Country club

A country club is a privately owned club, often with a membership quota and admittance by invitation or sponsorship, that generally offers both a variety of recreational sports and facilities for dining and entertaining. Typical athletic offerings are golf, tennis, and swimming. A country club is most commonly located in city outskirts or suburbs,[1] and is distinguished from an urban athletic club by having substantial grounds for outdoor activities and a major focus on golf.

Country clubs originated in Scotland[2] and first appeared in the US in the early 1880s.[3] Country clubs had a profound effect on expanding suburbanization[4] and are considered to be the precursor to gated community development.[3]

By nation

United States

Farmington Country Club Aerial View 1
An aerial view of the Farmington Country Club in Charlottesville, Virginia

Country clubs can be exclusive organizations. In small towns, membership in the country club is often not as exclusive or expensive as in larger cities where there is competition for a limited number of memberships. In addition to the fees, some clubs have additional requirements to join. For example, membership can be limited to those who reside in a particular housing community.

Country clubs were founded by upper-class elites between 1880 and 1930.[5][6] By 1907, country clubs were claimed to be “the very essence of American upper-class.”[4] The number of country clubs increased exponentially with industrialization, the rise in incomes, and suburbanization in the 1920s.[4] During the 1920s, country clubs acted as community social centers.[4] When people lost most of their income and net worth during the Great Depression, the number of country clubs decreased drastically for lack of membership funding.[4]

Historically, many country clubs were "restricted" and refused to admit members of minority racial groups as well those of specific faiths, such as Jews and Catholics.[7] In a 1990 landmark ruling at Shoal Creek Golf and Country Club, the PGA refused to hold tournaments at private clubs that practiced racial discrimination. This new regulation led to the admittance of blacks at private clubs. The incident at Shoal Creek is comparable to the 1966 NCAA Basketball Tournament, which led to the end of racial discrimination in college basketball.

Beginning in the 1960s civil rights lawsuits forced clubs to drop exclusionary policies, but de facto discrimination still occurs in cases until protest or legal remedies are brought to bear.

The Philadelphia Cricket Club is the oldest country club in the United States devoted to playing games[8], Country Club Of Salisbury is also one of the oldest country clubs in the U.S.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, most exclusive country clubs are simply golf clubs, and play a smaller role in their communities than American country clubs; gentlemen's clubs in Britain—many of which admit women while remaining socially exclusive—fill many roles of the United States' country clubs.

Australia

Yea Country Club Hotel beer garden
A beer garden at an Australian country club.

Country clubs exist in multiple forms, including athletic-based clubs and golf clubs. Examples are the Breakfast Point Country Club and Cumberland Grove Country Club in Sydney,[9] the Castle Hill Country Club,[10] the Gold Coast Polo & Country Club, Elanora Country Club,[11] and the Sanctuary Cove's Country Club.[12]

Japan

In Japan, almost all golf clubs are called "Country Clubs" by their owners. See Japan Golf Tour.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Country club". Oxford Dictionaries – Dictionary, Thesaurus, & Grammar.
  2. ^ Wray Vamplew, “Sharing Space: Inclusion, Exclusion and Accommodation at the British Golf Club before 1914” Journal of Sport and Social Issues 34, no. 359 (2010): 359, doi: 10.1177/0193723510377327.
  3. ^ a b Simon, Roger D. “Country Clubs.” In The Encyclopedia of American Urban History, edited by David R. Goldfield, 193-94. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2007. doi: 10.4135/9781412952620.n110.
  4. ^ a b c d e Gordon, John Steele, “The Country Club”. American Heritage 41, no.6 (1990): 75
  5. ^ Jennifer Jolly-Ryan, “Chipping Away at Discrimination at the Country Club,” Pepperdine Law Review 25, no. 495 (1998): 2 http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/pepplr25&div=37&g_sent=1&collection=journals
  6. ^ Jennifer Jolly-Ryan, “Chipping Away at Discrimination at the Country Club,” Pepperdine Law Review 25, no. 495 (1998): 496, http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/pepplr25&div=37&g_sent=1&collection=journals
  7. ^ Gritz, Jennie Rothenberg (September 2007). "The Jews in America". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  8. ^ "2015 PNC headed to Philadelphia Cricket Club". PGA.com. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  9. ^ "Breakfast Point Community Association". Breakfast Point Community Association. Archived from the original on 2015-07-08.
  10. ^ "Castle Hill Country Club – One of Sydney's premier private golf clubs". Castle Hill Country Club.
  11. ^ "Welcome to Elanora Country Club". Elanora Country Club.
  12. ^ "Sanctuary Cove Golf & Country Club – Golf Courses – Gold Coast, Brisbane". Sanctuary Cove Golf & Country Club. 10 May 2015.
Canadian Open (golf)

