Corrugated fiberboard

Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards. It is made on "flute lamination machines" or "corrugators" and is used in the manufacture of shipping containers and corrugated boxes.

The corrugated medium sheet and the linerboard(s) are made of kraft containerboard, a paperboard material usually over 0.01 inches (0.25 mm) thick. Corrugated fiberboard is sometimes called cardboard, although cardboard might be any heavy paper-pulp based board.

Corrugated Cardboard
Corrugated fiberboard is used for packaging which requires mechanical strength and impact resistance.

History

Corrugated (also called pleated) paper was patented in England in 1856, and used as a liner for tall hats, but corrugated boxboard was not patented and used as a shipping material until 20 December 1871. The patent was issued to Albert Jones of New York City for single-sided (single-face) corrugated board.[1] Jones used the corrugated board for wrapping bottles and glass lantern chimneys. The first machine for producing large quantities of corrugated board was built in 1874 by G. Smyth, and in the same year Oliver Long improved upon Jones' design by inventing corrugated board with liner sheets on both sides,[2] thereby inventing corrugated board as it came to be known in modern times.

Scottish-born Robert Gair invented the pre-cut paperboard box in 1890 – flat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes. Gair's invention resulted from an accident. He was a Brooklyn printer and paper-bag maker during the 1870s. While he was printing seed bags, a metal ruler used to crease bags shifted in position and cut them. Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes. Applying this idea to corrugated boxboard was a straightforward development when the material became available in the early 20th century.[3]

The corrugated box was first used for packaging glass and pottery containers. In the mid-1950s, the case enabled fruit and produce to be shipped from farm to retailer without bruising, improving the return to producers and opening export markets.

Properties

Several properties and characteristics can be measured for corrugated board. Some of these include:

  • Moisture resistance, wet strength, etc.
  • Edge crush test
  • Burst strength
  • Flat crush test
  • Bending resistance
  • Impact resistance
  • Cushioning, shock absorption[4]
  • Tear resistance
  • Grammage (mass per unit of area) for components and for combined board

Corrugated fiberboard is anisotropic; many of its properties are highly directional. For example, edge crush, bending stiffness, tensile, and surface characteristics are different, depending on the orientation to the flutes and the machine direction of manufacture.

Manufacturing

Cardboard Main Flutes Labeled
Main flutes for corrugated fiberboard

Corrugated board is manufactured on large high-precision machinery lines called corrugators, usually running at about 500 feet per minute (150 m/min) or more. These machines, over time, have become very complex with the objective of avoiding some common problems in corrugated board production, such as warp and washboarding.

The key raw material in corrugating is paper, different grades for each layer making up the corrugated box. Due to supply chain and scale considerations, paper is produced in separate plants called paper mills. Most corrugating plants keep an inventory of paper reels.

In the classical corrugator, the paper is softened with high-pressure steam. After the board is formed it is dried in the so-called dry-end. Here the newly formed corrugated board is heated from the bottom by hot plates. On the top, various pressures are applied by a load system on the belt.

The corrugated medium is often 0.026 pounds per square foot (0.13 kg/m2) basis weight in the US; in the UK, a 90 grams per square metre (0.018 lb/sq ft) fluting paper is common. At the single-facer, it is heated, moistened, and formed into a fluted pattern on geared wheels. This is joined to a flat linerboard with a starch based adhesive to form single face board. At the double-backer, a second flat linerboard is adhered to the other side of the fluted medium to form single wall corrugated board. Linerboards are test liners (recycled paper) or kraft paperboard (of various grades). The liner may be bleached white, mottled white, colored, or preprinted.

Common flute sizes are "A", "B", "C", "E" and "F" or microflute. The letter designation relates to the order that the flutes were invented, not the relative sizes. Flute size refers to the number of flutes per linear foot, although the actual flute dimensions for different corrugator manufacturers may vary slightly. Measuring the number of flutes per linear foot is a more reliable method of identifying flute size than measuring board thickness, which can vary due to manufacturing conditions. The most common flute size in corrugated boxes is "C" flute.

