Council of India

The Council of India was the name given at different times to two separate bodies associated with British rule in India.

The original Council of India was established by the Charter Act of 1833 as a council of four formal advisors to the Governor-General at Fort William. The Governor-General in Council was subordinate only to the East India Company's Court of Directors and to the British Crown.

In 1858 the Company's involvement in India's government was transferred by the Government of India Act 1858 to the British government.[1] The Act created a new governmental department in London (the India Office), headed by the cabinet-ranking Secretary of State for India, who was in turn to be advised by a new Council of India (also based in London). In consequence, the existing council in India was formally renamed by the Act (s. 7) as the Council of the Governor General of India.

John Lawrence's Executive Council 1864
The Supreme Indian Council, Simla, 1864

Governor-General's council (1833-1858)

The 1773 Act provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor-General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he also had an additional casting vote. The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor-General. The Council of Four, as it was known in its early days, did in fact attempt to impeach the first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, but in his subsequent trial by Parliament he was found to be not guilty.

In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members; the Governor-General continued to have both an ordinary vote and a casting vote. In 1786, the power of the Governor-General was increased even further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding.

The Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor-General. As provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated.

In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.

Secretary of State's Council

The Council of the Secretary of State, also known as the India Council was based in Whitehall. In 1907, two Indians Sir Krishna Govinda Gupta and Nawab Syed Hussain Bilgrami were appointed by Lord Morley as members of the council. Bilgrami retired early in 1910 owing to ill-health and his place was taken by Mirza Abbas Ali Baig.[2][3] Other members included P. Rajagopalachari (1923-1925), Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana (1924-1934) and Sir Abdul Qadir

The Secretary of State's Council of India was abolished by the Government of India Act 1935.

Members of the Council Of India in London

Term start Term end Name Birth Death Notes
1888 November 1902 Right Hon. Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, GCIE, KCB, PC 1835 1911
1888 November 1902 Sir James Braithwaite Peile, KCSI 1833 1906
1900 March 1907 General Sir Alexander Robert Badcock, KCB, CSI 1844 1907
November 1902[4] Sir Antony Patrick MacDonnell, GCSI, PC 1844 1925 Lieutenant Governor of Bengal 1893–1895
Lieutenant Governor of United Provinces 1895–1901
November 1902[4] 1910 Sir William Lee-Warner, GCSI 1846 1914

See also


  1. ^ "Official, India". World Digital Library. 1890–1923. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
  2. ^ Chirol, Valentine. Indian Unrest.
  3. ^ Wikisource:Page:The Indian Biographical Dictionary.djvu/41
  4. ^ a b "The Council of india". The Times (36904). London. 21 October 1902. p. 6.

Further reading

  • A Constitutional History of India, 1600–1935, by Arthur Berriedale Keith, published by Methuen & Co., London, 1936
  • The Imperial Legislative Council of India from 1861 to 1920: A Study of the Inter-action of Constitutional Reform and National Movement with Special Reference to the Growth of Indian Legislature up to 1920, by Parmatma Sharan, published by S. Chand, 1961
  • Imperialist Strategy and Moderate Politics: Indian Legislature at Work, 1909-1920, by Sneh Mahajan, published by Chanakya Publications, 1983
Bar Council of India

The Bar Council of India is a statutory body established under the section 4 of advocates Act 1961 that regulates the legal practice and legal education in India. Its members are elected from amongst the lawyers in India and as such represents the Indian bar. It prescribes standards of professional conduct, etiquettes and exercises disciplinary jurisdiction over the bar. It also sets standards for legal education and grants recognition to Universities whose degree in law will serve as a qualification for students to enroll themselves as advocates upon graduation.

Bishan Narayan Dar

Pandit Bishan Narayan Dar (1864–1916) was an Indian politician who served as the President of the Indian National Congress for one term in 1911.

Dar belonged to a prominent Kashmiri Pandit family from Lucknow. His uncle Pandit Shambhu Nath was the first Indian Judge of the Calcutta High Court. Dar studied at the Church Mission High School and Canning College in Lahore.Dar went to England where he practised as a lawyer. After his return to India, he joined the Indian National Congress in 1887. He was the President of the United Provincial Conference in 1911 and the President of the Indian National Congress in the same year. In 1914, he was elected as a member of the Imperial Legislative Council from the United Provinces.

