Corvida

The "Corvida" were one of two "parvorders" contained within the suborder Passeri, as proposed in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, the other being Passerida. Standard taxonomic practice would place them at the rank of infraorder.

More recent research suggests that this is not a distinct clade—a group of closest relatives and nothing else—but an evolutionary grade instead. As such, it is abandoned in modern treatments, being replaced by a number of superfamilies that are considered rather basal among the Passeri.

It was presumed that cooperative breeding—present in many or most members of the Maluridae, Meliphagidae, Artamidae and Corvidae, among others—is a common apomorphy of this group.[1] But as evidenced by the updated phylogeny, this trait is rather the result of parallel evolution, perhaps because the early Passeri had to compete against many ecologically similar birds (see near passerine).

Placement of "Corvida" families

This table lists, in taxonomic order, the families placed in "Corvida" by the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy in the left column. The right column contains details of their placement in modern systematics.

Corvoidea and Meliphagoidea are placed basally among the Passeri too. They are, however, groups large enough to be considered superfamilies in their own right.

Family Modern placement
Menuridae: lyrebirds Basalmost Passeri, close to Atrichornithidae
Atrichornithidae: scrub-birds Basalmost Passeri, close to Menuridae
Climacteridae: Australian treecreepers Basal Passeri, close to Ptilonorhynchidae
Ptilonorhynchidae: bowerbirds Basal Passeri, close to Climacteridae
Maluridae: fairy-wrens, emu-wrens and grasswrens Meliphagoidea. Nowadays several families.
Meliphagidae: honeyeaters and allies Meliphagoidea
Pardalotidae: pardalotes, scrubwrens, thornbills, and gerygones Meliphagoidea. Nowadays several families; Pardalotidae proper might belong in Meliphagidae
Petroicidae: Australasian robins Passeri incertae sedis, close to Picathartidae
Orthonychidae: logrunners Passeri incertae sedis, close to Pomatostomidae
Pomatostomidae: Australasian babblers Passeri incertae sedis, close to Orthonychidae
Cinclosomatidae: whipbirds and allies Corvoidea incertae sedis, relationships with Pachycephalidae unresolved
Neosittidae: sittellas Corvoidea
Pachycephalidae: whistlers, shrike-thrushes, pitohuis and allies Corvoidea incertae sedis, highly paraphyletic and relationships with Cinclosomatidae unresolved
Dicruridae: monarch flycatchers and allies Corvoidea. Possibly paraphyletic
Campephagidae: cuckoo-shrikes and trillers (initially included in Laniidae) Corvoidea
Oriolidae: orioles and figbirds Corvoidea
Icteridae: American blackbirds/orioles, grackles and cowbirds Passerida: Passeroidea (the most "modern" main lineage of songbirds)
Artamidae: woodswallows, butcherbirds, currawongs and Australian magpie Corvoidea
Paradisaeidae: birds of paradise Corvoidea
Cnemophilidae: satinbirds (included in Paradisaeidae) Passeri incertae sedis, possibly close to Callaeidae
Corvidae: crows, ravens, jays, etc. Corvoidea
Corcoracidae: white-winged chough and apostlebird Corvoidea
Irenidae: fairy-bluebirds Passeri incertae sedis; close to Passeroidea or Regulidae (kinglets)
Laniidae: shrikes Corvoidea
Prionopidae: helmetshrikes (initially included in Laniidae) Corvoidea
Malaconotidae: bush-shrikes and allies (initially included in Laniidae) Corvoidea
Vireonidae: vireos Corvoidea
Vangidae: vangas Corvoidea
Turnagridae: piopios Corvoidea (included in Oriolidae)
Callaeidae: New Zealand wattlebirds Passeri incertae sedis, possibly close to Cnemophilidae

In addition, the following families were not included in the "Corvida" although their closest relationships are with taxa included therein:

Family Sibley-Ahlquist placement Modern placement
Platysteiridae: wattle-eyes Passerida (included in Muscicapidae) Corvoidea
Picathartidae: rockfowl Passerida Passeri incertae sedis, close to Petroicidae
Chaetopidae: rockjumpers Passerida (Turdidae) Passeri incertae sedis, close to Petroicidae
Melanocharitidae: berrypeckers and longbills Passerida Passeri incertae sedis, possibly close to Cnemophilidae
Paramythiidae: tit berrypecker and crested berrypecker Passerida (included in Melanocharitidae) Passeri incertae sedis, possibly close to Cnemophilidae

Footnotes

  1. ^ Cockburn (1996)

References

  • Cockburn, A. (1996): Why do so many Australian birds cooperate? Social evolution in the Corvida. In: Floyd, R.; Sheppard, A. & de Barro, P. (eds.): Frontiers in Population Ecology: 21–42. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Ashy robin

The ashy robin (Heteromyias albispecularis), also known as black-cheeked robin, is a species of bird in the family Petroicidae native to New Guinea.

