs), youtu.be of Belgium (be), del.icio.us of the United States (us), and cr.yp.to of Tonga (to). The .co domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.[8]

Several ccTLDs allow the creation of emoji domains.

Some ccTLDs may also be used for typosquatting. The domain cm of Cameroon has generated interest due to the possibility that people might miss typing the letter o for sites in the com.[9]

Commercial usage

Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like .tk.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "IANA root zone database". Iana.org. Retrieved 2015-11-10.
  2. ^ Jon Postel (March 1994). "RFC 1591 - Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  3. ^ "DNS loookup for dra.hmg.gb". 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-03.
  4. ^ Leslie Daigle (2003-09-24). "IAB input related to the .cs code in ISO 3166". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  5. ^ Leslie Daigle (2003-09-24). "IAB comment on stability of ISO 3166 and other infrastructure standards". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  6. ^ "ICANN Bringing the Languages of the World to the Global Internet" (Press release). Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 30 October 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  7. ^ "'Historic' day as first non-Latin web addresses go live". BBC News. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  8. ^ "General .CO FAQs: What makes .CO such a unique opportunity?". cointernet.co. Colombia: .CO Internet S.A.S. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
  9. ^ "The man who owns the Internet". CNN Money. 2007-06-01. Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2010-11-05.

External links

.ae

The domain name ae is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) in the Domain Name System of the Internet for the United Arab Emirates. It is administered by .aeDA which is part of the UAE Telecommunications Regulatory Authority.

The internationalized country code top-level domain in the Arabic alphabet of the UAE is امارات., which is represented as .xn--mgbaam7a8h in Punycode.

.bangla

.বাংলা (romanized as .bangla) is a secondary Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bangladesh. This domain is meant for web addresses in the Bengali language. বাংলা is transliterated to bangla, but the web addresses will end in বাংলা. It is administered by the Ministry of Posts, Telecommunications and Information Technology..bd is the primary Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bangladesh.

.বাংলা was introduced in 2011 but delegated to the Bangladesh Telecommunications Company in 2016, meaning that the process of defining sub domains could start..বাংলা is available for registration for all since December 16, 2016.

.bd

.bd is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bangladesh. It is administered by the Ministry of Posts, Telecommunications and Information Technology. Registrations are at the third level beneath several second-level labels, paralleling the oldest gTLDs; registration is open except in the gov and mil subdomains, which are limited to authorized entities in the Bangladesh government. There is no online registration facility available for .bd domains right now.

.বাংলা ("bangla") is a second country code top-level domain that was granted for Bangladesh in 2011. This domain is meant for web addresses in the Bengali language. The process of assigning domain names for web sites has finally started in 16 December 2016.

.bf

.bf is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Burkina Faso. It is administered by DELGI. The registry site is the ARCE website. A PDF version of the official registration form can be found

here.

.by

.by is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Belarus. It is administered by the Operations and Analysis Centre under the President of the Republic of Belarus (Оперативно-аналитический центр при Президенте Республики Беларусь). The BY code originates from the ISO code for Byelorussia, the former name of the country. The ccTLD was created for Belarus on 10 May 1994.

.dd

.dd was the assigned country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). It was chosen based on the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the German Democratic Republic, the letters coming from the German name of the country: Deutsche Demokratische Republik. In accordance with IANA policy, .dd was therefore available to be assigned as the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for East Germany. However, this was never done, and so .dd was never added to the root nameservers. Its only use was internally at the universities of Jena and Dresden.With the reunification of Germany, East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), which had already been assigned the ccTLD .de. The ISO 3166-1 code "DD" was withdrawn in 1990.

.er

.er is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Eritrea.

On 2 August 2012 the ISO 3166-1 code for Eritrea changed to reflect the ER used for the ccTLD.

.gw

.gw is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Guinea-Bissau.

The .gw country code top-level domain was delegated multiple times to different entities.

The management of .gw was delegated last time by IANA to ARN (Autoridade Reguladora Nacional – Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação da Guiné-Bissau) on 10 July 2014.

The .gw domain name was launched to public registration in November 2014 with the technical help of Associação DNS.PT (Registry of .PT ccTLD).

.jo

.jo is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Jordan. A local contact is required to register a domain name under .jo. It is administered by NITC.

Jordan also has an internationalized country code top-level domain, الاردن.

.jp

.jp is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Japan. It is administered by the Japan Registry Services.

At the establishment of the .jp domain the domain was administered by the JPNIC, as part of their role as an overseeing technical body for the Internet in Japan. However, due to the growing importance and size of the .jp registry, it was decided at the 11th General Meeting of JPNIC in December 2000 to create a new corporation that would manage the .jp domain. Thus, the Japan Registry Service was created, and on June 30, 2003, officially assumed the duties of the .jp registry.

.jp registrations are only allowed if the registrant has a physical address in Japan.