The Canadian Open (French: L'Omnium Canadien) is a professional golf tournament in Canada. It is co-organized by Golf Canada (formerly known as the Royal Canadian Golf Association) and the PGA Tour. It was first played 115 years ago in 1904, and has been held annually since then, except for during World War I and World War II. It is the third oldest continuously running tournament on the tour, after The Open Championship and the U.S. Open.

Country Club Hills, Illinois

Country Club Hills is a city in Cook County, Illinois, United States. The population was 16,541 at the 2010 census.

Fort Wayne, Indiana

Fort Wayne is a city in the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Allen County, United States. Located in northeastern Indiana, the city is 18 miles (29 km) west of the Ohio border and 50 miles (80 km) south of the Michigan border. With a population of 253,691 in the 2010 census, it is the second-most populous city in Indiana after Indianapolis, and the 75th-most populous city in the United States. It is the principal city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen, Wells, and Whitley counties, a combined population of 419,453 as of 2011. Fort Wayne is the cultural and economic center of northeastern Indiana. The city is within a 300-mile (482.803 km) radius of major population centers, including Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Detroit, Indianapolis, Louisville, Lexington, and Milwaukee.

In addition to the three core counties, the combined statistical area (CSA) includes Adams, DeKalb, Huntington, Noble, and Steuben counties, with an estimated population of 615,077.Fort Wayne was built in 1794 by the United States Army under the direction of American Revolutionary War general Anthony Wayne, the last in a series of forts built near the Miami village of Kekionga. Named in Wayne's honor, the European-American settlement developed at the confluence of the St. Joseph, St. Marys, and Maumee rivers as a trading post for pioneers. The village was platted in 1823 and underwent tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad. Once a booming manufacturing town located in what became known as the Rust Belt, Fort Wayne's economy in the 21st century is based upon distribution, transportation and logistics, healthcare, professional and business services, leisure and hospitality, and financial services. The city is a center for the defense industry which employs thousands. There are also many jobs through local healthcare providers Parkview Health and Lutheran Health Network.

Fort Wayne was an All-America City Award recipient in 1982, 1998, and 2009. The city also received an Outstanding Achievement City Livability Award by the U.S. Conference of Mayors in 1999.

London Forum

The London Forum, formerly known as the Town & Country Club, is a concert venue in Kentish Town, London, England owned by MAMA & Company. The venue was built in 1934 and was originally used as an art deco cinema. After the cinema was closed, the venue re-opened as an Irish dance hall called The Forum.

Miami Springs, Florida

Miami Springs is a city located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The city was founded by Glenn Hammond Curtiss, "The Father of Naval Aviation", and James Bright, during the famous "land boom" of the 1920s and was originally named Country Club Estates. It, along with other cities in Miami-Dade County such as Coral Gables, Florida, and Opa-locka, Florida, formed some of the first planned communities in the state. Like its counterparts, the city had an intended theme which in its case, was to reflect a particular architecture and ambiance.

In this case it was a regional style of architecture called Pueblo Revival developed in the southwest, primarily New Mexico, and incorporating design elements of Pueblo architecture. Other buildings incorporated Mission style design. In fact, the original Hotel Country Club was designed to resemble a Pueblo village.Shortly prior to incorporation in 1926, the city was renamed after a spring located in the area which provided parts of Miami with fresh water until the mid-1990s. As of 2013, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau is 14,316.

