Corriere della Sera

The Corriere della Sera (Italian pronunciation: [korˈrjɛːre ˈdella ˈseːra]; English: Evening Courier) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.[1]

First published on 5 March 1876, Corriere della Sera is one of Italy's oldest newspapers. Its masthead has remained unchanged since its first edition in 1876. It reached a circulation of over 1 million under editor and co-owner Luigi Albertini, 1900-1925. He was a strong opponent of Socialism, of clericalism, and of Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti who was willing to compromise with those forces. Albertini's opposition to the Fascist regime forced the other co-owners to oust him 1925.[2][3]

Today its main competitors are Rome's la Repubblica and Turin's La Stampa.[4]

Corriere della Sera
20090715 corsera frontpage
Front page on 15 July 2009
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatBerliner
Owner(s)Rizzoli
Founder(s)Eugenio Torelli Viollier
Managing editor, designLuciano Fontana
Founded15 March 1876
Political alignmentLiberalism, centrism
LanguageItalian
HeadquartersMilan, Italy
Circulation410.242 (December 2015)
Sister newspapersLa Gazzetta dello Sport
ISSN1120-4982
Websitewww.corriere.it
IMG 4261 - Milano - Sede del Corriere della Sera in via Solferino - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 20-jan 2007
The headquarters in Milan
Интервью Владимира Путина итальянской газете Il Corriere della Sera 5
Corriere della Sera journalists interviewing Russian President Vladimir Putin in June 2015

History and profile

Corriere della Sera was first published on Sunday 5 March 1876[5] by Eugenio Torelli Viollier.[6] In 1899 the paper began to offer a weekly illustrated supplement, Domenica del Corriere.[7]

In the 1910s and 1920s, under the direction of Luigi Albertini, Corriere della Sera became the most widely read newspaper in Italy, maintaining its importance and influence into the present century.[6] It was Corriere della Sera which introduced comics in Italy in 1908 through a supplement for children, namely Corriere dei Piccoli.[8]

The newspaper's headquarters has been in the same buildings since the beginning of the 20th century, and therefore it is popularly known as "the Via Solferino newspaper" after the street where it is still located. As the name indicates, it was originally an evening paper.

During the fascist regime in Italy Corriere della Sera funded the Mussolini Prize which was awarded to the writers Ada Negri and Emilio Cecchi among the others.[9]

Mario Borsa, a militant anti-fascist, was appointed the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera in May 1945.[10] He was fired because of his political leanings in August 1946 and was replaced by Guglielmo Emanuel, a right-wing journalist.[10] Emanuel served in the post until 1952.[10]

In the 1950s Corriere della Sera was the organ of the conservative establishment in Italy and was strongly anti-communist and pro-NATO.[10] The paper was functional in shaping the views of the Italian upper and middle classes during this period.[10]

The owners of the Corriere della Sera, the Crespi family,[11] sold a share to RCS Media in the 1960s and was listed in the Italian stock exchange. Its main shareholders were Mediobanca, the Fiat group and some of the biggest industrial and financial groups in Italy. In 1974 the RCS Media[12] moved on to control the majority of the paper.[13]

Alberto Cavallari was the editor-in-chief of the paper during the early 1980s.[11] In 1981 the newspaper was laterally involved in the P2 scandal when it was discovered that the secret Freemason lodge had the newspaper's editor Franco Di Bella and the former owner Angelo Rizzoli on its member lists. In September 1987 the paper launched a weekly magazine supplement, Sette, which is the first in its category in Italy.[14][15] From 1987 to 1992 the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera was Ugo Stille.[16]

The 1988 circulation of Corriere della Sera was 715,000 copies, making it the second most read newspaper in Italy.[17] The paper started its Saturday supplement, IO Donna, in 1996.[18] In 1997 Corriere della Sera was the best-selling Italian newspaper with a circulation of 687,000 copies.[19]

Corriere della Sera had a circulation of 715,000 copies in 2001.[20] In 2002 it fell to 681,000 copies.[12] In 2003, its then editor Ferruccio de Bortoli resigned from the post.[5] The journalists and opposition politicians claimed the resignation was due to the paper's criticism of Silvio Berlusconi.[5]