Brijendra Kumar Rao

Brijendra Kumar Rao is an Indian anesthesiologist, critical care specialist, medical administrator and the chairman of the Board of Management of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi. He heads the department of critical care medicine and anesthesiology at the hospital and is a member of the Board of Governors of the Medical Council of India. He has attended several medical conferences to deliver keynote addresses.

Cashew Export Promotion Council of India

The Cashew Export Promotion Council of India or CEPC or CEPCI was established by the Government of India in 1955, with the active cooperation of the cashew industry with the object of promoting exports of cashew kernels and cashew nut shell liquid from India. It is headquartered in Mundakkal in the city of Kollam, Kerala. The Council serves as an intermediary between importers of cashew kernels and exporters who are members of the council. The council is also supposed to deal with any disputes on exports or imports arising on account of quality standards, breach of contractual obligations, etc. It undertakes numerous activities, such as organizing global buyer-seller meets, organizing studies on the nutritional aspects of cashew and providing support to cashew processors and exporters for improving infrastructure.In 2013–14, India exported 113,620 metric tonnes of cashew shipments which also constituted 9226 metric tonnes of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), generating revenues US$825.89 million and US$6.18 million respectively. Cashew Export Promotion Council of India have offices in Kollam, Kochi and Mangalore. There are 238 registered cashew exporters in Cashew Export Promotion Council of India as members. In that, more than 200 exporters are based in Kollam. An examination of the records show that Kilikollur, a suburb of Kollam city, had the most cashew processing factories.

Dental Council of India

The Dental Council of India was incorporated under The Dentists Act, 1948 to regulate dental education and the profession throughout India. It is financed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and through the local state dental councils.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE pronunciation (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was an Indian political leader and a social reformer during the Indian Independence Movement. Gokhale was a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and founder of the Servants of India Society. Through the Society as well as the Congress and other legislative bodies he served in, Gokhale campaigned for Indian self-rule and also social reform. He was the leader of the moderate faction of the Congress party that advocated reforms by working with existing government institutions.

Imperial Legislative Council

The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for British India from 1861 to 1947. It succeeded the Council of the Governor-General of India, and was succeeded by the Constituent Assembly of India and after 1950, was succeeded by Parliament of India.

During the rule of the East India Company, the council of the Governor-General of India had both executive and legislative responsibilities. The council had four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated. In 1858, the British Crown took over the administration from the East India Company. The council was transformed into the Imperial Legislative Council, and the Court of Directors of the Company, which had had the power to elect members of the Governor-General's Council, ceased to have this power. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.

Indian Nursing Council

The Indian Nursing Council is a national regulatory body for nurses and nurse education in India. It is an autonomous body under the Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, constituted by the Central Government under section 3(1) of the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947 of Indian parliament. Since 1947 Indian Nursing Council Act has undergone minimal amendments. This resulted in several anomalies that have impacted the morale of Registered Nurses in India especially those practicing in the private sector. The last amendment of the act was in the year 2006. According to the original act the function of the council is to provide uniformity in nursing education.

List of educational institutions in Salem, India

This is a list of educational institutions in Salem, India.

List of educational institutions in Tiruvarur district

This is a list of the schools and colleges in Tiruvarur district.

A.R.J College of Engineering and Technology

Central University of Tamil Nadu

National Higher Secondary School Mannargudi

Sri Sankara Matriculation Higher Secondary School

Thiruvalluvar Government Higher Secondary School

List of educational institutions in Vellore

List of universities, colleges & schools in Vellore city and its suburbs.

List of educational institutions in Viluppuram district

Villupuram district, India has several primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions.

Different schools in Villupuram follow the curricula set by their board of choice, such as the Tamil Nadu State Board or the CBSE.

List of educational institutions in Virudhunagar district

This is a list of the Schools and colleges in Virudhunagar district.

Medical Council of India

The Medical Council of India (MCI) Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Ordinance,

2018 (Ordinance 8 of 2018), the Medical Council of India shall stand superseded

now is not a statutory body for establishing uniform and high standards of medical education in India. The Council grants recognition of medical qualifications, gives accreditation to medical schools, grants registration to medical practitioners, and monitors medical practice in India. The current President of MCI is Dr. Jayshreeben Mehta.

Now the Supreme Court has allowed the Central Government to replace the medical council and with the help of five specialized doctors monitor the medical education system in India, from July 2017.

The planning commission has recommended the replacement of Medical Council of India (MCI) with National Medical Commission (NMC). The decision has been approved by most states and after its approval by the Prime Minister it will be proposed as final bill in the upcoming parliamentary sessions.