NCAA Division I Men's Golf Championships

The NCAA Division I Men's Golf Championships, played in late May or early June, is the top annual competition in U.S. men's collegiate golf.

The teams that win their respective Division I conference championships are given automatic spots in the regionals. A selection committee decides which other teams play in the regionals. The top teams in each regionals advance to the championship. In addition, the best player in each tournament from teams not qualified also advance to the next round as individual competitors.

It is a stroke play team competition, starting in 2009 the competition changed to a stroke play/match play competition with the top 8 teams after 54 holes of stroke play being seeded and concluding with an 8-team match play playoff. There is also an award for the lowest scoring individual competitor.

Many individual winners have gone on to have successful careers on the PGA Tour, including 1961 champion Jack Nicklaus, 1967 champion Hale Irwin, 1996 champion Tiger Woods, and three-time champions Ben Crenshaw and Phil Mickelson.

PGA Championship

The PGA Championship (often referred to as the U.S. PGA Championship or U.S. PGA outside the United States) is an annual golf tournament conducted by the Professional Golfers' Association of America. It is one of the four major championships in professional golf.

It was formerly played in mid-August on the third weekend before Labor Day weekend, serving as the fourth and final major of the golf season. Beginning 2019, the tournament will be played in May on the weekend before Memorial Day, as the season's second major. It is an official money event on the PGA Tour, European Tour, and Japan Golf Tour, with a purse of $11 million for the 100th edition in 2018.

In line with the other majors, winning the PGA gains privileges that improve career security. PGA champions are automatically invited to play in the other three majors (Masters Tournament, U.S. Open, and The Open Championship) and The Players Championship for the next five years, and are eligible for the PGA Championship for life. They receive membership on the PGA Tour for the following five seasons and on the European Tour for the following seven seasons. The PGA is the only one of the four majors to be a tournament almost exclusively for professional players.

The PGA Championship has been held at a large number of venues. Some of the early sites are now quite obscure, but in recent years, the event has generally been played at a small group of celebrated courses.

Priddis Greens

Priddis Greens is a hamlet in Alberta, Canada within the Municipal District of Foothills No. 31. It is located approximately 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) west of the Hamlet of Priddis, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) southeast of the Hamlet of Bragg Creek and 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of the City of Calgary. The hamlet is developed in two residential nodes adjacent to the Priddis Greens Golf & Country Club.

Royal Oaks Country Club

Royal Oaks Country Club is a country club and subdivision in Houston, Texas, United States in the Alief community. The country club is located at 2910 Royal Oaks Club Drive, 8 miles (13 km) west of The Galleria. Sunrise Colony Company developed Royal Oaks out of the former Andrau Airpark property.

The country club portion was the first country club built in the Houston City limits in fifty years.

Sharpstown, Houston

Sharpstown is a master-planned community in the Southwest Management District (formerly Greater Sharpstown), Southwest Houston, Texas It was one of the first communities to be built as a master-planned, automobile centered community and the first in Houston. Frank Sharp (1906–1993), the developer of the subdivision, made provisions not only for homes but also for schools, shopping and recreation areas. While this model has been duplicated countless times in the past fifty years, at the time it was quite revolutionary, attracting national media attention. The development was dedicated on March 13, 1955.

Syracuse Orange

The Syracuse Orange are the athletic teams that represent Syracuse University. The school is a member of NCAA Division I and the Atlantic Coast Conference. Until 2013, Syracuse was a member of the Big East Conference.

The school's mascot is Otto the Orange. Until 2004, the teams were known as the Orangemen and Orangewomen. The men's basketball, football, wrestling, men's lacrosse, and women's basketball teams play in the Carrier Dome. Other sports facilities include the nearby Manley Field House complex, the Tennity Ice Skating Pavilion, and Drumlins Country Club.

The Northern Trust

The Northern Trust, formerly The Barclays, is a golf tournament in the New York City area on the PGA Tour. Since 2007, it has been played as the first tournament of the playoff system for the FedEx Cup. The field is limited to the top 125 players on the FedEx points list for the regular season.