Standard US Corrugated Flutes[5]

Flute designation Flutes per linear foot Flute thickness (in) Flutes per linear meter Flute thickness (mm)
A flute 33 +/− 3 316 108 +/− 10 4.8
B flute 47 +/− 3 18 154 +/− 10 3.2
C flute 39 +/− 3 532 128 +/− 10 4.0
E flute 90 +/− 4 116 295 +/− 13 1.6
F flute 125 +/− 4 132 420 +/− 13 0.8

Corrugated fiberboard can be specified by the construction (single face, singlewall, doublewall, etc.), flute size, burst strength, edge crush strength, flat crush, basis weights of components (pounds per thousand square feet, grams per square meter, etc.), surface treatments and coatings, etc. TAPPI and ASTM test methods for these are standardized.

The choice of corrugated medium, flute size, combining adhesive, and linerboards can be varied to engineer a corrugated board with specific properties to match a wide variety of potential uses. Double and triple-wall corrugated board is also produced for high stacking strength and puncture resistance.

Most corrugators are two knife corrugators, which means that they can produce two different sheet lengths side-by-side. This leads to an optimisation problem, known as the cutting stock problem.

Corrugator combining

Corrugator combining

Box manufacture process

Box design

Regular Slotted Container
Regular slotted container
Blank RSC
Box blank showing score lines, slots, and manufacturer's joint

Packaging engineers design corrugated boxes to meet the particular needs of the product being shipped, the hazards of the shipping environment, (shock, vibration, compression, moisture, etc.), and the needs of retailers and consumers.

The most common box style is the Regular Slotted Container (RSC). All flaps are the same length from the score to the edge. Typically, the longer major flaps meet in the middle and the minor flaps do not.

The manufacturer's joint is most often joined with adhesive but may also be taped or stitched. The box is shipped flat (knocked down) to the packager who sets up the box, fills it, and closes it for shipment. Box closure may be by tape, adhesive, staples, strapping, etc.

The size of a box can be measured for either internal (for product fit) or external (for handling machinery or palletizing) dimensions. Boxes are usually specified and ordered by the internal dimensions.

Box Maker's Certificate

A seal printed on an outside surface, typically the bottom of the box, that includes some information about how strong the box is. This is also known as the Box Maker's Certificate or Box Certificate. The certificate is not required, but if it is used that implies compliance with regulations relating to the certificate.[6] Significant information includes: 1) Bursting Test or Edge Crush Test; 2) Size Limit (the maximum outside dimensions of a finished box when the length, width and depth of the box are added together); 3) Gross Weight Limit.[7][8]

Manufacturing

Boxes can be formed in the same plant as the corrugator. Such plants are known as "integrated plants". Part of the scoring and cutting takes place in-line on the corrugator. Alternatively, sheets of corrugated board may be sent to a different manufacturing facility for box fabrication; these are sometimes called "sheet plants".

The corrugated board is creased or scored to provide controlled bending of the board. Most often, slots are cut to provide flaps on the box. Scoring and slotting can also be accomplished by die-cutting.

Single-face laminate

A limitation of common corrugated material has been the difficulty in applying fine graphic print for informative and marketing purposes. The reasons for this stem from the fact that prefabricated corrugated sheets are relatively thick and spongy, compared to the thin and incompressible nature of solid fibre paper such as paperboard. Due to these characteristics of corrugated, it has been mainly printed using a flexographic process, which is by nature a coarse application with loose registration properties.

A more recent development popular in usage is a hybrid product featuring the structural benefits of corrugated combined with the high-graphics print of lithography previously restricted to paperboard folding cartons. This application, generally referred to as 'Single-Face Laminate', begins its process as a traditional fluted medium adhered to a single linerboard (single-face), but in place of a second long-fibered liner, a pre-printed sheet of paperboard such as SBS (solid bleached sulfate) is laminated to the outer facing. The sheet can then be converted with the same processes used for other corrugated manufacturing into any desired form.