In 2004, Corriere della Sera launched an online English section focusing on Italian current affairs and culture. The same year it was the best-selling newspaper in Italy with a circulation of 677,542 copies.[21] Its circulation in December 2007 was 662,253 copies.[5]

It is one of the most visited Italian-language news websites, attracting over 1.6 million readers every day.[22] The online version of the paper was the thirteenth most visited website in the country.[23]

On 24 September 2014 Corriere della Sera changed its broadsheet format to the Berliner format.[24]

Content and sections

The "Third Page" (a one page-survey dedicated to culture) used to feature a main article named Elzeviro (name from the font used at begin for that), which over the years has published contributions from all the editors as well as major novelists, poets and journalists. "Corriere Scienza" is the science section of the paper.[25]

Contributors (past and present)

The Italian novelist Dino Buzzati was a journalist at the Corriere della Sera. Other notable contributors include Eugenio Montale, Curzio Malaparte, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Enzo Bettiza, Italo Calvino, Alberto Moravia, Amos Oz, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Guido Piovene, Giovanni Spadolini, Oriana Fallaci, Alessandra Farkas, Lando Ferretti, Brunella Gasperini, Enzo Biagi, Indro Montanelli, Giovanni Sartori, Paolo Brera, Francesco Alberoni, Tracy Chevalier, Goffredo Parise, Sergio Romano, Sandro Paternostro, Alan Friedman, Tommaso Landolfi, Alberto Ronchey and Paolo Mieli.

Editors

  • Luciano Fontana (Editor)
  • Paolo Ermini (Vice-Editor)
  • Magdi Allam (Vice-Editor "ad personam")
  • Pierluigi Battista (Deputy Editor)
  • Dario Di Vico (Deputy Editor)

Columnist & Journalists

See also

References

  1. ^ Circulation data Accertamenti Diffusione Stampa
  2. ^ Niek Nelissen, "The Corriere della Sera and the Rise of the Italian Nationalist Association." European History Quarterly (1982) 12#2 pp: 143-165.
  3. ^ Paul Devendittis, "Luigi Albertini: Conservative Liberalism in Thought and Practice," European History Quarterly (1976) 6#1 pp: 139–146 online
  4. ^ Lapo Filistrucchi (August 2004). "The Impact of Internet on the Market for Daily Newspapers in Italy" (PDF). European University Institute. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d "Communicating Europe: Italy Manual" (PDF). European Stability Initiative. 19 May 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Palazzo Corriere della Sera". milano.it. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  7. ^ Ignazio Weiss (May 1960). "The Illustrated Newsweeklies in Italy". International Communication Gazette. 6 (2). Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  8. ^ Gino Moliterno, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture (PDF). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-74849-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  9. ^ Ruth Ben-Ghiat (2001). Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922-1945 (PDF). Berkeley: University of California Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d e Luigi Bruti Liberati (2011). "Witch-hunts and Corriere della Sera. A conservative perception of American political values in Cold War Italy: The 1950s". Cold War History. 11 (1): 69–83. doi:10.1080/14682745.2011.545599.
  11. ^ a b Henry Kamm (14 March 1983). "Scandals of Italy entangle its flagship newspaper". The New York Times. Milan. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Annual Report 2003" (PDF). RCS Media Group. 31 December 2003. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  13. ^ Chris Hanretty (2009). "The Italian media between market and politics" (PDF). Chris Hanretty. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  14. ^ Elena Argentesi (2004). "Demand estimation for Italian newspapers" (PDF). ECO Working Papers (28). Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Sette". Image Diplomacy. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  16. ^ Alexander Stille (31 July 2007). The Sack of Rome: Media + Money + Celebrity = Power = Silvio Berlusconi. Penguin Group US. p. 308. ISBN 978-1-101-20168-8. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  17. ^ Peter Humphreys (1996). Mass Media and Media Policy in Western Europe. Manchester University Press. p. 90. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  18. ^ "Factsheet". Publicitas. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  19. ^ Jose L. Alvarez; Carmelo Mazza; Jordi Mur (October 1999). "The management publishing industry in Europe" (PDF). University of Navarra. Archived from the original (Occasional Paper No:99/4) on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  20. ^ Adam Smith (15 November 2002). "Europe's Top Newspapers". Campaign. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  21. ^ "European Publishing Monitor. Italy" (PDF). Turku School of Economics and KEA. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  22. ^ "Ciao, Italia! Corriere della Sera Joins European Network". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 23 October 2013. The Milan-based daily, with an average of 1.6 million online readers every day, has been publishing news in English on Italian current affairs and culture online since 2004. Through its new partnership with publications with strong reputations for quality journalism elsewhere in Europe, Corriere della Sera will contribute news and perspectives on Italy and Europe from its English-language " Italian Life" section.
  23. ^ Gianpietro Mazzoleni; Giulio Vigevani (10 August 2011). "Mapping Digital Media: Italy" (Report). Open Society Foundation. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  24. ^ "Italy: new Corriere della Sera - back to the future". Publicitas. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  25. ^ Eloisa Cianci (September 2003). "Scientific communication in Italy: an epistemological interpretation" (PDF). JCOM. 2 (3). Retrieved 15 April 2015.