Many of the world's top players have won The Northern Trust including Sergio García, Adam Scott, Jason Day, Matt Kuchar, Patrick Reed, Dustin Johnson and 2018 champion Bryson DeChambeau, who captured a four-stroke victory and became the tournament's youngest winner in the FedEx Cup era. Since the tournament's inception in 1967, The Northern Trust has generated nearly $50 million for New York/New Jersey Metropolitan-area charities, including a record $1.865 million in 2018.The 2019 playing of The Northern Trust will be held August 6-11, 2019 at Liberty National Golf Club in Jersey City, New Jersey, for the third time in the tournament's history. Liberty National Golf Club is known as one of the world's most picturesque courses, with views of the Hudson River, Manhattan skyline, and the Statue of Liberty. It fittingly opened on July 4, 2006 and is guided by the vision and leadership of former Reebok Founder/Chairman & CEO Paul Fireman and his son Dan. Liberty National Golf Club also hosted the 2017 Presidents Cup.

On July 10, 2018, the PGA Tour announced that The Northern Trust will rotate between the New York/New Jersey and Boston areas in 2019 and 2020. The Northern Trust 2020 will see the PGA Tour's return to New England and TPC Boston, which has hosted the Dell Technologies Championship since 2003, and will play as the opening event to the 2020 FedEx Cup Playoffs.

U.S. Open (golf)

The United States Open Championship, commonly known as the U.S. Open, is the annual open national championship of golf in the United States. It is the third of the four major championships in golf, and is on the official schedule of both the PGA Tour and the European Tour. Since 1898 the competition has been 72 holes of stroke play (4 rounds on an 18-hole course), with the winner being the player with the lowest total number of strokes. It is staged by the United States Golf Association (USGA) in mid-June, scheduled so that, if there are no weather delays, the final round is played on the third Sunday, which is Father's Day. The U.S. Open is staged at a variety of courses, set up in such a way that scoring is very difficult, with a premium placed on accurate driving. As of 2019 the U.S. Open awards a $12 million purse, the largest of all 4 major championships and second largest of all PGA Tour events (The Players Championship leads with $12.5 million).

U.S. Senior Open

The U.S. Senior Open is one of the five major championships in senior golf, introduced 38 years ago in 1980. It is administered by the United States Golf Association (USGA) and is recognized as a major championship by both the PGA Tour Champions and the European Senior Tour. The lower age limit was 55 in 1980, but it was lowered to 50 for the second edition in 1981, which is the standard limit for men's senior professional golf tournaments. By definition, the event is open to amateurs, but has been dominated by professionals; through 2017, all editions have been won by pros. Like other USGA championships, it has been played on many courses throughout the United States.

Allen Doyle became the oldest U.S. Senior Open Champion in 2006, winning two weeks before his 58th birthday.The total purse was the highest of any senior tour event until the Posco E&C Songdo Championship in South Korea, a Champions Tour event in 2010 and 2011 with a $3 million purse, but had a lower winner's share ($450,000). The U.S. Senior Open is again the highest purse on the PGA Tour Champions; in 2016 it was $3.75 million, and champion Gene Sauers earned $675,000. The purse in 2017 is anticipated to be $4 million, yielding a winner's share of $720,000.

Like other senior majors, players must walk the course unless they receive a medical exemption to use a cart. Winners gain entry into the following year's U.S. Open.

The playoff format was modified for 2018, reduced from three to two aggregate holes, followed by sudden death. The three-hole aggregate playoff was used in 2002 and 2014; the final 18-hole playoff at the U.S. Senior Open was in 1991, won by Jack Nicklaus.

United States Amateur Championship (golf)

The United States Amateur Championship, commonly known as the U.S. Amateur, is the leading annual golf tournament in the United States for amateur golfers. It is organized by the United States Golf Association and is currently held each August over a 7-day period.

