Corruption Perceptions Index

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index published annually by Transparency International since 1995 which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector[1] corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."[2] The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".[3]

The CPI currently ranks 176 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)". Denmark and New Zealand are perceived as the least corrupt countries in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most perceived corrupt country in the world is Somalia, ranking at 9 out of 100 since 2017.[4]

Corruption Perception index 2017
Corruption Perceptions Index, 2017

Methods

Transparency International commissioned the University of Passau's Johann Graf Lambsdorff to produce the CPI.[5] The 2012 CPI takes into account 16 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions.[6] The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts.[3] Early CPIs used public opinion surveys.[7] The institutions are:

Countries need to be evaluated by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.[7] The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[9]

Validity

A study published in 2002 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: black market activity and overabundance of regulation.[10]

All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap); the Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest, explaining over three fourths of the variance.[10] (Note that a lower index on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Economic implications

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[11] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.[12] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

Rankings

Legend:

Scores Perceived as less corrupt Perceived as more corrupt
100–090 089–080 079–070 069–060 059–050 049–040 039-030 029–020 019–010 009–000

2012–2018

2012-2018 Corruption Perceptions Index table[13][14]
Rank Country
or
Territory
2018[15] 2017[16] 2016[17] 2015[18] 2014[19] 2013[20] 2012[21]
Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score
1  Denmark
88
Steady 0
88
Decrease -2
90
Decrease −1
91
Decrease −1
92
Increase +1
91
Increase +1
90
2  New Zealand
87
Decrease -2
89
Decrease -1
90
Decrease −1
91
Steady 0
91
Steady 0
91
Increase +1
90
3  Finland
85
Steady 0
85
Decrease -4
89
Decrease −1
90
Increase +1
89
Steady 0
89
Decrease −1
90
3  Sweden
85
Increase +1
84
Decrease -4
88
Decrease −1
89
Increase +2
87
Decrease −2
89
Increase +1
88
3   Switzerland
85
Steady 0
85
Decrease -1
86
Steady 0
86
Steady 0
86
Increase +1
85
Decrease −1
86
3  Singapore
85
Increase +1
84
Steady 0
84
Decrease −1
85
Increase +1
84
Decrease −2
86
Decrease −1
87
7  Norway
84
Decrease -1
85
Steady 0
85
Decrease −2
87
Increase +1
86
Steady 0
86
Increase +1
85
8  Netherlands
82
Steady 0
82
Decrease -1
83
Decrease −4
87
Increase +4
83
Steady 0
83
Decrease −1
84
9  Canada
81
Decrease -1
82
Steady 0
82
Decrease −1
83
Increase +2
81
Steady 0
81
Decrease −3
84
9  Luxembourg
81
Decrease -1
82
Increase +1
81
Steady 0
81
Decrease −1
82
Increase +2
80
Steady 0
80
11  Germany
80
Decrease -1
81
Steady 0
81
Steady 0
81
Increase +2
79
Increase +1
78
Decrease −1
79
11  United Kingdom
80
Decrease -2
82
Increase +1
81
Steady 0
81
Increase +3
78
Increase +2
76
Increase +2
74
13  Australia