Australasian robin

The bird family Petroicidae includes 49 species in 19 genera. All are endemic to Australasia: New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand and numerous Pacific Islands as far east as Samoa. For want of an accurate common name, the family is often called the Australasian robins. Within the family the species are known not only as robins but as scrub-robins and flycatchers. They are, however, only distantly related to the Old World family Muscicapidae (to which other species with such names belong) and the monarch flycatchers (Monarchidae).

Black-chinned robin

The black-chinned robin (Poecilodryas brachyura) is a species of bird in the family Petroicidae found in northern New Guinea. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Described by English naturalist Philip Sclater in 1874, the black-chinned robin is a member of the Australasian robin family Petroicidae. Sibley and Ahlquist's DNA-DNA hybridisation studies placed this group in a Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines including pardalotes, fairy-wrens, honeyeaters and crows. However, subsequent molecular research (and current consensus) places the robins as a very early offshoot of the Passerida (or "advanced" songbirds) within the songbird lineage.Measuring 14 to 15 cm (5.5–6 in), the black-chinned robin has dark brown to black head and upperparts with a prominent white stripe or "eyebrow" above the eye. The chin is black immediately under the bill. Its tail is markedly shorter than other Australasian robins. The throat and underparts are white, and there is a white bar on the otherwise dark-plumaged wing. The bill is black, the eyes are dark brown, and the legs pale brown or pink. Its song is a descending series of notes and resembles that of the fan-tailed cuckoo.The black-chinned robin is found predominantly in the lowland forests of northwestern and central New Guinea (mainly in West Papua and only a little in Papua New Guinea's northwest) from sea level to 650 m (2000 ft). Within the rainforest it is found in pairs in the understory or on the ground. It is insectivorous, and hunts by gleaning. It is a weak flyer.

Black-sided robin

The black-sided robin (Poecilodryas hypoleuca), also known as the pied robin, is a species of bird in the family Petroicidae.

It is found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek words poikilos "little" and dryas "dryad", and the species name hypoleuca is derived from the Ancient Greek words hypo- "under" and leukos "white". Sibley and Ahlquist's DNA-DNA hybridisation studies placed this group in a Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines including pardalotes, fairy-wrens, honeyeaters and crows. However, subsequent molecular research (and current consensus) places the robins as a very early offshoot of the Passerida (or "advanced" songbirds) within the songbird lineage.Measuring 13 to 15 cm (5–6 in), the black-sided robin has black and white plumage. The upperparts including the crown, nape, back, wings and tail are black or brownish-black, as is its eye-stripe. It has white eyebrows, throat and underparts and a white patch on the wings. The bill is black, and the eyes are dark brown, and the legs grey or pink.The black-sided robin is found across New Guinea from the Huon Peninsula west to the western limits of West Papua and West Papuan Islands, although is absent from the transfly region in the south. It inhabits predominantly lowland rainforests and swamp forests from sea level to 1200 m (4000 ft). Within the rainforest it is found singly or in pairs in the understory or on the ground. Shy, it is more often heard than seen. It is insectivorous, and hunts by gleaning and snatching insects from tree trunks and branches, and on the ground.

Brown gerygone

The brown gerygone (Gerygone mouki), previously known as the brown warbler, is a small passerine bird native to eastern coastal Australia. The upper parts of the brown gerygone are a deep olive-grey or olive-brown, while its face and underparts are a much paler grey, cream, or washed-out brown. The tail feathers are dark and may be white-tipped. It is approximately 10 cm in length.

The brown gerygone has a relatively large range. Although total population trends have not been quantified, it is considered of "least concern" by the IUCN.

It may be sighted in coastal rainforest, singly or in small groups of two to four. It feeds on insects. The brown gerygone call is a soft what-is-it.

It is not closely related to either true Old World Warblers or the New World Warblers, but belongs rather to the Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines, as well as crows.

The brown gerygone is similar to both the large-billed, G. magnirostris, and mangrove, G. levigaster, gerygones. It differs from the former by having a distinctive white eyebrow and a grey-tinged face. The mangrove gerygone, while having a white eyebrow, lacks the grey face, has more white on the flanks and has a redder eye.

Corvida Raven

Corvida Raven is a writer, technological artist, entrepreneur and public speaker who lives and works out of New York City, New York. She has been garnering national attention since the age of 19 for her blog, shegeeks.net, and other projects aimed at making technological skills and information accessible to the public at large, and particularly to youth, people of colour, women and marginalized communities.

