Count of Barcelona

The Count of Barcelona (Catalan: Comte de Barcelona, Spanish: Conde de Barcelona, Latin: Comites Barcinonenses) was the ruler of Catalonia for much of Catalan history, from the 9th century until the 15th century.

History

Marca Hispanica Longnon 806
The Spanish March.

The County of Barcelona was created by Charlemagne after he had conquered lands north of the river Ebro. These lands, called the Marca Hispanica, were partitioned into various counties, of which the Count of Barcelona, usually holding other counties simultaneously, eventually obtained the primacy over the region.

As the county became hereditary in one family, the bond of the counts to their Frankish overlords loosened, especially after the Capetian dynasty supplanted the Carolingians.

In the 12th century, the counts formed a dynastic union with the Kingdom of Aragon, merging the two realms under a single ruler. In 1258, the King of France relinquished his feudal authority over the county in the Treaty of Corbeil.

Barcelona remained, as a part of the Principality of Catalonia, part of the Crown of Aragon when the latter around 1500 entered into a union with the Crown of Castile, thereby forming the Spanish Monarchy. Catalonia maintained its own laws, institutions, taxes and privileges until they were removed after the War of the Spanish Succession in the 18th century.

Count of Barcelona remained one of the many hereditary titles of the Spanish monarchy.

In the 20th century, the title regained some prominence when Juan de Borbón, the exiled heir to the Spanish throne, adopted the title of Count of Barcelona. In doing so, he claimed a historical royal title without claiming to be the current king of Spain, especially after his son Juan Carlos became the prospective successor of the then-ruler of Spain, Francisco Franco. In 1977, after Juan Carlos had become King upon Franco's death in 1975, he officially awarded the title of Count of Barcelona to his father, who had renounced his rights to the throne. Juan held that title until his death in 1993, when it reverted to the King who has held it ever since. Juan de Borbón's widow used the title Countess of Barcelona until her death in 2000.

List of Counts of Barcelona

Non-dynastic, 801–878

Name Portrait Reign Notes
Berà, Count of Barcelona 801–820 son of Guilhèm I of Razès, brother of Bello of Razès, also Count of Razès and Conflent (790–820), Girona, Besalú, Ausona (812/817–820), deposed.
Rampon
(Rampó)
820–826 also Count of Girona and Besalú
Bernard I
(Bernat I)
826–832 son of William of Gellone, also margrave of Septimania (834–835) and Imperial Chamberlain (829–830), deposed.
Berenguer 832–835 also Count of Toulouse.
Bernard I
(Bernat I)
836–844 restored, executed on orders of Charles the Bald.
Sunifred 844–848 son or son-in-law of Belló of Carcassone, also Count of Ausona, Besalú, Girona, Narbonne, Agde, Béziers, Lodève, Melgueil, Cerdanya, Urgell, Conflent and Nîmes.
William
(Guillem)
848–850 son of Bernard I, also Count of Toulouse (844–850), rebelled and was killed.
Aleran 850–852 also Count of Empúries and Roussillon and Margrave of Septimania.
Odalric 852–858 son of Hunfrid, Margrave of Istria, also Count of Girona, Roussillon, Empúries and Margrave of Septimania.
Humfrid 858–864 son of Hunfrid II, Duke of Rhaetia, also Count of Girona, Empúries, Roussillon, and Narbonne and Margrave of Gothia.
Bernard II
(Bernat II)
865–878 son of Bernard of Poitiers also Count of Girona and Margrave of Gothia and Septimania, rebelled.

House of Sunifred, 878–1162

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Wilfred I the Hairy
(Guifré el Pelós)
878 –897
Estatuas Plaza de Oriente Madrid 19 (16569217757) c.840
Girona
Disputed filiation
Guinidilda of Empúries
877
10 children
897
Tremp
aged 46–47
Wilfred II Borrell I
(Guifré II Borrell)
897 –26 April 911
Wifred II of Barcelona c.874
Girona
First son of Wilfred I
and Guinidilda of Empúries
Garsenda of Toulouse
898
1 child
26 April 911
Barcelona
aged 36–37
Sunyer
26 April 911 –947
Rotlle-genealogic-sunifred-I-de-barcelona c.890
Girona
Sixth son of Wilfred I
and Guinidilda of Empúries
Aimilda
914
1 child