77
Steady 0
77
Decrease -2
79
Steady 0
79
Decrease −1
80
Decrease −1
81
Decrease −4
85
14  Iceland
76
Decrease -1
77
Decrease -1
78
Decrease −1
79
Steady 0
79
Increase +1
78
Decrease −4
82
14  Austria
76
Increase +1
75
Steady 0
75
Decrease −1
76
Increase +4
72
Increase +3
69
Steady 0
69
17  Belgium
75
Steady 0
75
Decrease -2
77
Steady 0
77
Increase +1
76
Increase +1
75
Steady 0
75
18  Ireland
73
Decrease -1
74
Increase +1
73
Decrease −2
75
Increase +1
74
Increase +2
72
Increase +3
69
18  Japan
73
Steady 0
73
Increase +1
72
Decrease −3
75
Decrease −1
76
Increase +2
74
Steady 0
74
18  Estonia
73
Increase +2
71
Increase +1
70
Steady 0
70
Increase +1
69
Increase +1
68
Increase +4
64
21  France
72
Increase +2
70
Increase +2
69
Decrease −1
70
Increase +1
69
Decrease −2
71
Steady 0
71
22  United States
71
Decrease -4
75
Increase +1
74
Decrease −2
76
Increase +2
74
Increase +1
73
Steady 0
73
23  Uruguay
70
Steady 0
70
Decrease -1
71
Decrease −3
74
Increase +1
73
Steady 0
73
Increase +1
72
23  United Arab Emirates
70
Decrease -1
71
Increase +5
66
Decrease −4
70
Steady 0
70
Increase +1
69
Increase +1
68
25  Bhutan
68
Increase +1
67
Increase +2
65
Steady 0
65
Steady 0
65
Increase +2
63
Steady 0
63
25  Barbados
68
Steady 0
68
Increase +7
61
Steady 0 Steady 0
74
Decrease −1
75
Decrease −1
76
27  Chile
67
Steady 0
67
Increase +1
66
Decrease −4
70
Decrease −3
73
Increase +2
71
Decrease −1
72
29  Bahamas
65
Steady 0
65
Decrease -1
66
Steady 0 Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
30  Portugal
64
Increase +1
63
Increase +1
62
Decrease −1
63
Steady 0
63
Increase +1
62
Decrease −1
63
31  Brunei
63
Increase +1
62
Increase +4
58
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
60
Increase +5
55
33  Qatar
62
Decrease -1
63
Increase +2
61
Decrease −10
71
Increase +2
69
Increase +1
68
Steady 0
68
34  Botswana
61
Steady 0
61
Increase +1
60
Decrease −3
63
Steady 0
63
Decrease −1
64
Decrease −1
65
36  Poland
60
Steady 0
60
Decrease -2
62
Steady 0
62
Increase +1
61
Increase +1
60
Increase +2
58
36  Slovenia
60
Decrease -1
61
Steady 0
61
Increase +1
60
Increase +2
58
Increase +1
57
Decrease −4
61
38  Lithuania
59
Steady 0
59
Steady 0
59
Decrease −2
61
Increase +3
58
Increase +1
57
Increase +3
54
38  Czech Republic
59
Increase +2
57
Increase +2
55
Decrease −1
56
Increase +5
51
Increase +3
48
Decrease −1
49
41  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
58
Steady 0
58
Decrease -2
60
Steady 0 Steady 0
67
Increase +5
62
Steady 0
62
41  Spain
58
Increase +1
57
Decrease -1
58
Steady 0
58
Decrease −2
60
Increase +1
59
Decrease −6
65
41  Georgia
58
Increase +2
56
Decrease -1
57
Increase +5
52
Steady 0
52
Increase +3
49
Decrease −3
52
41  Latvia
58
Steady 0
58
Increase +1
57
Increase +2
55
Steady 0
55
Increase +2
53
Increase +4
49
45  Cape Verde
57
Increase +2
55
Decrease -4
59
Increase +4
55
Decrease −2
57
Decrease −1
58
Decrease −2
60
45  Dominica
57
Steady 0
57
Decrease -2
59
Steady 0 Steady 0
58
Steady 0
58
Steady 0
58
45  South Korea
57
Increase +3
54
Increase +1
53
Decrease −3
56
Increase +1
55
Steady 0
55
Decrease −1
56
48  Costa Rica
56
Decrease -3
59
Increase +1
58
Increase +3
55
Increase +1
54
Increase +1
53
Decrease −1
54
48  Rwanda
56
Increase +1
55
Increase +1
54
Steady 0
54
Increase +5
49
Decrease −4
53
Steady 0
53
50  Saint Lucia
55
Steady 0
55
Decrease -5
60
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
51  Malta
54
Decrease -2