Further reading

  • Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher (1980). The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers. pp. 104–110.
  • Corriere Canadese - the defunct Canadian newspaper where the infamous Vincent C. Torrieri worked. wwwenglishtraining.it

External links

2010 Apulian regional election

The Apulian regional election of 2010 took place in Apulia, Italy, on 28–29 March 2010.

The outgoing President Nichi Vendola of Left Ecology Freedom (SEL) was elected for a second-consecutive term, after having won the a primary election in which he beat a Democrat and having benefited from the split of the centre-right, whose two candidates jointly won 51.0% of the vote.

Vendola's party, SEL, had a strong showing in the Region by coming third with 9.7% of the vote, after The People of Freedom (31.1%) and the Democratic Party (20.8%).

Alessandra Farkas

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Future and Freedom

Future and Freedom (Italian: Futuro e Libertà), whose full name was Future and Freedom for Italy (Futuro e Libertà per l'Italia, abbreviated to FLI), was a political party in Italy, comprising both liberal and national elements.

FLI was formed by followers of Gianfranco Fini in July 2010 as a split from The People of Freedom (PdL), the major Italian centre-right party of the time, led by Silvio Berlusconi. Fini, former leader of the Italian Social Movement (MSI) and National Alliance (AN) and co-founder of the PdL in 2009, had taken a long journey from post-fascism to become a liberal conservative. Soon after the PdL's foundation, he started to become a critic of Berlusconi's government and leadership style.The core of FLI was constituted by Generation Italy (GI), led by Italo Bocchino, who was also appointed vice president of the party by Fini. FLI members were mostly former MSI/AN stalwarts, with some notable exceptions.

Lega Nord

Lega Nord (LN; English: Northern League), whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for the Independence of Padania), is a right-wing regionalist political party in Italy. In the run-up of the 2018 general election, the party was rebranded as Lega (League) without changing its official name in the party's statute. The party was nonetheless frequently referred to only as "Lega" even before the rebranding. The LN is also often referred to as Carroccio (a reference to a four-wheeled war altar used in the Middle Ages) by the Italian media.

The LN was established in 1991 as a federation of regional parties of northern and north-central Italy, notably including Liga Veneta, Lega Lombarda, Piemont Autonomista, Uniun Ligure, Lega Emiliano-Romagnola and Alleanza Toscana. The party's founder was Umberto Bossi, federal secretary from 1991 to 2012. After an internal crisis and struggle, the LN was briefly led by Roberto Maroni. In 2013, Matteo Salvini defeated Bossi in a leadership election and became secretary. Giancarlo Giorgetti and Lorenzo Fontana are deputy secretaries. Leading members include Attilio Fontana (President of Lombardy), Luca Zaia (President of Veneto), Massimiliano Fedriga (President of Friuli-Venezia Giulia), Maurizio Fugatti (President of Trentino) and Roberto Calderoli. Former leading members include Roberto Cota, Roberto Castelli, Francesco Speroni, Gian Paolo Gobbo, Stefano Stefani, Flavio Tosi, Giancarlo Pagliarini, Gipo Farassino, Marco Formentini, Domenico Comino, Vito Gnutti, Fabrizio Comencini, Irene Pivetti, Franco Rocchetta and Gianfranco Miglio.

