Costume design is the investing of clothing and the overall appearance of a character or performer. Costume may refer to the style of dress particular to a nation, a class, or a period. In many cases, it may contribute to the fullness of the artistic, visual world which is unique to a particular theatrical or cinematic production. The most basic designs are produced to denote status, provide protection or modesty, or provide visual interest to a character. Costumes may be for a theater, cinema, or musical performance but may not be limited to such. Costume design should not be confused with costume coordination which merely involves altering existing clothing, although both create stage clothes.
Four types of costumes are used in theatrical design: historical, fantastical, dance, and modern.
Village festivals and processions in honor of Dionysus (See also: Dionysia) amongst the ancient Greeks, are believed to be the origin of theatre, and therefore theatre costume. The sculpture and vase paintings provide the clearest evidence of this costume. Because of their ritualized style of theatre many masks were used giving each character a specific look and they varied depending if they were used for comedic or dramatic purposes. Some masks were constructed with a cheerful as well as a serious side on the same face in an attempt to indicate a change in emotion without a change of mask. The same is true for the Romans, who continued the mask tradition, which made the doubling of roles easier.
During the late Middle Ages in Europe, dramatic enactments of Bible stories were prevalent, therefore actual Christian vestments, stylized from traditional Byzantine court dress, were worn as costumes to keep the performances as realistic as possible. Stereotypical characterization was key when clothing performers for this style of theatre. In most instances actors had to supply their own costumes when playing a character found in daily life.
Later, in Elizabethan performance during the 1500-1600s in England, costume became the most important visual element. Garments were very expensive because only the finest fabrics were used. The majority of characters were clothed in Elizabethan fashion, otherwise the costumes could be divided into five categories; "Ancient", which was out of style clothing used to represent another period; "Antique", older additions to contemporary clothing to distinguish classical characters; Dreamlike, "fanciful" garments for supernatural or allegorical characters; "Traditional" clothing which represented only a few specific people, such as Robin Hood, or "National or Racial" costumes that were intended to set apart a specific group of people but did not tend to be historically accurate.
"Ordinarily, fashionable garments were used in both comedy and tragedy until 1727, when Adrienne Lecouvreur adopted the much more elaborate and formal court dress for tragedy. Her practice soon became standard for all tragic heroines"  Major actors began to compete with one another as to who would have the most lavish stage dress. This practice continued until around the 1750s when costumes became relevant to the character again. Art began to copy life and realistic characteristics were favored especially during the 19th century. For example, Georg the second, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen took personal interest in the theatre and began managing troupes. He advocated for authenticity and accuracy of the script and time period, therefore he refused to let actors tamper with their own costumes. He also made sure the materials were authentic and specific, using real chain mail, armor, swords, etc. No cheap substitutes would be allowed.
In August 1823, in an issue of The Album, James Planché published an article saying that more attention should be paid to the time period of Shakespeare's plays, especially when it comes to costumes. In the same year, a casual conversation led to one of Planché's more lasting effects on British theatre. He observed to Charles Kemble, the manager of Covent Garden, that "while a thousand pounds were frequently lavished upon a Christmas pantomime or an Easter spectacle, the plays of Shakespeare were put upon the stage with makeshift scenery, and, at the best, a new dress or two for the principal characters." Kemble "saw the possible advantage of correct appliances catching the taste of the town" and agreed to give Planché control of the costuming for the upcoming production of King John, if he would carry out the research, design the costumes and superintend the production. Planché had little experience in this area and sought the help of antiquaries such as Francis Douce and Sir Samuel Meyrick. The research involved sparked Planché's latent antiquarian interests; these came to occupy an increasing amount of his time later in life.
Despite the actors' reservations, King John was a success and led to a number of similarly-costumed Shakespeare productions by Kemble and Planché (Henry IV, Part I, As You Like It, Othello, Cymbeline, Julius Caesar). The designs and renderings of King John, Henry IV, As You Like It, Othello, Hamlet and Merchant of Venice were published, though there is no evidence that Hamlet and Merchant of Venice were ever produced with Planché’s historically accurate costume designs. Planché also wrote a number of plays or adaptations which were staged with historically accurate costumes (Cortez, The Woman Never Vext, The Merchant's Wedding, Charles XII, The Partisans, The Brigand Chief, and Hofer). After 1830, although he still used period costume, he no longer claimed historical accuracy for his work in plays. His work in King John had brought about a "revolution in nineteenth-century stage practice" which lasted for almost a century.