56
Increase +1
55
Decrease −1
56
Increase +1
55
Decrease −1
56
Decrease −1
57
52  Namibia
53
Increase +2
51
Decrease -1
52
Decrease −1
53
Increase +4
49
Increase +1
48
Steady 0
48
53  Grenada
52
Steady 0
52
Decrease -4
56
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
53  Italy
52
Increase +2
50
Increase +3
47
Increase +3
44
Increase +1
43
Steady 0
43
Increase +1
42
53  Oman
52
Increase +8
44
Decrease -1
45
Steady 0
45
Steady 0
45
Decrease −2
47
Steady 0
47
56  Mauritius
51
Increase +1
50
Decrease -4
54
Increase +1
53
Decrease −1
54
Increase +2
52
Decrease −5
57
57  Slovakia
50
Steady 0
50
Decrease -1
51
Steady 0
51
Increase +1
50
Increase +3
47
Increase +1
46
58  Jordan
49
Increase +1
48
Steady 0
48
Decrease −5
53
Increase +4
49
Increase +4
45
Decrease −3
48
58  Saudi Arabia
49
Steady 0
49
Increase +3
46
Decrease −6
52
Increase +3
49
Increase +3
46
Increase +2
44
60  Croatia
48
Decrease -1
49
Steady 0
49
Decrease −2
51
Increase +3
48
Steady 0
48
Increase +2
46
61  Malaysia
47
Steady 0
47
Decrease -2
49
Decrease −1
50
Decrease −2
52
Increase +2
50
Increase +1
49
61  Romania
47
Decrease -1
48
Steady 0
48
Increase +2
46
Increase +3
43
Steady 0
43
Decrease −1
44
61  Cuba
47
Steady 0
47
Steady 0
47
Steady 0
47
Increase +1
46
Steady 0
46
Decrease −2
48
64  Hungary
46
Increase +1
45
Decrease -3
48
Decrease −3
51
Decrease −3
54
Steady 0
54
Decrease −1
55
64  São Tomé and Príncipe
46
Steady 0
46
Steady 0
46
Increase +4
42
Steady 0
42
Steady 0
42
Steady 0
42
67  Montenegro
45
Decrease -1
46
Increase +1
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +2
42
Decrease −2
44
Increase +3
41
67  Senegal
45
Steady 0
45
Steady 0
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +1
43
Increase +2
41
Increase +5
36
67  Greece
45
Decrease -3
48
Increase +4
44
Decrease −2
46
Increase +3
43
Increase +3
40
Increase +4
36
70  Solomon Islands
44
Increase +5
39
Decrease -3
42
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
70  Belarus
44
Steady 0
44
Increase +4
40
Increase +8
32
Increase +1
31
Increase +2
29
Decrease −2
31
70  Jamaica
44
Steady 0
44
Increase +5
39
Decrease −2
41
Increase +3
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
73  South Africa
43
Steady 0
43
Decrease -2
45
Increase +1
44
Steady 0
44
Increase +2
42
Decrease −1
43
73  Suriname
43
Increase +2
41
Decrease -4
45
Increase +9
36
Steady 0
36
Steady 0
36
Decrease −1
37
73  Tunisia
43
Increase +1
42
Increase +1
41
Increase +3
38
Decrease −2
40
Decrease −1
41
Steady 0
41
73  Morocco
43
Increase +3
40
Increase +3
37
Increase +1
36
Decrease −3
39
Increase +2
37
Steady 0
37
77  Bulgaria
42
Decrease -1
43
Increase +2
41
Steady 0
41
Decrease −2
43
Increase +2
41
Steady 0
41
78  Ghana
41
Increase +1
40
Decrease -3
43
Decrease −4
47
Decrease −1
48
Increase +2
46
Increase +1
45
78  Burkina Faso
41
Decrease -1
42
Steady 0
42
Increase +4
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
78  Kuwait
41
Increase +2
39
Decrease -2
41
Decrease −8
49
Increase +5
44
Increase +1
43
Decrease −1
44
78  Turkey
41
Increase +1
40
Decrease -1
41
Decrease −1
42
Decrease −3
45
Decrease −5
50
Increase +1
49
78  India
41
Increase +1
40
Steady 0
40
Increase +2
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +2
36
Steady 0
36
78  Lesotho
41
Decrease -1
42
Increase +3
39
Decrease −5
44
Decrease −5
49
Steady 0
49
Increase +4
45
78  Trinidad and Tobago
41
Steady 0
41
Increase +6
35
Decrease −4
39