In 1894 there were two tournaments called the "National Amateur Championship". One of them was played at Newport Country Club and was won by William G. Lawrence, and the other took place at St Andrew's Golf Club and was won by Laurence B. Stottard. This state of affairs prompted Charles B. Macdonald of the Chicago Golf Club to call for the creation of a national governing body to authorize an official national championship, and the Amateur Golf Association of the United States, which was soon to be renamed the United States Golf Association, was formed on December 22 of that year. In 1895 it organized both the first U.S. Amateur Championship and the first U.S. Open, both of which were played at Newport Country Club.

There are no age or gender restrictions on entry, but players must have a handicap index of 2.4 or less. Originally, entry was restricted to members of USGA-affiliated private clubs (and, presumably, international players who were members of private clubs affiliated with their nations' golf governing bodies), a restriction that was not lifted until 1979. The tournament consists of two days of stroke play, with the leading 64 competitors then playing a knockout competition held at match play to decide the champion. All knockout matches are over 18 holes except for the final, which consists of 36 holes, separated into morning and afternoon 18-hole rounds. Nowadays it is usually won by players in their late teens or early twenties who are working towards a career as a tournament professional. Before World War II more top-level golfers chose to remain amateur, and the average age of U.S. Amateur champions was higher.

Many of the leading figures in the history of golf have been U.S. Amateur Champion, including Bobby Jones five times, Jerome Travers four times, Jack Nicklaus twice and Tiger Woods three times (all consecutive; the only player to win three in a row). In 1993, Woods got knocked out to Kingshill Golf Club's Paul Page 2&1 in the last 16, but Woods' first win, as an 18-year-old in 1994, made him the youngest winner of the event, breaking the previous record of 19 years 5 months set by Robert A. Gardner in 1909. In 2008, New Zealander Danny Lee became the youngest ever winner, only to be eclipsed by 17-year-old An Byeong-hun the following year. Before the professional game became dominant, the event was regarded as one of the majors. This is no longer the case, but the champion still receives an automatic invitation to play in all of the majors except the PGA Championship. In addition, the runner-up also receives an invitation to play in the Masters and the U.S. Open. However, the golfers must maintain their amateur status at the time the events are held (unless they qualify for the tournaments by other means).

As the Amateur Championship is dominated by future professionals, in 1981 a separate championship called the U.S. Mid-Amateur was established for "career amateurs" at least 25 years old. This gives the best players who never turn pro a chance to play against each other for a national title.

United States Women's Open Championship (golf)

The United States Women's Open Golf Championship, one of thirteen national championships conducted by the United States Golf Association (USGA), is the oldest of the LPGA Tour's five major championships, which includes the ANA Inspiration, Women's PGA Championship, Women's British Open, and The Evian Championship.

Established 73 years ago in 1946, the U.S. Women's Open is the only event to have been recognized as a major by the LPGA since the group's founding in 1950. Originally operated by the Women's Professional Golfers Association (WPGA) for its first three years and the LPGA for the next four, it became a USGA event in 1953. Usually held in early July, the U.S. Women's Open is the third major of the LPGA season and has the highest purse in women's golf, at $5.0 million in 2017.

Unlike the U.S. Open, the U.S. Women's Open is not globally recognized as a major championship. The Ladies European Tour does not sanction any of the three majors held in the United States, and the LPGA of Japan Tour has its own set of majors. The significance of this is limited, as the LPGA Tour is the dominant tour in women's golf.

In 2007, international players outnumbered Americans for the first time. The 2008 tournament was won by 19-year-old South Korean Inbee Park, who became the event's youngest winner ever.

The 2012 championship, won by Choi Na-yeon, was played July 5–8 at Blackwolf Run in Kohler, Wisconsin, which previously hosted the event in 1998, won by Pak Se-ri in a Monday playoff that extended to 20 holes. The Original Championship Course for 2012 played just under 7,000 yards (6,400 m), over 500 yards (460 m) longer than in 1998.Beginning in 2018, the U.S. Women's Open will be held prior to its men's counterpart (rather than following it and the U.S. Senior Open), in order to "provide optimum playing conditions for the world's best players across a broader variety of the country's finest golf courses."The playoff format was modified in 2018, reduced from three to two aggregate holes, followed by sudden death. The last 18-hole playoff was in 2006; the three-hole playoff was introduced the following year and used in 2011 and 2016.