Medical Council of India Screening Test

Medical Council of India Screening Test, also known as Foreign Medical Graduates Examination (FMGE), is a licensure examination conducted by the National Board of Examinations (NBE) in India. The test is one of the mandatory requirements for an Indian citizen who has a medical degree from a college outside India to practice medicine in the country. (teaching hospital). The screening test was introduced in 2002 as a qualifying examination for Indian students obtaining their medical degrees from countries other than India, such as countries belonging to the former. Soviet Union, Eastern European countries, China, Nepal, Philippines, and Caribbean countries. Indian doctors holding basic medical degrees from any country have to take the MCI screening test The Medical School should have been listed in the WHO international directory of Medical Schools.

The legality of the test was challenged in the Indian courts and was upheld by the Supreme Court of India in 2009. This test has generated controversy with accusations that it is unfair and lacks transparency—for example, not allowing examinees to retain their question paper after examination, or not showing the exact marks or answer sheet upon appeal for failure. An appeal petition filed under RTI India to reveal the marks of an appealing student was not granted.This examination is held twice in year in June and December on the third Monday and Tuesday of the month.

Pharmacy Council of India

The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) is the statutory body of government of India also called as central council constituted under the Pharmacy Act, 1948. The Council was first constituted on 4 March 1948.

The Pharmacy Council of India is constituted by central government every five years. They are based in New Delhi which is linked to the Ministry of Health Services and Family welfare.

There are three types of members collectively forms a frame of PCI,

1.Elected members

2.Nominated members

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Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar

Rao Bahadur Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar CIE was an Indian politician who served as the President of the Indian National Congress for one term, succeeding Pandit Bishan Narayan Dar. He presided over 27th session of Indian National Congress at Bankipore (Patna) in 1912.Raghunath Mudholkar was born in Dhulia, Khandesh, in a respectable middle-class family on 16 May 1857. He had his education partly at Dhulia and partly in Vidarbha. Then he went to Bombay and graduated from Elphinstone College where he was granted a Fellowship.

He was leading Lawyer practising at Amravati along with G. S. Khaparde and Moropant V Joshi. He was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in January 1914, in recognition of his public services.He was a devout Hindu, advocated social reforms like female education, widow remarriage and removal of Untouchability. As a follower of Gokhale, he believed that developing nationalism required British cooperation and therefore the national movement should be constitutional and nonviolent. He was in the Congress from 1888 to 1917, and thereafter joined the Liberals. He was in the Congress delegation of 1890 sent to England to voice the grievances of the Indians. He was President of the Indian National Congress held at Bankipur in 1912.

He admired Parliamentary democracy but opposed British bureaucracy. He criticised the economic policy of the Government, helped to establish a number of industries in Vidarbha and advocated technical education. He founded several social organisations and worked for the uplift of the poor. He died on 13 January 1921.His son Janardhan became Judge at Supreme Court of India during 1960-1966.

Rehabilitation Council of India

The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) was set up as a registered society in 1986. On September, 1992 the RCI Act was enacted by Parliament and it became a Statutory Body on 22 June 1993. The Act was amended by Parliament in 2000 to make it more broadbased. The mandate given to RCI is to regulate and monitor services given to persons with disability, to standardise syllabi and to maintain a Central Rehabilitation Register of all qualified professionals and personnel working in the field of Rehabilitation and Special Education. The Act also prescribes punitive action against unqualified persons delivering services to persons with disability.

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The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) is the apex government body, set up under an Act of Parliament, to regulate training programmes and courses targeted at disabled, disadvantaged, and special education requirement communities. It is the only statutory council in India that is required to maintain the Central Rehabilitation Register which mainly documents details of all qualified professionals who operate and deliver training and educational programmes for the targeted communities[2]. In the year 2000, the Rehabilitation Council of India (Amendment) Act, 2000, was introduced and notified consequently by the government of India. The amendment brought definitions and discussions provided within the earlier Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992, under the ambit of a larger act, namely, Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995[3].

University Grants Commission (India)

The University Grants Commission of India (UGC India) is a statutory body set up by the Indian Union government in accordance to the UGC Act 1956 under Ministry of Human Resource Development, and is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education. It provides recognition to universities in India, and disbursements of funds to such recognised universities and colleges. Its headquarters is in New Delhi, and has six regional centres in Pune, Bhopal, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Guwahati and Bangalore.UGC is modelled after University Grants Committee of UK which was an advisory committee of the British government and advised on the distribution of grant funding amongst the British universities. The committee was in existence from 1919 until 1989.

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