Increase +1
38
Steady 0
38
Decrease −1
39
85  Argentina
40
Increase +1
39
Increase +3
36
Increase +4
32
Decrease −2
34
Steady 0
34
Decrease −1
35
85  Benin
40
Increase +1
39
Increase +3
36
Decrease −1
37
Decrease −2
39
Increase +3
36
Steady 0
36
87  Serbia
39
Decrease -2
41
Decrease -1
42
Increase +2
40
Decrease −1
41
Decrease −1
42
Increase +3
39
88  Bosnia and Herzegovina
38
Steady 0
38
Decrease -1
39
Increase +1
38
Decrease −1
39
Decrease −3
42
Steady 0
42
89  Indonesia
38
Increase +1
37
Steady 0
37
Increase +1
36
Increase +2
34
Increase +2
32
Steady 0
32
89  Sri Lanka
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +2
36
Decrease −1
37
Decrease −1
38
Increase +1
37
Decrease −3
40
93  Mongolia
37
Increase +1
36
Decrease -2
38
Decrease −1
39
Steady 0
39
Increase +1
38
Increase +2
36
93  Panama
37
Steady 0
37
Decrease -1
38
Decrease −1
39
Increase +2
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease −3
38
93  Macedonia
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease -2
37
Decrease −5
42
Decrease −3
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +1
43
93  Kosovo
37
Decrease -2
39
Increase +3
36
Increase +3
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
Decrease −1
34
93  Guyana
37
Decrease -1
38
Increase +4
34
Increase +5
29
Decrease −1
30
Increase +3
27
Decrease −1
28
93  Gambia
37
Increase +7
30
Increase +4
26
Decrease −2
28
Decrease −1
29
Increase +1
28
Decrease −6
34
99  Bahrain
36
Steady 0
36
Decrease -7
43
Decrease −8
51
Increase +2
49
Increase +1
48
Decrease −3
51
99  Albania
36
Decrease -2
38
Decrease -1
39
Increase +3
36
Increase +3
33
Increase +2
31
Decrease −2
33
99  Colombia
36
Decrease -1
37
Steady 0
37
Steady 0
37
Steady 0
37
Increase +1
36
Steady 0
36
99  Philippines
36
Increase +2
34
Decrease -1
35
Steady 0
35
Decrease −3
38
Increase +2
36
Increase +2
34
99  Thailand
36
Decrease -1
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease −3
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +3
35
Decrease −2
37
99  Tanzania
36
Steady 0
36
Increase +4
32
Increase +2
30
Decrease −1
31
Decrease −2
33
Decrease −2
35
105  Brazil
35
Decrease -2
37
Decrease -3
40
Increase +2
38
Decrease −5
43
Increase +1
42
Decrease −1
43
105  Zambia
35
Decrease -2
37
Decrease -1
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +1
37
105  El Salvador
35
Increase +2
33
Decrease -3
36
Decrease −3
39
Steady 0
39
Increase +1
38
Steady 0
38
105  Peru
35
Decrease -2
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease −1
36
Decrease −2
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
105  Timor-Leste
35
Decrease -3
38
Increase +3
35
Increase +7
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease −2
30
Decrease −3
33
105  Algeria
35
Increase +2
33
Decrease -1
34
Decrease −2
36
Steady 0
36
Steady 0
36
Increase +2
34
105  Egypt
35
Increase +3
32
Decrease -2
34
Decrease −2
36
Decrease −1
37
Increase +5
32
Steady 0
32
105  Ivory Coast
35
Decrease -1
36
Increase +2
34
Increase +2
32
Steady 0
32
Increase +5
27
Decrease −2
29
114  Niger
34
Increase +1
33
Decrease -2
35
Increase +1
34
Decrease −1
35
Increase +1
34
Increase +1
33
114  Ethiopia
34
Decrease -1
35
Increase +1
34
Increase +1
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
114  Ecuador
34
Increase +2
32
Increase +1
31
Decrease −1
32
Decrease −1
33
Decrease −2
35
Increase +3
32
117  Vietnam
33
Decrease -2
35
Increase +2
33
Increase +2
31
Steady 0