The LN advocates the transformation of Italy into a federal state, fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy, especially for Northern regions. At times, the party has advocated the secession of the North, referred to by party members as "Padania" and consequently Padanian nationalism. However, under Salvini the party has to some extent embraced Italian nationalism and emphasised Euroscepticism, opposition to immigration and other "populist" policies while forming an alliance with right-wing populist parties such as France's National Front, the Netherlands' Party for Freedom and the Freedom Party of Austria at the European level. Salvini established a sister party in southern Italy named Us with Salvini and for the 2018 general election restyled the party's symbol and name, dropping the word "Nord" and introducing "Salvini Premier". All these changes have been harshly criticised by Bossi and the Padanist old guard, which now operates from a minority position within the party. However, under Salvini, the League has reached its highest popularity, both in the North and the rest of Italy. Furthermore, in northern regions the party still has a strong autonomist outlook, especially in Veneto where Venetian nationalism is stronger than ever. Finally, the League maintains its power base in the North, where it gets by far most of its support.

In the 2018 general election, the League was the third-largest party behind the Five Star Movement (M5S) and the Democratic Party (PD). In the most recent regional elections, the LN was the largest party in Veneto (where Zaia was re-elected President in 2015), Lombardy (where Fontana was elected in 2018 and succeeded to Maroni), Friuli-Venezia Giulia (where Fedriga was elected in 2018), Trentino (where Fugatti was elected President in 2018) and Abruzzo, the second-largest in Aosta Valley (where Spelgatti was briefly President in 2018 with the support of centrist, centre-left and left-wing autonomist parties), Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany, the third-largest in Liguria, Marche, Umbria and South Tyrol (where it is junior partner of the South Tyrolean People's Party), the fourth-largest in Piedmont and the fifth-largest in Molise (Abruzzo and Molise are outside Lega Nord's core territory; membership goes to "Lega per Salvini Premier").

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List of most wanted fugitives in Italy

The list of most wanted fugitives in Italy is a most wanted list published by the Italian Interior Ministry. It includes criminals who are considered extremely dangerous by the Polizia di Stato. The list was started in July 1992. There are also lists of 100 and 500 most wanted fugitives of lesser importance. When a fugitive is caught, they are promptly removed from the list and replaced by another individual.

Paola Perego

Paola Perego (Italian pronunciation: [ˌpaːola ˈpɛːreɡo], born 17 April 1966) is an Italian television host.

Paolo Mieli

Paolo Mieli (born 25 February 1949) is an Italian journalist who has been editor of Italy's leading newspaper, Corriere della Sera.Born in Milan, Mieli debuted as journalist at 18 for L'Espresso, where he remained for some 20 years. As a member of Potere Operaio he initially adhered to far-left positions. Later he took a more moderate stance under the influence and tutelage of his teachers, Rosario Romeo and Renzo De Felice.

From the 1980s Mieli worked for the most important Italian newspapers. After one year and a half at La Repubblica, he was hired by La Stampa in 1987. He became director in 1990. Two years later he moved to Il Corriere della Sera during the Tangentopoli bribe scandal. In May 1997 he was replaced by Ferruccio De Bortoli, assuming the position of editor-in-chief of RCS MediaGroup, publisher of Corriere della Sera. He continued his collaboration for that newspaper and returned as its director on 24 December 2004.Mieli served as a member of RAI TV, Italy's state network, but turned down the opportunity to be Chair amid a 2003 controversy.

RCS MediaGroup

RCS MediaGroup S.p.A., (formerly Rizzoli-Corriere della Sera) based in Milan and listed on the Italian Stock Exchange, is an international multimedia publishing group that operates in daily newspapers, magazines and books, radio broadcasting, new media and digital and satellite TV. It is also one of the leading operators in the advertisement sales & distribution markets.