Richilde of Toulouse
925
5 children
15 October 950
Lagrasse
aged 59–60
Miro I
947 –966
Rotlle-genealogic-mir-I-de-barcelona c.926
Barcelona
Second son of Sunyer
and Richilde of Toulouse
Unmarried 966
aged 39–40
Borrell II
947 –992
(joint rule 947-966)
Rotlle-genealogic-borrell-II-de-barcelona c.927
Barcelona
Third son of Sunyer
and Richilde of Toulouse
Luitgarde of Toulouse
968
5 children
992
aged 64–65
Ramon Borrell
988 –8 September 1017
(joint rule 988–992)
Rotlle-genealogic-ramon-borrell-I-de-barcelona 26 May 972
Girona
Son of Borrell II
and Luitgarde of Toulouse
Ermesinde of Carcassonne
993
2 children
8 September 1017
Barcelona
aged 45
Ermesinde of Carcassonne
993–1021
1035–1039
(joint rule 993–1017);
(regent 1017–1021, 1035–1039)
Ermesenda de Carcasona 972
Carcassonne
Daughter of Roger I of Carcassonne
and Adelaide of Melgueil
Ramon I Borrell III
993
2 children
1 March 1058
Sant Quirze de Besora
aged 85–86
Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked
El Corbat
8 September 1017 –31 March 1035
(under regency of Ermesinde of Carcassonne 1017–1021)
Berenguer Ramon I. BarcelonskýPergamen Poblet 1004
Son of Ramon Borrell
and Ermesinde of Carcassonne
Sancha of Castile
1021
2 children

Guisla of Lluçá
1027
3 children
31 March 1035
Barcelona
aged 30–31
Ramon Berenguer I the Old
El Vell
31 March 1035 –26 June 1076
(under regency of Ermesinde of Carcassonne 1035–1039)
Raimundo Berengário I de Barcelona1 1023
Girona
Son of Berenguer Ramon I
and Sancha of Castile
Élisabeth de Nîmes
1039
3 children

Blanche de Narbonne
16 March 1051
(annulled 1052)
no children

Almodis de La Marche
1056
Barcelona
(together since 1052)
4 children
26 June 1076
Barcelona
aged 52–53
Almodis de La Marche
1052 –16 October 1071
(joint rule)
Almodis de La Marche c.1020
Toulouse
Daughter of Bernard I de La Marche
and Amélie de Rasès
Hugh V of Lusignan
1038
(annulled c.1040)
3 children

Pons, Count of Toulouse
1040 or 1045
(annulled 1052)
4 children

Ramon Berenguer I
1056
Barcelona
(together since 1052)
4 children
16 October 1071
Barcelona
aged 50–51
Ramon Berenguer II the Towhead
El Cap d'Estopes
26 June 1076 –6 December 1082
Ramon Berenguer II c.1053
Girona
First/Second son of Ramon Berenguer I
and Almodis de La Marche
Mafalda of Apulia-Calabria
1078
Barcelona
3 children
6 December 1082
Sant Feliu de Buixalleu
aged 28–29
Berenguer Ramon II the Fratricide
el Fratricida
26 June 1076 –1097
(joint rule 1076–1082)
c.1053
First/Second son of Ramon Berenguer I
and Almodis de La Marche
Unmarried 1097
Jerusalem
aged 43–44
Ramon Berenguer III the Great
El Gran
6 December 1082 –19 July 1131
(joint rule 1082–1097)
Berenguer el Gran P1210429 11 November 1082
Rodez
Son of Ramon Berenguer II
and Mafalda of Apulia-Calabria
María Díaz de Vívar
1103
2 children

Almodis de Mortain
1106
no children

Douce I, Countess of Provence
3 February 1112
Arles
7 children
19 July 1131
Barcelona
aged 48
Ramon Berenguer IV the Saint
El Sant
19 July 1131 –6 August 1162
Jazpert de Peralada renders tribute to Count Raymond Berenguer III for the town of Peralada. c.1113
Barcelona or Rodez
Son of Ramon Berenguer III
and Douce I, Countess of Provence
Petronilla of Aragon
August 1050
Lleida
5 children
6 August 1162
Borgo San Dalmazzo
aged 48–49
Barcelona Cathedral Interior - Sepulchres of Ramón Berenguer I and Almodis
Tomb of Count Ramon Berenger I (d. 1076).

The succession of Ramon Berenguer IV and Petronilla led to the creation of the Crown of Aragon.