31
Steady 0
31
Steady 0
31
117  Pakistan
33
Increase +1
32
Steady 0
32
Increase +2
30
Increase +1
29
Increase +1
28
Increase +1
27
117  Moldova
33
Increase +2
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease −3
33
Decrease −2
35
Steady 0
35
Decrease −1
36
120  Liberia
32
Increase +1
31
Decrease -6
37
Steady 0
37
Steady 0
37
Decrease −1
38
Decrease −3
41
120  Mali
32
Increase +1
31
Decrease -1
32
Decrease −3
35
Increase +3
32
Increase +4
28
Decrease −6
34
120  Malawi
32
Increase +1
31
Steady 0
31
Steady 0
31
Decrease −2
33
Decrease −4
37
Steady 0
37
120  Ukraine
32
Increase +2
30
Increase +1
29
Increase +2
27
Increase +1
26
Increase +1
25
Decrease −1
26
124  Maldives
31
Decrease -2
33
Decrease -3
36
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
124  Gabon
31
Decrease -1
32
Decrease -3
35
Increase +1
34
Decrease −3
37
Increase +3
34
Decrease −1
35
124  Djibouti
31
Steady 0
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease −4
34
Steady 0
34
Decrease −2
36
Steady 0
36
124  Kazakhstan
31
Steady 0
31
Increase +2
29
Increase +1
28
Decrease −1
29
Increase +3
26
Decrease −2
28
124    Nepal
31
Steady 0
31
Increase +2
29
Increase +2
27
Decrease −2
29
Decrease −2
31
Increase +4
27
129  Togo
30
Decrease -2
32
Steady 0
32
Steady 0
32
Increase +3
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease −1
30
129  Dominican Republic
30
Increase +1
29
Decrease -2
31
Decrease −2
33
Increase +1
32
Increase +3
29
Decrease −3
32
129  Sierra Leone
30
Steady 0
30
Steady 0
30
Increase +1
29
Decrease −2
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease −1
31
132  Bolivia
29
Decrease -4
33
Steady 0
33
Decrease −1
34
Decrease −1
35
Increase +1
34
Steady 0
34
132  Honduras
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease -1
30
Decrease −1
31
Increase +2
29
Increase +3
26
Decrease −2
28
132  Laos
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease -1
30
Increase +5
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease −1
26
Increase +5
21
132  Paraguay
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease -1
30
Increase +3
27
Increase +3
24
Steady 0
24
Decrease −1
25
132  Kyrgyzstan
29
Steady 0
29
Increase +1
28
Steady 0
28
Increase +1
27
Increase +3
24
Steady 0
24
132  Myanmar
29
Decrease -1
30
Increase +2
28
Increase +6
22
Increase +1
21
Steady 0
21
Increase +6
15
138  Mexico
28
Decrease -1
29
Decrease -1
30
Decrease −5
35
Steady 0
35
Increase +1
34
Steady 0
34
138  Iran
28
Decrease -2
30
Increase +1
29
Increase +2
27
Steady 0
27
Increase +2
25
Decrease −3
28
138  Russia
28
Decrease -1
29
Steady 0
29
Steady 0
29
Increase +2
27
Decrease −1
28
Steady 0
28
138  Lebanon
28
Steady 0
28
Steady 0
28
Steady 0
28
Increase +1
27
Decrease −1
28
Decrease −2
30
138  Papua New Guinea
28
Decrease -1
29
Increase +1
28
Increase +3
25
Steady 0
25
Steady 0
25
Steady 0
25
138  Guinea
28
Increase +1
27
Steady 0
27
Increase +2
25
Steady 0
25
Increase +1
24
Steady 0
24
138  Guinea-Bissau
28
Increase +1
27
Increase +11
16
Decrease −1
17
Decrease −2
19
Steady 0
19
Decrease −6
25
144  Guatemala
27
Decrease -1
28
Steady 0
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease −4
32
Increase +3
29
Decrease −4
33
144  Nigeria
27
Steady 0
27
Decrease -1
28
Increase +2
26
Decrease −1
27
Increase +2
25
Decrease −2
27
144  Mauritania
27
Decrease -1
28
Increase +1
27
Decrease −4
31
Increase +1
30
Steady 0
30
Decrease −1
31
144  Kenya
27