Specialized equipment is necessary for the material construction of SFL, so users may expect to pay a premium for these products. However, this cost is often offset by the savings over a separate paperboard sleeve and the labor necessary to assemble the completed package.

Recycling

Old corrugated containers are an excellent source of fiber for recycling. They can be compressed and baled for cost effective transport. The baled boxes are put in a hydropulper, which is a large vat of warm water for cleaning and processing. The pulp slurry is then used to make new paper and fiber products.

Mill and corrugator scrap, or broke, is the cleanest source for recycling. The high rates of post-consumer recycling reflect the efficiency of recycling mills to clean and process the incoming materials. Several technologies are available to sort, screen, filter, and chemically treat the recycled paper.

Many extraneous materials are readily removed. Twine, strapping, etc. are removed from the hydropulper by a "ragger". Metal straps and staples can be screened out or removed by a magnet. Film-backed pressure-sensitive tape stays intact: the PSA adhesive and the backing are both removed together.[9]

Materials which are more difficult to remove include wax coatings on corrugated boxes and "stickies", soft rubbery particles which can clog the paper maker and contaminate the recycled paper. Stickies can originate from book bindings, hot melt adhesives, pressure-sensitive adhesives from paper labels, laminating adhesives of reinforced gummed tapes, etc.[10][11]

Corrugated fiberboard shredders are now available which convert post-consumer corrugated board into packing/cushioning materials by means of a specialized shredding process.

ASTM standards

  • D1974 Standard Practice for Methods of Closing, Sealing and Reinforcing Fiberboard Boxes
  • D4727 Standard Specification for Corrugated and Solid Fiberboard Sheet Stock (Container Grade) and Cut Shapes
  • D5118 Standard Practice for Fabrication of Fiberboard Shipping Boxes
  • D5168 Standard Practice for Fabrication and Closure of Triple-Wall Corrugated Fiberboard Containers
  • D5639 Standard Practice for Selection of Corrugated Fiberboard Materials and Box Construction Based on Performance Requirements
  • D6804 Standard Guide for Hand Hole Design in Corrugated Boxes

and others.

See also

References

  1. ^ ‹See Tfd›US patent 122,023, ‹See Tfd›Albert L. Jones, "Improvement In Paper For Packing", issued 1871-12-19
  2. ^ ‹See Tfd›US patent 150,588, ‹See Tfd›Oliver Long, "Packings For Bottles, Jars, & C.", issued 1874-05-05
  3. ^ Diana Twede and Susan E. M. Selke (2005). Cartons, crates and corrugated board: handbook of paper and wood packaging technology. DEStech Publications. pp. 41–42, 55–56. ISBN 978-1-932078-42-8.
  4. ^ Stern, R. K.; Jordan, C.A. (1973). "Shock cushioning by corrugated fiberboard pads to centrally applied loading" (PDF). Forest Products Laboratory Research Paper, FPL-RP-184. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  5. ^ Foster G (1997) "Boxes, Corrugated" in The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, eds. Brody A and Marsh K, 2nd ed, John Wiley & Sons, New York; ISBN 0-471-06397-5
  6. ^ Brooks, Brandon (2 February 2012). "Do you still need a boxmaker's certificate on a box?". On Demand Packaging Blog. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  7. ^ Thompson, Chad (September 2000). "Understanding the Box Maker's Certificate". Parcel. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  8. ^ Twede, Diana; Selke, Susan E. M. (December 2005). Cartons, Crates and Corrugated Board: Handbook of Paper and Wood Packaging Technology. DEStech Publications, Inc. p. 438. ISBN 1932078428. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  9. ^ Jensen, Timothy (April 1999). "Packaging Tapes: To Recycle of Not". Adhesives and Sealants Council. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  10. ^ "Recycling Compatible Adhesives Standards". Tag and Label Manufacturers Institute. 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  11. ^ "Voluntary Standard for Repulping and Recycling Corrugated Fiberboard" (PDF). Corrugated Packaging Alliance. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2007.