House of Barcelona, 1164–1410

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Alphonse I the Troubadour
El Trobador
18 July 1164 – 25 April 1196
Alfons I 1-25 March 1157
Huesca
son of Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona and Petronilla of Aragon
marriage agreement with
Mafalda of Portugal 1159-1162, not fulfilled


Sancha of Castile
18 January 1174
Zaragoza
7 children
25 April 1196
Perpignan
aged 44
Peter I the Catholic
El Catòlic
25 April 1196 – 13 September 1213
Peter I July 1178
Huesca
son of Alfons I and Sancha of Castile
Marie of Montpellier
15 June 1204
2 children
12 September 1213
Battle of Muret
aged 35
James I the Conqueror
El Conqueridor
13 September 1213 – 27 July 1276
James I 2 February 1208
Montpellier
son of Peter I the Catholic and Marie of Montpellier
marriage agreement with
Aurembiaix, Countess of Urgell 1209, not fulfilled


Eleanor of Castile
6 February 1221
Ágreda
1 child

Violant of Hungary
8 September 1235
Barcelona
10 children

Teresa Gil de Vidaure
(lover, then wife)
1255
(uncanonical marriage, repudiated 1260)
2 children
27 July 1276
Valencia
aged 68
Peter II the Great
El Gran
27 July 1276 – 2 November 1285
Peter II July or August 1240
Valencia
son of James I and Violant of Hungary
Constance of Sicily
13 June 1262
Montpellier
6 children
2 November 1285
Vilafranca del Penedès
aged 45
Alphonse II the Liberal
El Liberal
2 November 1285 – 18 June 1291
Alfons II 4 November 1265
Valencia
son of Peter II and Constance of Sicily
Eleanor of England
15 August 1290
(by proxy and not consummated; death of the groom during bride's way to Aragon)
18 June 1291
Barcelona
aged 27
James II the Fair
El Just
18 June 1291 – 2 November 1327
James II 10 August 1267
Valencia
son of Peter II and Constance of Sicily
Isabella of Castile
1 December 1291
Soria
No children

Blanche of Anjou
29 October or 1 November 1295
Vilabertran
10 children

Marie de Lusignan
15 June 1315 (by proxy)
Nicosia
27 November 1315 (in person)
Girona
No children

Elisenda de Montcada
25 December 1322
Tarragona
No children
5 November 1327
Barcelona
aged 60
Alphonse III the Kind
El Benigne
2 November 1327 – 24 January 1336
Alfons III 2 November 1299
Naples
son of James II of Aragon and Blanche of Anjou
Teresa d'Entença
1314
Lerida
7 children

Eleanor of Castile
5 February 1329
Tarazona
2 children
27 January 1336
Barcelona
aged 37
Peter III the Ceremonious
El Cerimoniós
24 January 1336 – 5 January 1387
Peter III 5 October 1319
Balaguer
son of Alphonse III and Teresa d'Entença
Maria of Navarre
25 July 1337
Zaragoza
2 children

Leonor of Portugal
14 or 15 November 1347
Barcelona
No children

Eleanor of Sicily
27 August 1349
Valencia
4 children

Sibila of Fortia
11 October 1377
Barcelona
3 children
5 January 1387
Barcelona
aged 68
John the Hunter
El Caçador
5 January 1387 – 19 May 1396
John I 27 December 1350
Perpignan
son of Peter III and Eleanor of Sicily
marriage agreement with
Jeanne-Blanche of France 1370-1371, not fulfilled


Martha of Armagnac
24 June 1373
Barcelona
5 children

Violant of Bar
2 February 1380
Perpignan
7 children
19 May 1396
Foixà
aged 46
Martin the Humanist
l'Humà
19 May 1396 – 31 May 1410
Martí I 1356
Girona
son of Peter III and Eleanor of Sicily
Maria de Luna
13 June 1372
Barcelona
4 children

Margaret of Prades
17 September 1409
Barcelona
No children
31 May 1410
Barcelona
aged 54

Martin was the last direct descendant of Wilfred the Hairy to rule; died without legitimate heirs (interregnum 31 May 1410 – 24 June 1412). By the Compromise of Caspe of 1412 the County of Barcelona and all its associated dominions passed to a branch of the House of Trastámara.