Decrease -1
28
Increase +2
26
Increase +1
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease −2
27
Steady 0
27
144  Comoros
27
Steady 0
27
Increase +3
24
Decrease −2
26
Steady 0
26
Decrease −2
28
Steady 0
28
149  Bangladesh
26
Decrease -2
28
Increase +2
26
Increase +1
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease −2
27
Increase +1
26
149  Uganda
26
Steady 0
26
Increase +1
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease −1
26
Steady 0
26
Decrease −3
29
149  Central African Republic
26
Increase +3
23
Increase +3
20
Decrease −4
24
Steady 0
24
Decrease −1
25
Decrease −1
26
152  Azerbaijan
25
Decrease -6
31
Increase +1
30
Increase +1
29
Steady 0
29
Increase +1
28
Increase +1
27
152  Cameroon
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease -1
26
Decrease −1
27
Steady 0
27
Increase +2
25
Decrease −1
26
152  Madagascar
25
Increase +1
24
Decrease -2
26
Decrease −2
28
Steady 0
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease −4
32
152  Nicaragua
25
Decrease -1
26
Steady 0
26
Decrease −1
27
Decrease −1
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease −1
29
152  Tajikistan
25
Increase +4
21
Decrease -4
25
Decrease −1
26
Increase +3
23
Increase +1
22
Steady 0
22
157  Eritrea
24
Increase +4
20
Increase +2
18
Steady 0
18
Steady 0
18
Decrease −2
20
Decrease −5
25
158  Mozambique
23
Decrease -2
25
Decrease -2
27
Decrease −4
31
Steady 0
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease −1
31
158  Uzbekistan
23
Increase +1
22
Increase +1
21
Increase +2
19
Increase +1
18
Increase +1
17
Steady 0
17
160  Zimbabwe
22
Steady 0
22
Steady 0
22
Increase +1
21
Steady 0
21
Steady 0
21
Increase +1
20
161  Turkmenistan
20
Increase +1
19
Decrease -3
22
Increase +4
18
Increase +1
17
Steady 0
17
Steady 0
17
161  Cambodia
20
Decrease -1
21
Steady 0
21
Steady 0
21
Steady 0
21
Increase +1
20
Decrease −2
22
161  Haiti
20
Decrease -2
22
Increase +2
20
Increase +3
17
Decrease −2
19
Steady 0
19
Steady 0
19
165  Democratic Republic of the Congo
19
Decrease -2
21
Steady 0
21
Decrease −1
22
Steady 0
22
Steady 0
22
Increase +1
21
165  Chad
19
Decrease -1
20
Steady 0
20
Decrease −2
22
Steady 0
22
Increase +3
19
Steady 0
19
165  Republic of the Congo
19
Decrease -2
21
Increase +1
20
Decrease −3
23
Steady 0
23
Increase +1
22
Decrease −4
26
165  Angola
19
Steady 0
19
Increase +1
18
Increase +3
15
Decrease −4
19
Decrease −4
23
Increase +1
22
168  Iraq
18
Steady 0
18
Increase +1
17
Increase +1
16
Steady 0
16
Steady 0
16
Decrease −2
18
168  Venezuela
18
Steady 0
18
Increase +1
17
Steady 0
17
Decrease −2
19
Decrease −1
20
Increase +1
19
170  Burundi
17
Decrease -5
22
Increase +2
20
Decrease −1
21
Increase +1
20
Decrease −1
21
Increase +2
19
170  Libya
17
Steady 0
17
Increase +3
14
Decrease −2
16
Decrease −2
18
Increase +3
15
Decrease −6
21
172  Afghanistan
16
Increase +1
15
Steady 0
15
Increase +4
11
Decrease −1
12
Increase +4
08
Steady 0
08
172  Sudan
16
Steady 0
16
Increase +2
14
Increase +2
12
Increase +1
11
Steady 0
11
Decrease −2
13
176  Yemen
14
Decrease -2
16
Increase +2
14
Decrease −4
18
Decrease −1
19
Increase +1
18
Decrease −5
23
178  Syria
13
Decrease -1
14
Increase +1
13
Decrease −5
18
Decrease −2
20
Increase +3
17
Decrease −9
26
178  South Sudan
13
Increase +1
12
Increase +1
11
Decrease −4
15
Steady 0
15
Increase +1
14
Steady 0
180  Somalia
10
Increase +1
9
Decrease -1
10
Increase +2
08
Steady 0
08
Steady 0
08
Steady 0
08