Corvoidea

Corvoidea is a superfamily of birds in the order of Passeriformes. It contains the following families:

Paramythiidae: tit berrypecker and crested berrypeckers

Psophodidae: whipbirds, jewel-babblers and quail-thrushes

Platysteiridae: wattle-eyes and batiss

Tephrodornithidae: woodshrikes and allies

Prionopidae: helmetshrikes

Malaconotidae: bush-shrikes

Machaerirynchidae: boatbills

Vangidae: vangas

Pityriaseidae: Bornean bristlehead

Artamidae: butcherbirds, currawongs and Australian magpie (formerly in Cracticidae)

Rhagologidae: mottled whistler

Aegithinidae: ioras

Campephagidae: cuckooshrikes and trillers

Mohouidae: whiteheads

Neosittidae: sittellas

Eulacestomidae: ploughbill

Oreoicidae: Australo-Papuan bellbirds

Pachycephalidae: whistlers, shrike-thrushes, pitohuis and allies

Laniidae: shrikes

Vireonidae: vireos

Oriolidae: orioles, figbirds and †piopio (formerly Turnagridae)

Dicruridae: drongos

Rhipiduridae: fantails

Monarchidae: monarchs and allies

Corvidae: crows, magpies, and jays

Corcoracidae: white-winged chough and apostlebird

Melampittidae: melampittas

Ifritidae: ifritabirds

Paradisaeidae: birds of paradise

Grallina

Grallina is a genus of passerine bird native to Australia and New Guinea. It is a member of a group of birds termed monarch flycatchers. This group is considered either as a subfamily Monarchinae, together with the fantails as part of the drongo family Dicruridae, or as a family Monarchidae in its own right. More broadly, they belong to the Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines including pardalotes, fairy-wrens and honeyeaters as well as crows.

Meliphagoidea

Meliphagoidea is a superfamily of passerine birds. They contain a vast diversity of small to mid-sized songbirds widespread in the Austropacific region. The Australian Continent has the largest richness in genera and species.

Metro by T-Mobile

Metro by T-Mobile (formerly known as MetroPCS and also known simply as Metro) is a prepaid wireless carrier brand owned by T-Mobile US. It previously operated the fifth largest mobile telecommunications network in the United States using code division multiple access. In 2013, the carrier engaged in a reverse merger with T-Mobile USA; post-merger, its services were merged under T-Mobile's 4G and LTE network.

Passerida

Passerida is, under the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, one of two parvorders contained within the suborder Passeri (standard taxonomic practice would place them at the rank of infraorder). While more recent research suggests that its sister parvorder, Corvida, is not a monophyletic grouping, the Passerida as a distinct clade are widely accepted.

Phenetics

In biology, phenetics (Greek: phainein - to appear) , also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation. It is closely related to numerical taxonomy which is concerned with the use of numerical methods for taxonomic classification. Many people contributed to the development of phenetics, but the most influential were Peter Sneath and Robert R. Sokal. Their books are still primary references for this sub-discipline, although now out of print.Phenetics has largely been superseded by cladistics for research into evolutionary relationships among species. However, certain phenetic methods, such as neighbor-joining, have found their way into phylogenetics, as a reasonable approximation of phylogeny when more advanced methods (such as Bayesian inference) are too computationally expensive.

Phenetic techniques include various forms of clustering and ordination. These are sophisticated ways of reducing the variation displayed by organisms to a manageable level. In practice this means measuring dozens of variables, and then presenting them as two- or three-dimensional graphs. Much of the technical challenge in phenetics revolves around balancing the loss of information in such a reduction against the ease of interpreting the resulting graphs.

The method can be traced back to 1763 and Michel Adanson (in his Familles des plantes) because of two shared basic principles — overall similarity and equal weighting — and modern pheneticists are sometimes called neo-Adansonians.

Slaty robin

The slaty robin (Peneothello cyanus), also known as the blue-grey robin, is a species of bird in the family Petroicidae, present in the New Guinea Highlands and sparsely in the island's northern areas.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Described by Italian naturalist Tommaso Salvadori in 1874, the slaty robin is a member of the Australasian robin family Petroicidae, or Eopsaltridae. Sibley and Ahlquist's DNA-DNA hybridisation studies placed this group in a Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines including pardalotes, fairy-wrens, honeyeaters and crows. However, subsequent molecular research (and current consensus) places the robins as a very early offshoot of the Passerida (or "advanced" songbirds), within the songbird lineage.Measuring 14 to 15 cm (5.5 to 5.9 in), the slaty robin has fairly uniform blue-grey plumage, which is slightly lighter underneath and slightly darker on the cheeks and face. The tail and flight feathers are grey-black. The bill and feet are black, and the eyes are dark brown.The slaty robin is found in the highlands of New Guinea from altitudes of 900 to 2,750 m (2,950 to 9,020 ft). Within the rainforest it is found in pairs in the understory or on the ground. It is insectivorous, and hunts by gleaning. It eats ants, beetles, and thyonnid wasps.The nest is a deep cup made of rootlets and lined with moss, and is generally placed in a tree fork around 6 m (20 ft) above the ground. One or two pale-greenish or olive eggs splotched with olive or brown are laid, and measure 23.5 mm x 17–19 mm.