The County of Barcelona formed a constituent part of the Crown of Spain under the rule of the House of Habsburg, until the Nueva Planta decrees (1707 and 1716), when Philip de Bourbon declared that all the territories from the Crown of Aragon should merge into Castile, building the centralized Kingdom of Spain. In Barcelona this was promulgated in 1716, and the title of Count of Barcelona became one of the many unused hereditary titles of the modern Spanish monarchy.

Courtesy title

House of Bourbon, 1977–1993

Name Portrait Reign Notes
John III
(Juan III)
J. de Borbón 1977–1993 claimed title from 1941; officially granted by his son Juan Carlos I in exchange for renouncing his claim to the Spanish throne

See also

Bera, Count of Barcelona

Bera (Catalan: Berà) (died 844) was the first count of Barcelona from 801 until his deposition in 820. He was also the count of Razès and Conflent from 790, and the count of Girona and Besalú from 812 (or 813 or 817) until his deposition. In 811, he was witness to the last will and testament of Charlemagne.

Berengar the Wise

Berengar, called the Wise (Catalan: Berenguer el Savi, Latin: Berengarius Sapiens), was the count (or duke) of Toulouse (814–835) and duke (or margrave) of Septimania (832–835). He held the County of Barcelona concomitantly with Septimania.

Berengar was a member of the family of the Unrochids. He was the son of Unruoch II of Friuli and Ingeltrude and brother of Eberhard. His nephew was the Holy Roman Emperor Berengar.

In 814, Louis the Pious installed Berengar as Count of Toulouse in succession to Raymond Raphinel who had been appointed by Charlemagne. He was also a councillor of Pepin I of Aquitaine in 816. In 819, he and Guerin, Count of Auvergne, fought against the usurping Duke of Gascony, Lupo III Centule. Berengar appears as a missus dominicus of Louis in May 825 and then in 827 in the six counties of Rheims, Soissons, Senlis, Beauvais, Laon, and Catolonis and the four bishoprics of Amiens, Cambrai, Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise, and Noviomacensem.

In November 831, Pepin revolted against his father, with Berengar advising him not to rebel, but with Bernard of Septimania inciting him. In the beginning of 832, Louis the Pious began campaigning against his rebellious son. Berengar, loyal to the Emperor, attacked the domains of Bernard, taking Roussillon (with Vallespir), Razès, and Conflent. On 2 February, Berengar had already reached Elna. Finally, in the autumn of the same year, successive victories by the imperial forces compelled Pepin and Bernard to appear before the Emperor (October) to plead for peace. Pepin was dispossessed of his kingdom and sent, as a prisoner, to Trier. His territories were given to Charles the Bald, youngest son of the Emperor. Bernard was accused of infidelity and dispossessed of all his lands in Septimania and Gothia; they were given to Berengar. Gaucelm, Bernard's brother, was also dispossessed of the majority of his lands, but for a time kept the Empúries although this too was lost to Berengar later.

In 833, Aznar I Galíndez, Count of Urgell and Cerdanya, usurped the counties of Pallars and Ribagorza from under Berengar's rule. In 834, when another rebellious son of the emperor, Lothair, was defeated, Bernard, having fought on the side of Louis with Pepin, reclaimed his old domains as the price of his support. The lands were passed to Bernard and Berengar was weakened. As a result Berengar's Pyrenean lands were confiscated unlawfully and redistributed by the imperial crown to others. His Catalan grants were taken away and given to his old enemy. He was left with nothing but the County of Toulouse after fighting loyally for the old emperor and the successful Pepin.

In June 835, Bernard and Berengar were summoned to an Assembly at Crémieu, near Lyon, where a decision would be made about the distribution of lands in Septimania and Gothia, but on the way Berengar died unexpectedly. Thus the decision was simplified, and the Emperor gave the region's counties to Bernard and Toulouse to Guerin.

Berenguer Ramon I, Count of Barcelona

Berenguer Ramon I [Berengar Raymond I] (1005 – 26 May 1035), called the Crooked or the Hunchback (in Latin curvus; in Catalan el Corbat; in Spanish el Corvado or el Curvo), was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1018 to his death.

He was the son of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona and his wife Ermesinde of Carcassonne. He accepted the suzerainty of Sancho the Great of Navarre.