2011

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were (note scale of 10 to 1):

# Country Score # Country Score
1  New Zealand 9.5 11  Luxembourg 8.5
2  Denmark 9.4 12  Hong Kong 8.4
 Finland 13  Iceland 8.3
4  Sweden 9.3 14  Germany 8.0
5  Singapore 9.2  Japan
6  Norway 9.0 16  Austria 7.8
7  Netherlands 8.9  Barbados
8  Australia 8.8  United Kingdom
  Switzerland 19  Belgium 7.5
10  Canada 8.7  Ireland
Source:[22]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
182  Somalia 1.0 172  Equatorial Guinea 1.9
 North Korea  Burundi
180  Myanmar 1.5 168  Libya 2.0
 Afghanistan Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
177  Uzbekistan 1.6  Chad
 Turkmenistan  Angola
 Sudan 164  Yemen 2.1
175  Iraq 1.8  Kyrgyzstan
 Haiti  Guinea
172  Venezuela 1.9  Cambodia
Source:[22]

2010

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were (note scale of 10 down to 1):

# Country Score # Country Score
1  Denmark 9.3 11  Iceland 8.5
 New Zealand  Luxembourg
 Singapore 13  Hong Kong 8.4
4  Finland 9.2 14  Ireland 8.0
 Sweden 15  Austria 7.9
6  Canada 8.9  Germany
7  Netherlands 8.8 17  Barbados 7.8
8  Australia 8.7  Japan
  Switzerland 19  Qatar 7.7
10  Norway 8.6 20  United Kingdom 7.6
Source:[23]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
178  Somalia 1.1 168  Angola 1.9
176  Myanmar 1.4 164  Venezuela 2.0
 Afghanistan  Kyrgyzstan
175  Iraq 1.5  Guinea
172  Uzbekistan 1.6 Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
 Turkmenistan 159  Tajikistan 2.1
 Sudan  Russia
171  Chad 1.7  Papua New Guinea
170  Burundi 1.8  Laos
168  Equatorial Guinea 1.9  Kenya
Source:[23]