Costumes in Chinese theatre are very important, especially in Beijing Opera. They are usually heavily patterned and loud in color. The standard items consist of at least 300 pieces and describe the actors character type, age and social status through ornament, design, color and accessories. "Color is always used symbolically: red for loyalty and high position, yellow for royalty, and dark crimson for barbarians or military advisors."  Symbolic significance is also found in the designs used for emblems. For example, the tiger stands for power and masculine strength. A majority of the clothing, regardless of rank, is made out of rich and luxurious materials. Makeup is also used symbolically and very important to the overall look.
In Japanese Noh drama masks are always used and the prominent aspect of the costume. They are made of wood and usually used for generations. There are five basic types; male, female, aged, deities and monsters, all with many variations. The masks are changed often throughout the play. In Kabuki, another form of Japanese theatre, actors do not wear masks but rely heavily on makeup for the overall look. Features are exaggerated or removed and for some of the athletic roles musculature is outlined in a specific pattern. Traditional costumes are used for each role, based upon historical garments that are altered for dramatic effect. "Some costumes weigh as much as fifty pounds, and stage attendants assist the actors in keeping them properly arranged while on stage" 
The costume design process involves many steps and though they differ from genre to genre a basic method is commonly used.
1.) Analysis: The first step is an analysis of the script, musical composition, choreography, etc. Costume Parameters for the show are established and a rough costume plot is created. A costume plot outlines which character is in which scene, when the actors change, and what costumes are mentioned in the script.
2.) Design Collaboration: An important phase in the process where all of the designers meet with the director. There must be a clear understanding of where the show is headed. The designers get on the same page with the director in terms of themes for the show and what message they want the audience to get from the show.
3.) Costume Research: Once the director and designers are on the same page, the next step is for the Costume designer to gather research. Costume designers usually begin with world of the play research where they find research to establish the world where the play takes place. This helps the designers establish the rules of the world and then in turn understand the characters better. The designer will then go into broad research about each character to try to establish their personalities though their costume.
4.) Preliminary Sketching and Color Layout: Once enough information is obtained, Costume designers begin by creating preliminary sketches. beginning with very quick rough sketches the designer can get a basic idea for how the show will look put together and if the rules of the world are being maintained. The Costume designer will then go into more detailed sketches and will figure out the specific costumes and colors for the character. Sketches help see the show as a whole without them having to spend too much time on them.
5.) Final Sketches: Once the Costume Designer and the Director agree on the costumes and the ideas are fully flushed out, the designer will create final sketches. These are called rendering and are usually painted with watercolors or acrylic paints. These final sketches show what the designer wants the character to look like and the colors of the costume.
Once the show is designed, it is necessary to plan where the items will be sourced. There are four options. Garments can be:
There are two ways a garment can begin to be constructed; either pattern drafted or draped, and many times both methods will be used together. Pattern drafting begins by using a set of basic pattern blocks developed from the actor’s measurements. They are drawn out on paper first, then transferred to fabric, and sewn together to test fit.
Draping involves manipulating a piece of fabric on a dress form or mannequin that have measurements closely related to the actors. It is a process that takes a flat piece of cloth and shapes it to conform the fabric to a three-dimensional body by cutting and pinning.
Once constructed, however, the costume has not finished "working." A most important aspect of costumes is the ways they affect actors' performances and function within their settings. The very best costume designers build their original ideas after assessing the visual and spatial conditions of the costumes.
The AACTA Award for Best Costume Design is an accolade given by the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts (AACTA), a non-profit organisation whose aim is to "identify, award, promote and celebrate Australia's greatest achievements in film and television." The award is handed out at the annual AACTA Awards, which rewards achievements in feature film, television, documentaries and short films. From 1977–2010, the category was presented by the Australian Film Institute (AFI), the Academy's parent organisation, at the annual Australian Film Institute Awards (known as the AFI Awards). When the AFI launched the Academy in 2011, it changed the annual ceremony to the AACTA Awards, with the current prize being a continuum of the AFI Award for Best Costume Design. Terry Ryan has received the most awards in this category with five.Academy Award for Best Costume Design
The Academy Award for Best Costume Design is one of the Academy Awards presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) for achievement in film costume design.The award was first given for films made in 1948. Initially, separate award categories were established for black-and-white films and color films. Since the merger of the two categories in 1967, the Academy has traditionally avoided giving out the award to films with a contemporary setting.BAFTA Award for Best Costume Design
The British Academy Film Award for Best Costume Design is one of the annual film awards given by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.Canadian Screen Award for Best Costume Design
The Genie Award for Best Achievement in Costume Design is awarded by the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television to the best Canadian costume designer.Catherine Martin (designer)
Catherine Martin (born 26 January 1965) is an Australian costume designer, production designer, set designer, and film producer. She won two Academy Awards for Moulin Rouge! in 2002 and another two for The Great Gatsby in 2014. Having won four Oscars, she is the most awarded Australian in Oscar history, having overtaken 1950s costume designer Orry-Kelly.Colleen Atwood
Colleen Atwood (born September 25, 1948) is an American costume designer.