Berenguer Ramon as a historical figure is enigmatic, shrouded in incomprehensible contradictions and ambiguities. First, he was a man of peace, and peace ruled throughout his reign. He pacified his neighbours as well, bringing to heel the Count of Urgell, Ermengol II. He reestablished amicable relations with Hugh I, Count of Empúries, and maintained them with William I of Besalú and Wilfred II of Cerdanya. He was a son of the church who maintained relations with the papacy and went on a pilgrimage to Rome in 1032. On many occasions he travelled to Zaragoza and Navarre to discuss with Sancho III the Great, King of Navarre their mutual stance against the Counts of Toulouse. His confidantes and councillors were the Abbot Oliva, the judge Ponç Bofill, Gombau de Besora, and the Bishops Pedro of Girona and Deudado of Barcelona. In 1025, he decreed that the proprietors of entails (men holding land in fee tail) were free from taxation.

On the other hand, the government of Berenguer Ramon I marks the beginning of the decline of the comital power. At the death of his father in 1018, Berenguer Ramon was a minor and his mother Ermesinde served as regent until 1023. But even when he attained his majority, his mother would not relinquish the powers of regency and reigned with him. According to some chroniclers, Berenguer's character left some things to be desired. He is described as weak and indecisive. Moreover, his policy of peace with the Moors was a bone of contention with the noblesse, who saw war with the Muslims as a way of obtaining glory, wealth, and possibly even salvation. This led some nobles to act independently of the count's wishes. Ermesinde, contra her son, was energetic and decisive, intent on imposing the authority of Barcelona on the baronage. But, as a woman, her capability to exercise control of the military was greatly impeded and organizing a raid or expedition to satisfy the wants of the aristocracy was virtually impossible.

The weakening of comital authority became evident shortly before his death in 1035, when Ermisende successfully partitioned his patrimony among his sons. Berenguer Ramon died on 26 May 1035 and was buried in Santa Maria de Ripoll.

Berenguer Ramon II, Count of Barcelona

Berenguer Ramon II "the Fratricide" (1053/1054 – 1097/1099) was Count of Barcelona from 1076 to 1097. He was the son of Ramon Berenguer I, and initially ruled jointly with his twin brother Ramon Berenguer II.

Born in 1053 or 1054, Berenguer Ramon succeeded his father Ramon Berenguer I the Old in 1075 to co-rule with his twin brother Ramon Berenguer II. The twins failed to agree and divided their possessions between them, against the will of their late father. Ramon Berenguer II was killed while hunting in the woods on 5 December 1082. Berenguer Ramon II, who became the sole ruler of Catalonia for the next four years, was credited by popular opinion with having orchestrated this murder. This suspicion and other divisions of loyalty led to a civil war. Various parties asserted ways to resolve this 'unjust and iniquitous murder', which led to a moderate compromise in 1086 in which Berenguer Ramon II would rule Catalonia with his brother's four-year-old son Ramon Berenguer III for eleven years until he came of age.In the 1080s Berenguer Ramon's involvement in the internal strife in the Moorish taifa kingdoms brought him in conflict with El Cid. In the ensuing war the Count of Barcelona was twice taken prisoner.

After Berenguer Ramon's resignation in 1097 his life became more obscure. Still living under the accusations of his brother's assassination, the guilt of which may have been determined by trial by combat, which he lost, he went to Jerusalem, either on pilgrimage, as a penance, or as part of the First Crusade, and perished there between 1097 and 1099. Berenguer Ramon II was succeeded by his nephew Ramon Berenguer III, son of Ramon Berenguer II.

Borrell II, Count of Barcelona

Borrell II (died 993) was Count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 945 and Count of Urgell from 948.

Borrell was first seen acting as Count during the reign of his father Sunyer II in 945 at the consecration of the nunnery church of Sant Pere de les Puelles in Barcelona. In 947, Sunyer retired to monastic life and ceded the government of his realms jointly to his sons Borrell and Miró I. In 948, Borrell inherited Urgell from his uncle Sunifred II. Sunyer died in 950, and Miró died in 966, leaving Borrell sole ruler of more than half of Old Catalonia, a status which led outsiders and flatterers to refer to him as dux Gothiae, "Duke of Gothia". His own documents almost all refer to him merely as comes et marchio, "Count and Marquis".