Smoky robin

The smoky robin (Peneothello cryptoleuca) is a species of bird in the Petroicidae family endemic to West Papua, Indonesia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Described by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in 1874, the smoky robin is a member of the Australian robin family Petroicidae, or Eopsaltridae. Sibley and Ahlquist's DNA-DNA hybridisation studies placed this group in a Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines including pardalotes, fairy-wrens and honeyeaters as well as crows. However, subsequent molecular research (and current consensus) places the robins as a very early offshoot of the Passerida, or "advanced" songbirds, within the songbird lineage.

Songbird

A songbird is a bird belonging to the clade Passeri of the perching birds (Passeriformes). Another name that is sometimes seen as a scientific or vernacular name is Oscines, from Latin oscen, "a songbird". This group contains 5000 or so species found all over the world, in which the vocal organ typically is developed in such a way as to produce a diverse and elaborate bird song.

Songbirds form one of the two major lineages of extant perching birds, the other being the Tyranni, which are most diverse in the Neotropics and absent from many parts of the world. The Tyranni have a simpler syrinx musculature, and while their vocalizations are often just as complex and striking as those of songbirds, they are altogether more mechanical sounding. There is a third perching bird lineage, the Acanthisitti from New Zealand, of which only two species remain alive today.

Some evidence suggests that songbirds evolved 50 million years ago in the part of Gondwana that later became India, Sri Lanka, Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and Antarctica, before spreading around the world.

White-breasted robin

The white-breasted robin (Quoyornis georgianus) is a passerine bird in the family Petroicidae and is the only species placed in the genus Quoyornis. It is endemic to southwestern Australia. Unlike many other Australian robins, it lacks bright colours in its plumage, being a predominantly greyish bird with white underparts. Like many other Australian passerines of the Corvida group, it is a cooperative breeder. It is sedentary, with pairs or small groups maintaining territories.

White-browed robin

The white-browed robin (Poecilodryas superciliosa) is a species of bird in the family Petroicidae. It is endemic to north-eastern Australia. Its natural habitats are forest, woodland and scrub, often near water. It formerly included the buff-sided robin as a subspecies.

The white-browed robin was described by the naturalist John Gould in 1847; the genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek words poekilos "little" and dryas "dryad". The species name is derived from the Latin word supercilium "eyebrow". It is a member of the Australasian robin family Petroicidae, or Eopsaltridae. Sibley and Ahlquist's DNA-DNA hybridisation studies placed this group in a Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines including pardalotes, fairy-wrens, honeyeaters and crows. However, subsequent molecular research (and current consensus) places the robins as a very early offshoot of the Passerida, or "advanced" songbirds, within the songbird lineage.The white-browed robin has, as its name suggests, a prominent white marking resembling an eyebrow above its eyes. It has olive-brown upperparts, with a white patch on the wings. The underparts are pale, the breast pale grey and belly white. The bill is black and eyes are dark brown.It is endemic to Australia, where it is found from the Cape York Peninsula south to the Burdekin River in Queensland.Breeding occurs from August or September to February or March, with one or two broods per season. The nest is a neat cup made of bark and grass. Spider webs, feathers and fur are used for binding or filling, the outside is decorated by lichen or bits of bark .

The nest is generally placed in a tree fork or hanging vine up a few metres above the ground. A clutch of two eggs is laid. The eggs are cream to buff, and marked with brown splotches and spots, usually concentrated around the large end, and measure 20 by 15 mm.

White-rumped robin

The white-rumped robin (Peneothello bimaculata) is a species of bird in the family Petroicidae. It is found in New Guinea. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Described by Italian naturalist Tommaso Salvadori in 1874, the white-rumped robin is a member of the Australasian robin family Petroicidae, or Eopsaltridae. Sibley and Ahlquist's DNA-DNA hybridisation studies placed this group in a Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines including pardalotes, fairy-wrens and honeyeaters as well as crows. However, subsequent molecular research (and current consensus) places the robins as a very early offshoot of the Passerida (or "advanced" songbirds) within the songbird lineage.Within the species, two subspecies are recognised: the nominate, which is found on the southern side of the main mountain range along New Guinea, and the subspecies vicarius of the Huon Peninsula and Adelbert Range.

White-winged robin

The white-winged robin (Peneothello sigillata) is a species of bird in the family Petroicidae.

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