Atwood has been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Costume Design twelve times, winning four times - for the films Chicago (2002), Memoirs of a Geisha (2005), Alice in Wonderland (2010), and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (2016). Her latest win made Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them the first Wizarding World film to win an Academy Award. She has collaborated several times with directors Tim Burton, Rob Marshall and Jonathan Demme.Costume Designers Guild
The Costume Designers Guild (CDG) was founded in 1953 by a group of 30 motion picture costume designers. Its international membership today includes over 750 motion picture, television, and commercial costume designers, assistant costume designers and costume illustrators. In 1976, the Costume Designers Guild joined the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE), becoming Local 892 of IATSE. Local 892 is centered in Los Angeles. The Costume Designers Guild publishes a quarterly magazine, The Costume Designer, founded in 2005, and a CDG Newsletter six times a year. The Costume Designers Guild produces its annual Costume Designers Guild Awards, recognizing excellence in costume design in motion pictures, television, and commercials.Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Costume Design
The Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Costume Design is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Broadcast Film Critics Association at their annual Critics' Choice Movie Awards. It was first given out in 2009. Only once, in 2016, has it not lined up with the winner of the Academy Award for Best Costume Design.César Award for Best Costume Design
This is the list of winners and nominees of the César Award for Best Costume Design (French: César des meilleurs costumes).Filmfare Award for Best Costume Design
The Filmfare Best Costumes Award is given by the Filmfare magazine as part of its annual Filmfare Awards for Hindi films.
Dolly Ahluwalia holds a record won maximum 3 awards.
Here is a list of the award winners and the films for which they won.Laurence Olivier Award for Best Costume Design
The Laurence Olivier Award for Best Costume Design is an annual award presented by The Society of London Theatre in recognition of achievements in commercial British theatre. The awards were established as the Society of West End Theatre Awards in 1976, and, renamed in 1984 in honour of English actor Lord Olivier.National Film Award for Best Costume Design
The National Film Award for Best Costume Design is one of the National Film Awards presented annually by the Directorate of Film Festivals, the organisation set up by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India. It is one of several awards presented for feature films and awarded with Rajat Kamal (Silver Lotus).
The award was instituted in 1984, at 32nd National Film Awards and awarded annually for films produced in the year across the country, in all Indian languages.Phantom Thread
Phantom Thread is a 2017 American historical period drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, set in London's couture world in 1954. It stars Daniel Day-Lewis as a couturier who takes a young waitress, played by Vicky Krieps, as his muse; it is Day-Lewis's final role before his retirement. The film is the first Anderson film shot outside the United States, with principal photography beginning in January 2017 in Lythe, England. It is Anderson's second collaboration with Day-Lewis, following There Will Be Blood (2007), and his fourth with composer Jonny Greenwood.
Phantom Thread premiered in New York City on December 11, 2017, and was theatrically released in the United States on December 25, 2017. The film received praise for its acting, screenplay, direction, musical score, costume design, and production values. It was chosen by the National Board of Review as one of the top ten films of 2017.At the 90th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor for Day-Lewis, Supporting Actress for Lesley Manville and Best Original Score, and won for Best Costume Design. It also earned four nominations at the 71st British Academy Film Awards, winning for Best Costume Design, and received two Golden Globe nominations.Robe
A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. Unlike garments described as capes or cloaks, robes usually have sleeves. The English word robe derives from Middle English robe ("garment"), borrowed from Old French robe ("booty, spoils"), itself taken from the Frankish word *rouba ("spoils, things stolen, clothes"), and is related to the word rob.Satellite Award for Best Costume Design
The Satellite Award for Best Costume Design is one of the annual Satellite Awards given by the International Press Academy.Theoni V. Aldredge
Theoni V. Aldredge (August 22, 1922 – January 21, 2011) was a Greek-American stage and screen costume designer.Tony Award for Best Costume Design
These are the winners and nominees for the Tony Award for Best Costume Design. The award was first presented in 1947 and included both plays and musicals. In 1961, and since 2005 the category was divided into Costume Design in a Play and Costume Design in a Musical with each genre receiving its own award.Tony Award for Best Costume Design in a Musical
This is a list of winners and nominations for the Tony Award for Best Costume Design in a Musical for outstanding costume design of a musical. The award was first presented in 1961 after the category of Best Costume Design was divided into Costume Design in a Play and Costume Design in a Musical with each genre receiving its own award.