Catalan Republic (1641)

The Catalan Republic (Catalan: República Catalana, IPA: [rəˈpubːlikə kətəˈlanə]) was a short-lived independent state under French protection proclaimed in 1641 by the States-General of Catalonia led by Pau Claris, during the Reaper's War.The States-General of Catalonia, headed by the President of the Deputation of the General of Catalonia (or Generalitat) Pau Claris, proclaimed the Catalan Republic on January 17, 1641. On January 23, 1641, the Braços Generals led by Pau Claris proclaimed Louis XIII of France as Count of Barcelona, putting the Principality of Catalonia under French sovereignty. Louis XIII was succeeded upon his death in 1643 by Louis XIV (the 'Sun King'), who remained Count of Barcelona until 1652, when Catalonia was reincorporated into the Spanish Monarchy.

House of Barcelona

The House of Barcelona was a medieval dynasty that ruled the County of Barcelona continuously from 878 and the Crown of Aragon from 1137 (as kings from 1162) until 1410. They descend from the Bellonids, the descendants of Wifred the Hairy. They inherited most of the Catalan counties by the thirteenth century and established a territorial Principality of Catalonia, uniting it with the Kingdom of Aragon through marriage and conquering numerous other lands and kingdoms until the death of the last legitimate male of the main branch, Martin the Humanist, in 1410. Cadet branches of the house continued to rule Urgell (since 992) and Gandia. Cadet branches of the dynasty had also ruled Ausona intermittently from 878 until 1111, Provence from 1112 to 1245, and Sicily from 1282 to 1409. By the Compromise of Caspe of 1412 the Crown of Aragon passed to a branch of the House of Trastámara, descended from the infanta Eleanor of the house of Barcelona.

Humfrid

Humfrid was the Count of Barcelona, Girona, Empúries, Roussillon, and Narbonne from 858 to 864. He also bore the title Margrave of Gothia (Gothiæ marchio), as he held several frontier counties.He was a Hunfriding by birth, with no connection to Gothia. He was probably Hunfrid III, the second son of Hunfrid II, dux super Redicam (duke over Rhaetia). He rebelled against Louis the German, the King of East Francia, and was forced to flee to Charles the Bald, the King of West Francia, to whom he was one of the few to remain loyal during the vicissitudes of the 850s. He was appointed count and margrave of several counties in the Marca Hispanica by Charles, possibly as early as 854 and no later than 858.

In 858, Humfrid negotiated a treaty of peace with Abd al-Rahman, the Moorish governor of Zaragoza, and marched into Gaul to the assistance of Charles. He arrived at Beaune in February and he did homage to the king on 21 March. He then joined Charles in making war on the Norsemen. Louis took this as an opportunity to invade the country and Humfrid assisted Charles in fending him off. In September, Humfrid regrouped with his forces at Beaune before joining in the defeat of Louis at Saint-Quentin on 15 January 859.

During the campaigning of 858, Humfrid had been enfeoffed with the County of Autun and been created Margrave of Burgundy.

In 856, the Moors captured the castle of Terrassa near Barcelona. In 861, they besieged Barcelona itself, but Humfrid bought them off and renewed the treaty with the consent of Charles. It was to last for three decades.

In 862, Charles named his son Charles the Child as King of Aquitaine. This was opposed by the nobles, who, with the exception of Humfrid, did not support the young Charles in his subsequent rebellion. The elder Charles accused Humfrid of disloyalty. On 19 August, Humfrid was deposed. He was not to give up, though. He took Toulouse and killed Count Raymond I in the fighting. Charles responded by confiscating Humfrid's Burgundian lands. Even the pretender Pepin II of Aquitaine led a band of Norsemen in an attack on Toulouse, but was repulsed. Humfrid then fled to Italy, and from there to Swabia, where, in 872, he was a count in Zürich. He was alive as late as 876.

Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona

Infante Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona (Juan Carlos Teresa Silverio Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg; 20 June 1913 – 1 April 1993), was the third son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. His father was replaced by the Second Spanish Republic, and under his son, Juan Carlos I, a constitutional monarchy was restored.

Peralada

Peralada (Catalan pronunciation: [pəɾəˈlaðə]) is a village in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It was the home of the Frankish Counts of Peralada who controlled this portion of the Marca Hispanica before becoming part of the lands held by the Count of Barcelona.

Figueres is 6.5 km to the west, Roses 13.6 km to the south east. The N-260 to the south connects Figueres with Portbou and the French border.

The local economy is based on tourism and winemaking.

Since 1987 a festival of music has been held in Peralada.

Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer I (1023–1076), called the Old (Catalan: el Vell, French: le Vieux), was Count of Barcelona in 1035–1076. He promulgated the earliest versions of a written code of Catalan law, the Usages of Barcelona.

Born in 1024, he succeeded his father, Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked in 1035. It was during his reign that the dominant position of Barcelona among the other Catalan counties became evident.

Ramon Berenguer campaigned against the Moors, extending his dominions as far west as Barbastro and imposing heavy tributes (parias) on other Moorish cities. Historians claim that those tributes helped create the first wave of prosperity in Catalan history. During his reign Catalan maritime power started to be felt in the western Mediterranean. Ramon Berenguer the Old was also the first count of Catalonia to acquire lands (the counties of Carcassonne and Razés) and influence north of the Pyrenees.Another major achievement of his was beginning the codification of Catalan law in the written Usatges of Barcelona which was to become the first full compilation of feudal law in Western Europe. Legal codification was part of the count's efforts to forward and somehow control the process of feudalization which started during the reign of his weak father, Berenguer Ramon. Another major contributor was the Church acting through the institution of the Peace and Truce of God. This established a general truce among warring factions and lords in a given region for a given time. The earliest extant date for introducing the Truce of God in Western Europe is 1027 in Catalonia, during the reign of his father, Berenguer Ramon.

While still married to his second wife Blanca, he became involved with the wife of the Count of Toulouse, Almodis de La Marche, countess of Limoges. Both quickly married and were consequently excommunicated by Pope Victor II.Ramon Berenguer I, together with his third wife Almodis, also founded the Romanesque cathedral of Barcelona, to replace the older basilica presumably destroyed by Almanzor. Their velvet and brass bound wooden coffins are still displayed in the Gothic cathedral which eventually replaced the cathedral that they founded.

He was succeeded by his twin sons Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II.

Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer II the Towhead or Cap de estopes (1053 or 1054 – December 5, 1082) was Count of Barcelona from 1076 until his death. He ruled jointly with his twin brother, Berenguer Ramon II. The Chronicle of San Juan de la Pena called him, ". . . exceeding brave and bold, kind, pleasant, pious, joyful, generous, and of an attractive appearance. Because of the extremely thick hair he had on top of his head, he was known as Cap d'Estop."

He succeeded his father, Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona, as co-ruler with his twin brother, Berenguer Ramon, in 1075.

The twins failed to agree and divided their possessions between them, against the will of their late father. Ramon Berenguer the Towhead, so called because of the thickness and colour of his hair, was killed while hunting in the woods in 1082. His brother, who went on to become the sole ruler of Catalonia, was credited by popular opinion of having orchestrated this murder. Berenguer Ramon the Fratricide was later succeeded by Ramon Berenguer's son, Ramon Berenguer III.

Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer III the Great was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1086 (jointly with Berenguer Ramon II and solely from 1097), Besalú from 1111, Cerdanya from 1117, and count of Provence in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1112, all until his death in Barcelona in 1131. As Ramon Berenguer I, he was Count of Provence from 1112 in right of his wife.

Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer IV (Catalan pronunciation: [rəˈmom bəɾəŋˈɡe]; c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.

Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Borrell (Catalan: Ramon Borrell, Spanish: Ramón Borrell) (972-1017) was count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 992. He was the son of Borrell II of Barcelona and Letgarda of Rouergue, and was associated with his father in ruling the counties from 988.

In 991, he married Ermesinde of Carcassonne, with whom he had three children: Borrell Ramon (died young before 1017), Berenguer Ramon (c.1006), and Adelaide (or Godehildis) Ramon, who married firstly, Roger I of Tosny, and secondly, Richard, Count of Évreux.

Between 1000 and 1002 Ramon had to deal with a number of incursions by Almanzor. However Almanzor died in 1002, and seeing an opportunity Ramon counter-attacked in 1003 leading an expedition to Lleida. This prompted a new raid on the county of Barcelona by Almanzor's son, Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar. This was defeated by an alliance of Christian forces at the Battle of Torà. Ramon was also present at the Battle of Albesa shortly thereafter.