Further reading

  • Fibre Box Handbook, Fibre Box Association
  • Koning, J., Corrugated Crossroads: A Reference Guide for the Corrugated Industry, TAPPI Press, 1995, ISBN 0-89852-299-4
  • European Corrugated Board Industry
  • Good Manufacturing Practices for Corrugated and Solid Board Packaging This GMP-standard allows packaging for the food industry to be made to the highest standards of consumer safety. All details at the website of the European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers (FEFCO)
  • Brody, A. L., and Marsh, K, S., Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, John Wiley & Sons, 1997, ISBN 0-471-06397-5
  • Soroka, W, Fundamentals of Packaging Technology IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4
  • "Guide for Packaging for Small Parcel Shipments", 2005, IoPP
  • Asian Corrugated Carton Association

External links

Belišće

Belišće (pronounced [bɛ̌liːʃtɕɛ]) is a town in Croatia, located in the region of Slavonia, Osijek-Baranja County, at the altitude of 93 m. The population of the city is 6,518 (2011), with 10,825 in the municipality. In 2011 census, the majority were Croats. This industrial town upon the Drava river lies near the border with Hungary north from here.

Chief occupations are forestry, timber and wood processing, (sawmill, chemical and mechanical wood processing), corrugated fiberboard, metal industry, chemicals and synthetic material processing.

The influential Gutmann family made a significant impact on the Belišće region in the 19th and 20th century. Once vast Slavonian oak forests were mostly replaced with farmland, and a section of the working-class quarters of Salamon H. Gutmann from 1884 became part of the present-day Belišće.

Major recreational activities include angling, rowing kayak and canoe on the Drava, river and its backwaters and hunting in the broader surroundings.

The settlements in the administrative area are:

Belišće, population 6,518

Bistrinci, population 1,598

Bocanjevci, population 457

Gat, population 705

Gorica Valpovačka, population 165

Kitišanci, population 150

Tiborjanci, population 291

Veliškovci, population 685

Vinogradci, population 256

Box

Box (plural: boxes) describes a variety of containers and receptacles for permanent use as storage, or for temporary use, often for transporting contents.

Boxes may be made of durable materials such as wood or metal, or of corrugated fiberboard, paperboard, or other non-durable materials. The size may vary from very small (e.g., a matchbox) to the size of a large appliance. A corrugated box is a very common shipping container. When no specific shape is described, a box of rectangular cross-section with all sides flat may be expected, but a box may have a horizontal cross section that is square, elongated, round or oval; sloped or domed top surfaces, or vertical edges.They are not always made up of squares.

Decorative or storage boxes may be opened by raising, pulling, sliding or removing the lid, which may be hinged and/or fastened by a catch, clasp, or lock.

Cardboard

Cardboard is a generic term for heavy-duty paper-based products having greater thickness

and superior durability or other specific mechanical attributes to paper; such as foldability, rigidity and impact resistance. The construction can range from a thick sheet known as paperboard to corrugated fiberboard which is made of multiple corrugated and flat layers.

Despite widespread general use in English and French, the term cardboard is deprecated in commerce and industry as not adequately defining a specific product. Material producers, container manufacturers, packaging engineers,

and standards organizations,

use more specific terminology.

Cardboard box

Cardboard boxes are industrially prefabricated boxes, primarily used for packaging goods and materials and can also be recycled. Specialists in industry seldom use the term cardboard because it does not denote a specific material.The term cardboard may refer to a variety of heavy paper-like materials,

including, card stock, corrugated fiberboard,

or paperboard. The meaning of the term may depend on the locale, contents, construction, and personal choice.

Cardboard furniture

Cardboard furniture is a furniture designed to be made from corrugated fiberboard, heavy paperboard, or fiber tubes.

There are several different types of cardboard furniture.

The Frank O. Gehry style

The furniture shape is cut out of cardboard many times and put together for a solid piece.

Move-Cardboard technique

The pieces of furniture are built like packaging and then can be fitted together at home in her form like move cardboards

The lightweight construction style

The environment friendly paper tube chair

Frame construction and coverage

Carton

A carton is a box or container usually made of paperboard and sometimes of corrugated fiberboard.