Criticism and limitations

The Index has been criticized on the basis of its methodology.[24]

According to political scientist Dan Hough, three flaws in the Index include:[25]

  • Corruption is too complex to be captured by a single score. The nature of corruption in rural Kansas will, for instance, be different from that in the city administration of New York, yet the Index measures them in the same way.
  • By measuring perceptions of corruption, as opposed to corruption itself, the Index may simply be reinforcing stereotypes and cliches.
  • The Index only measures public-sector corruption, leaving out private actors. This for instance means the Libor scandal or the VW emissions scandal are not counted.

Media outlets frequently use the raw numbers as a yardstick for government performance, without clarifying what the numbers mean. The local Transparency International chapter in Bangladesh disowned the index results after a change in methodology caused the country's scores to increase; media reported it as an "improvement".[26]

In a 2013 article in Foreign Policy, Alex Cobham suggested that CPI should be dropped for the good of Transparency International. It argues that the CPI embeds a powerful and misleading elite bias in popular perceptions of corruption, potentially contributing to a vicious cycle and at the same time incentivizing inappropriate policy responses. Cobham writes, "the index corrupts perceptions to the extent that it's hard to see a justification for its continuing publication."[27]

However, recent econometric analyses that have exploited the existence of natural experiments on the level of corruption and compared the CPI with other subjective indicators have found that, while not perfect, the CPI does appear to consistently and validly measure the magnitude of corruption across the world.[28]

In the United States, many lawyers advise international businesses to consult the CPI when attempting to measure the risk of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act violations in different nations. This practice has been criticized by the Minnesota Journal of International Law, which wrote that since the CPI may be subject to perceptual biases it therefore should not be considered by lawyers to be a measure of actual national corruption risk.[29]

Transparency International also publishes the Global Corruption Barometer, which ranks countries by corruption levels using direct surveys instead of perceived expert opinions, which has been under criticism for substantial bias from the powerful elite.[27]

Transparency International has warned that a country with a clean CPI score may still be linked to corruption internationally. For example, while Sweden had the 3rd best CPI score in 2015, one of its state-owned companies, TeliaSonera, was facing allegations of bribery in Uzbekistan.[30]

References

  1. ^ "CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX 2018". transparency.org. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  2. ^ Transparency International (2011). "Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency International. Transparency International. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  3. ^ a b CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2
  4. ^ Transparency International (2017). "Corruption Perceptions Index 2017". Transparency International. Transparency International. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI 2005)". Retrieved 22 November 2005.
  6. ^ CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 1
  7. ^ a b CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 7
  8. ^ Transparency International (2010). Corruption Perceptions Index 2010: Sources of information (PDF) (Report). Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  9. ^ Transparency International (2010). "Frequently asked questions (FAQs)". Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Transparency International. Archived from the original on 2011-09-02. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  10. ^ a b Wilhelm, Paul G. (2002). "International Validation of the Corruption Perceptions Index: Implications for Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship Education". Journal of Business Ethics. Springer Netherlands. 35 (3): 177–189. doi:10.1023/A:1013882225402.
  11. ^ Shao, J.; Ivanov, P. C.; Podobnik, B.; Stanley, H. E. (2007). "Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors". The European Physical Journal B. 56 (2): 157. arXiv:0705.0161. Bibcode:2007EPJB...56..157S. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2007-00098-2.
  12. ^ Podobnik, B.; Shao, J.; Njavro, D.; Ivanov, P. C.; Stanley, H. E. (2008). "Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment". The European Physical Journal B. 63 (4): 547. arXiv:0710.1995. Bibcode:2008EPJB...63..547P. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2008-00210-2.
  13. ^ "2016 official table". 25 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Official announcement". Transparency International. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 - Transparency International". Transparency International. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 - Transparency International". Transparency International. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  17. ^ "2016 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  18. ^ "2015 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 28 January 2016.