In 1010, with the Cordoban Caliphate crumbling into civil war, Ramon saw another opportunity. He organised a campaign, assisted by the bishop of Vic and Sal·la, bishop of Urgell, against the Caliphate with Ermengol I of Urgell and Bernard I of Besalú, and joined forces with Muhammad II of Córdoba. Their army destroyed the forces of Caliph Sulayman II and sacked Córdoba in May 1010, although Ermengol died as a result of the battle. Both bishop Arnulf of Vic and Sal·la, bishop of Urgell died on this campaign. On 2 June 1010, Ramon participated in the Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr on the side of the Muslim rebels as part of the Andalusian civil wars.

In 1015 and 1016 Ramon made further expeditions to the rivers Ebro and Segre. The treasure obtained from these campaigns maintained the loyalty of his barons.

Within the County of Barcelona he ensured the repopulation of the Segarra, Conca de Barberà and Camp de Tarragona. He was also the first Catalan ruler to mint his own coinage.

At his death in 1017, he was succeeded by his son Berenguer Ramon under the regency of his mother. He was reportedly buried in the Barcelona Cathedral, but his grave was lost.

Sant Feliu de Codines

Sant Feliu de Codines (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈsam fəˈliw ðə kuˈðinəs]) is a municipality in the comarca of the Vallès Oriental in Catalonia, Spain. It is linked by a local road to Caldes de Montbui and to Centelles. Sant Feliu de Codines is a traditional centre of vacation.

The town was first mentioned in 1059, when Mir Geribert was made Baron of Montbui by Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona. It gained its independence from the barony in 1793 by a decree of Charles IV.

Sunifred, Count of Barcelona

Sunifred was the Count of Barcelona as well as many other Catalan and Septimanian counties; including Ausona, Besalú, Girona, Narbonne, Agde, Béziers, Lodève, Melgueil, Cerdanya, Urgell, Conflent, and Nîmes; from 834 to 848 (Urgell and Cerdanya) and from 844 to 848 (others).

He may have been the son of Belló, Count of Carcassonne, or more probably, his son-in-law. In 834, he was named count of Urgell and Cerdanya by Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor; at the time these counties were in the control of Aznar Galíndez I, an ally of the Banu Qasi). Sunifred conquered Cerdanya in 835 and Urgell three years later (838).

In the dynastic struggles that accompanied the three years between Louis the Pious' death (840) and the Treaty of Verdun (843), Bernard of Septimania, the Count of Barcelona (and many other marches and counties, including Septimania, Girona, Narbonne, Béziers, Agde, Melgueil, Nîmes, and Toulouse) aligned with Pepin II of Aquitaine, while Sunifred, his brother Sunyer I, Count of Empúries, and their sons (sometimes referred to as the Bellonid Dynasty or Bellonids) placed their allegiance with Charles the Bald.

In 841, the Moors invaded Barcelona and marched against Narbonne through the region of Cerdanya. Sunifred stopped them cold in battle, an event which certainly influenced Charles the Bald's respect for him. For in 844, Charles reclaimed Toulouse from Pepin II, captured Bernard of Septimania, and had him executed. In exchange for his fealty, Charles gave Sunifred the dead count's honours of Barcelona, Girona, and the march of Gothia. Sunifred also augmented his domains when Conflent fell into his hands, as reigning count of Cerdanya, on the death of Bera II.

Throughout his reign, he was aloof of William of Septimania, son of Bernard, who had risen in 844 against Charles the Bald. In 848, William was named count of Toulouse and Empúries by Pepin II. He quickly moved to eliminate Sunifred and Sunyer. Both brothers died in 848 and some of their counties were assumed by William. Sunifred supposedly died of natural causes, but the cause of Sunyer's death is unknown.

Sunifred I married Ermesende, and had the following children:

Wilfred the Hairy (died 11 August 897)

Radulf of Besalú (died 920)

Miro the Elder (died 896)

Sunyer, Count of Barcelona

Sunyer (c. 870 – 950) was count of Barcelona, Girona and Ausona from 911 to 947.

Wilfred the Hairy

Wilfred or Wifred, called the Hairy (in Catalan: Guifré el Pilós), (died 11 August 897) was Count of Urgell (from 870), Cerdanya (from 870), Barcelona (from 878), Girona (from 878, as Wilfred II), Besalú (from 878) and Ausona (from 886). On his death in 897, his son, Wilfred Borrell, inherited these Catalan counties.

He was responsible for the repopulation of the long-depopulated no-man's land around Vic (the county of Ausona, a frontier between Christian and Muslim), the re-establishment of the bishopric of Vic and the foundation of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll, where he is buried.

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