Many types of cartons are used in packaging. Sometimes a carton is also called a box.

Container compression test

The container compression test measures the compressive strength of packages such as boxes, drums, and cans. It usually provides a plot of deformation vs compressive force.

It is commonly used to evaluate shipping containers made of corrugated fiberboard as well as wooden boxes and crates. Industrial and consumer packages other than boxes can also be subjected to compression testing: drum, pail, bottle, tub etc. Package components are also evaluated for compression resistance.It is usually a laboratory test involving a special machine, a compression tester, to apply controlled compression on a test specimen. A universal testing machine is sometimes configured to perform a package compression test. Compression testing can also involve a superimposed dead load to a test package.

Corrugated box design

Corrugated box design is the process of matching design factors for corrugated fiberboard boxes with the functional physical, processing and end-use requirements. Packaging engineers work to meet the performance requirements of a box while controlling total costs throughout the system.

In addition to the structural design discussed in this article, printed bar codes, labels, and graphic design are also vital.

Corrugated plastic

Corrugated plastic or corriboard - also known under the tradenames of Cartonplast®, Polyflute, Coroplast, FlutePlast, IntePro, Proplex, Correx, Twinplast, Corriflute or Corflute - refers to a wide range of extruded twinwall plastic-sheet products produced from high-impact polypropylene resin with a similar make-up to corrugated fiberboard. It is a light-weight tough material which can easily be cut with a utility knife. Manufacturers typically offer a wide variety of colors and thicknesses (quite commonly 3, 4, 5 mm).

Corrugated plastic made of polycarbonate is sometimes referred to as Twinwall plastic.

Chemically, the sheet is inert, with a neutral pH factor. At regular temperatures most oils, solvents and water have no effect, allowing it to perform under adverse weather conditions or as a product component exposed to harsh chemicals. Standard sheets can be modified with additives, which are melt-blended into the sheet to meet specific needs of the end-user. Special products that require additives include: ultra-violet protection, anti-static, flame retardant, custom colors, corrosive inhibitors, static-dissipative, among others.

This material is commonly used to erect commercial, political or other types of signs and for constructing plastic containers and reusable packaging. It is widely used in the signwriting industry for making signs for real estate sales, construction sites and promotions.

The last decade has found its increasing use among guinea pig, rabbit, domesticated hedgehog and other small pet enthusiasts as components of DIY cages. Additionally, it is used by members of the remote-controlled aircraft community to build nearly indestructible SPAD model aircraft.

At least one manufacturer of air-to-air heat exchangers (used in heat recovery ventilation) uses a fused stack of sheets of this material alternating with spacers made of the same material as the heat-exchange medium. One air stream passes through the corrugated channels in the interior of the sheets, while the other passes between the exterior layers of the stacked sheets.

Corrugator

Corrugator may refer to:

Corrugator supercilii muscle, a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle close to the eye

Corrugator cutis ani muscle, after the anatomist George Viner Ellis

Machinery used to manufacture corrugated fiberboard used in boxes

Machine which is used to produce corrugated stainless steel tubing

Extrusion coating

Extrusion coating is the coating of a molten web of synthetic resin onto a substrate material. It is a versatile coating technique used for the economic application of various plastics, notably polyethylene, onto paperboard, corrugated fiberboard, paper, aluminium foils, cellulose, Non-wovens, or plastic films.

Fiberboard

Fiberboard (or fibreboard) is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers. Types of fiberboard (in order of increasing density) include particle board or low-density fiberboard (LDF), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), and hardboard (high-density fiberboard, HDF).

It is sometimes used as a synonym for particle board, but particle board usually refers to low-density fiberboard. Plywood is not a type of fiberboard, as it is made of thin sheets of wood, not wood fibers or particles. Fiberboard, particularly medium-density fiberboard, is heavily used in the furniture industry. For pieces that will be visible, a veneer of wood is often glued onto fiberboard to give it the appearance of conventional wood.

In the packaging industry, the term "fiberboard" is often used to describe a tough kraft-based paperboard or corrugated fiberboard for boxes."Fiberboard" is also an intermediate product, an output of a pulp mill used as input for a paper mill.