Western Open

The Western Open was a professional golf tournament in the United States, for most of its history an event on the PGA Tour. The tournament's founding in 1899 actually pre-dated the start of the Tour, which is generally dated from 1916, the year the PGA of America was founded. The Western Open, organized by the Western Golf Association, was first played in September 1899 at the Glen View Club in Golf, Illinois the week preceding the U.S. Open. At the time of its final edition in 2006, it was the third-oldest active PGA Tour tournament, after the British Open (1860) and U.S. Open (1895). The tournament was held a total of 103 times over the course of 108 years. The event was not held in 1900, nor in 1918 because of World War I, and not from 1943-1945 because of World War II. Golfers from the United States won the tournament 77 times, and players from Scotland won it 15 times. Walter Hagen had the most victories with five wins, and 17 other players won the event at least twice. Two amateurs also won the tournament: Chick Evans in 1910 and Scott Verplank in 1985.

Beginning in 2007, the Western Open was renamed the BMW Championship, part of the FedEx Cup playoff series, and played with the PGA Tour's point system as the sole qualification standard. It is no longer open to amateurs.

Title sponsorship was introduced in 1987, and included Beatrice, Centel, Sprint, Motorola, Advil, Golf Digest, and Cialis.

Women's PGA Championship

The Women's PGA Championship is the second-longest running golf tournament in the history of the Ladies Professional Golf Association, surpassed only by the U.S. Women's Open. Founded 64 years ago in 1955, it is one of five majors on the LPGA Tour. It is not recognized as a major by the Ladies European Tour, which does not recognize any of the three majors played in the United States.

Formerly known as the "LPGA Championship," the event's name was changed to the "KPMG Women's PGA Championship" in 2015, and the tournament's management was shifted to the PGA of America.

Wynn Las Vegas

Wynn Las Vegas, often simply referred to as Wynn, is a luxury resort and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. The US$2.7-billion resort is named after casino developer Steve Wynn and is the flagship property of Wynn Resorts. The resort covers 215 acres (87 ha). It is located at the northeast corner of Las Vegas Boulevard and Sands Avenue, directly across The Strip from the Fashion Show Mall.

The 614-foot (187 m)-high hotel has 45 floors, with the 2,716 rooms ranging in size from 640 sq ft (59 m2) to villas at 8,900 sq ft (830 m2). The complex also includes a 189,000 sq ft (17,600 m2) casino, a convention center with 290,000 sq ft (27,000 m2) of space and 76,000 sq ft (7,100 m2) of retail space. Together with the adjacent Encore, the entire Wynn resort complex has a total of 4,750 rooms, making it the world's seventh-largest hotel.

The Wynn Plaza shopping complex, a large expansion of the Wynn Las Vegas and Encore Las Vegas, is expected to open by fall 2018. The shopping complex moves the Wynn properties closer to Las Vegas Boulevard. Tenants are expected to include upscale stores and restaurants. The new Wynn Paradise Park is being built on the site of a golf course adjacent to Wynn Las Vegas and Encore Las Vegas. The 20-acre lagoon, boardwalk, waterfront meeting space, and other features are expected to draw additional traffic to the hotels. Construction is expected to start in late 2017 or early 2018 for completion in 2019. Steve Wynn called the “Disney-style” attraction the “most fun project in my 45 years.” Company stock rose following the announcement.The resort has earned AAA five diamond, Mobil five-star, Forbes five-star, Michelin five star, and Zagat Survey Top U.S. Hotel ratings, as well as one Michelin star for its restaurant Wing Lei. It is considered to be one of the finest hotels in the world. Wynn Las Vegas and its sister property Encore Las Vegas collectively hold more Forbes five-star awards than any other resort and casino in the world. Wynn Las Vegas also made Forbes Award history by earning five-star ratings in every category—Hotel, Restaurant, and Spa. It has held the distinction of winning the award in the hotel sector every year since 2007. The building is the first high-rise to be cleaned by an automatic window washing system. The resort is named to the Condé Nast Traveller Gold List as one of the "Top Hotels in the World".

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