Registrations are processed via accredited registrars and domain names with Japanese characters (kanji, hiragana or katakana) may be registered at the second level.

.lt

.LT is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Lithuania.

.ps

.ps is the Internet country code top-level domain ccTLD officially assigned to the State of Palestine.

It is administered by the Palestinian National Internet Naming Authority.Registrations are processed by certified registrars.

The Internationalized country code top-level domain for the State of Palestine is .فلسطين, which is represented as .xn--ygbi2ammx in Punycode.On 06 February, 2013 the ISO 3166-1 code for the State of Palestine changed to reflect the PS used for the ccTLD.

.sk

.sk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Slovakia. It is administered by SK-NIC a.s.

SK-NIC, a. s., is the administrator of the top-level domain .sk. It is recognized since middle of 90-ties by the manager of the DNS route zone, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, as the delegated manager of .SK (changing its name from EUNET Slovakia to EuroWeb Slovakia in 1999 and to SK-NIC in 2006). In 2006, SK-NIC also entered into an agreement with the Slovak Government unique among country codes in Europe, voluntarily transferring some of the competences of domain administration to the State, and submitting to levels of service requirements and a policy-making committee comprising representatives of the internet community as well as the Government.SK-NIC is the most successful country-code Top Level Domain registry in Europe in open engagement of its community as resellers, with over 5900 accredited registrars at its maximum in Slovakia (note: there are only three other ccTLDs registries in the European region with over 1000 registrars, and as an example there are only over 40 registrars in neighbouring Czech Republic or 300+ in Germany, largest registry domain-wide). It has also perfect 100% DNS availability since it has been managed by SK-NIC, a.s.. All staff and technology used by SK-NIC, a.s., is situated in Slovakia, where it operates with perfect 100% of DNS availability rate since it as a fully owned subsidiary of the global group CentralNic, listed on the London stock Exchange.CentralNic acquired SK-Nic from a private Netherlands-based company in December 2017.Before the split in 1993 former Czechoslovakia used domain .cs.

.sz

.sz is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Eswatini. The Swaziland ISP Association ("SISPA") is responsible for assigning .SZ domain names.

AlSaudiah

The Arabic name السعودية, romanized as AlSaudiah, is the Internationalized country code top-level domain for Saudi Arabia. The ASCII name of this domain in the Domain Name System is xn--mgberp4a5d4ar, obtained by application of the Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) rules for the translation of the Unicode representation of the script version. It was installed in the DNS on May 5, 2010.

Saudi Arabia is also assigned the country code top-level domain .sa.

Emarat

The Arabic name امارات, romanized as emarat, is the Internationalized country code top-level domain for the United Arab Emirates. The ASCII name of this domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet is xn--mgbaam7a8h, using the Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) procedure in the translation of the Unicode representation of the script version. The domain was installed in the Domain Name System on 5 May 2010.The first second-level sub domain is عربي.امارات which is transliterated as arabi.emarat.The United Arab Emirates is also assigned the country code top-level domain .ae.

The dotEmarat Sunrise Period started from 17 October 2010 for a duration of 2 months ending on 15 December 2010. This period is exclusively for all registered trademark owners to apply for a dotEmarat domain name.

Internationalized country code top-level domain

An internationalized country code top-level domain is a top-level domain in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet. IDN ccTLDs are specially encoded domain names that are displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in their language-native script or alphabet, such as the Arabic alphabet, or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Chinese characters. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic regions.

Although the domain class uses the term code, some of these ccTLDs are not codes but full words. For example, السعودية (as-Suʻūdiyya) is not an abbreviation of "Saudi Arabia", but the common short-form name of the country in Arabic.

Countries with internationalized ccTLDs also retain their traditional ASCII-based ccTLDs.

As of August 2018 there are 59 approved internationalized country code top-level domains, of them at least 47 used. The most used are .рф (Russia) with over 900,000 domains names, .台灣 (Taiwan) with around 500,000 and .中国 (China) with over 200,000 domains. Still as of 2018 around 20 countries using non-Latin script do not have an internationalized country code top-level domain, including Israel and Japan.

NIC México

NIC Mexico (Network Information Centre Mexico) or NIC.MX is the non-profit organization in charge of the Registry for the Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) .MX . With an experience of more than 20 years NIC Mexico is also responsible for the National Internet Registry which manages the allocation of IP address space to Mexican Internet Service Providers.

Telecommunications in Italy

Telephones - main lines in use:

20.031 million (2008)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

88.58 million (2008)

Telephone system:

modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services

domestic:

high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks

international:

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables.

Radio broadcast stations:

AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)

Radios:

50.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:

358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:

30.5 million (1997)

Internet Hosts:

22.152 million (2009)

Internet users:

24.992 million (2008)

Country code (Top-level domain): .it

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