Filament tape

Filament tape or strapping tape is a pressure-sensitive tape used for several packaging functions such as closing corrugated fiberboard boxes, reinforcing packages, bundling items, pallet unitizing, etc. It consists of a pressure-sensitive adhesive coated onto a backing material which is usually a polypropylene or polyester film and fiberglass filaments embedded to add high tensile strength. It was invented in 1946 by Cyrus W. Bemmels, a scientist working for Johnson and Johnson.

A variety of grades of filament tape are available. Some have as much as 600 pounds of tensile strength per inch of width. Different types and grades of adhesive are also available.

Most often, the tape is 12 mm (approx. 1/2 inch) to 24 mm (approx. 1 inch) wide, but it is also used in other widths.

A variety of strengths, calipers, and adhesive formulations are available.

Folding carton

The folding carton created the packaging industry as it is known today, beginning in the late 19th century. The process involves folding carton made of paperboard that is printed, laminated, cut, then folded and glued before transport to packagers. The cartons are shipped flat to a packager, which has its own machinery to fold the carton into its final shape as a container for a product. The classic example of such a carton is a cereal box.

Some styles of folding cartons can be made of E-flute or micro-flute corrugated fiberboard.

Kapstone

KapStone Paper and Packaging is an American pulp and paper company based in Northbrook, Illinois. Since November 2018 it has been a subsidiary of WestRock.

The company has kraft paper manufacturing facilities in Roanoke Rapids, NC, Cowpens, SC, North Charleston, SC and Longview, WA, a lumber mill in Summerville, SC, 21 corrugated box and corrugated fiberboard plants and 65 packaging distribution centers. It has approximately 6,200 employees.

Robert Gair

Robert Gair invented the folding carton in 1890.Brooklynite Robert Gair/Gayer was a printer and paper bag maker in the 1870s. He invented the paperboard folding carton by accident: a metal ruler used to crease bags shifted position and cut the bag. Gair found that by cutting and creasing paperboard in one operation, he could make prefabricated cartons. He ultimately entered the corrugated fiberboard shipping container business in the 1900s. His idea was developed and utilized by E. S. & A. Robinson with whom he had long-term business dealings.

Gair founded a paper empire and occupied several buildings in the area, many of which still bear his name.

Slip sheet

Slip sheets are thin pallet-sized sheets made of plastic, heavy laminated kraft paperboard, or corrugated fiberboard used in commercial shipping. Often, these replace the use of traditional wooden pallets. The unit load is usually stretch wrapped or shrink wrapped for stability.

Tear tape

Tear tape, also known as tearstrip or tear-off ribbon, is a narrow adhesive tape used to open packaging. The backing is often a narrow oriented polymer such as polypropylene but other polymers, yarns, and filaments are also used. Many tear tapes use a pressure sensitive adhesive but others have a heat-activated adhesive system.

Tear tape is usually attached to the inner surface of packaging: paper, paperboard, corrugated fiberboard or plastic film. It is used on common non-durable fast-moving consumer goods such as soft drinks, groceries or toiletries, as well as tobacco products such as cigarettes and cigars, to aid the opening of the packaging. It is also used in courier envelopes and corrugated boxes. Tear tape serves as an easy opening device for the consumer, where it obviates the need for opening tools such as scissors or knives, or the use of excessive force. Tear tape provides a guide on the tear area, thereby allowing more precise opening which reduces product spillage.

Tear tape is available in several constructions and has a variety of uses.

Wet strength

The wet strength of paper and paperboard is a measure of how well the web of fibers holding the paper together can resist a force of rupture when the paper is wet. Wet strength is routinely expressed as the ratio of wet to dry tensile force at break.With combined board such as corrugated fiberboard or with laminations, wet strength also includes the ability to stay intact under humid or wet conditions. Wet strength adhesives are often needed.

General topics
Product packages
Containers
Materials and
components
Processes
Machinery
Environment,
post-use
Types
Materials
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and process
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timber
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See also

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