Roberto Baggio

Roberto Baggio (Italian pronunciation: [roˈbɛrto ˈbaddʒo]; born 18 February 1967) is an Italian former professional footballer who mainly played as a second striker, or as an attacking midfielder, although he was capable of playing in several offensive positions. He is the former president of the technical sector of the Italian Football Federation (FIGC). A technically gifted, creative playmaker and a set piece specialist, renowned for his curling free-kicks, dribbling skills, and goalscoring, Baggio is regarded as one of the greatest players of all time. In 1999, he came fourth in the FIFA Player of the Century internet poll, and was chosen on the FIFA World Cup Dream Team in 2002. In 1993, he was named FIFA World Player of the Year and won the Ballon d'Or. In 2004, he was named by Pelé in the FIFA 100, a list of the world's greatest living players.Baggio played for Italy in 56 matches, scoring 27 goals, and is the joint fourth-highest goalscorer for his national team, alongside Alessandro Del Piero. He starred in the Italian team that finished third in the 1990 FIFA World Cup, scoring twice. At the 1994 World Cup, he led Italy to the final, scoring five goals, received the World Cup Silver Ball and was named in the World Cup All-Star Team. Although he was the star performer for Italy at the tournament, he missed the decisive penalty in the shootout of the final against Brazil. At the 1998 World Cup, he scored twice before Italy were eliminated to eventual champions France in the quarter-finals. Baggio is the only Italian to score in three World Cups, and with nine goals holds the record for most goals scored in World Cup tournaments for Italy, along with Paolo Rossi and Christian Vieri.In 2002, Baggio became the first Italian player in over 50 years to score more than 300 career goals; he is currently the fifth-highest scoring Italian in all competitions with 318 goals. In 2004, during the final season of his career, Baggio became the first player in over 30 years to score 200 goals in Serie A, and is currently the seventh-highest goalscorer of all time in Serie A, with 205 goals. In 1990, he moved from Fiorentina to Juventus for a world record transfer fee. Baggio has won two Serie A titles, a Coppa Italia and a UEFA Cup, playing for seven different Italian clubs during his career: Vicenza, Fiorentina, Juventus, Milan, Bologna, Internazionale and Brescia.

Baggio is known as Il Divin Codino (The Divine Ponytail), for the hairstyle he wore for most of his career, for his talent and for his Buddhist beliefs. In 2002, Baggio was nominated Goodwill Ambassador of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. In 2003, he was the inaugural winner of the "Golden Foot" award. In recognition of his human rights activism, he received the Man of Peace award from the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates in 2010. He was inducted into the Italian Football Hall of Fame in 2011.

Sanremo Music Festival

The Festival della canzone italiana di Sanremo (in English: Italian song festival of Sanremo) is the most popular Italian song contest and awards, held annually in the town of Sanremo, Liguria, and consisting of a competition amongst previously unreleased songs. Usually referred to as Festival di Sanremo, or outside Italy as Sanremo Music Festival or Sanremo Music Festival Award, it was the inspiration for the Eurovision Song Contest.It is the music equivalent to the Premio Regia Televisiva for television, the Premio Ubu for stage performances, and the Premio David di Donatello for motion pictures, but with a longer history and contest associated with.

The first edition of the Sanremo Music Festival, held between 29 and 31 January 1951, was broadcast by RAI's radio station Rete Rossa and its only three participants were Nilla Pizzi, Achille Togliani and Duo Fasano. Starting from 1955 all the editions of the Festival have been broadcast live by the Italian TV station Rai 1.From 1951 to 1976, the Festival took place in the Sanremo Casino, but starting from 1977, all the following editions were held in the Teatro Ariston, except 1990's one, held at the Nuovo Mercato dei Fiori.Between 1953 and 1971, except in 1956, each song was sung twice by two different artists, each one using an individual orchestral arrangement, to illustrate the meaning of the festival as a composers' competition, not a singers' competition. During this era of the festival, it was custom that one version of the song was performed by a native Italian artist while the other version was performed by an international guest artist., and that was the way for many international artists to debut with hits in Italian market in those years, such a case for Louis Armstrong, Stevie Wonder, Jose Feliciano, Roberto Carlos, Paul Anka, Yardbirds, Marianne Faithfull, Shirley Bassey, Mungo Jerry and many others.

The festival is used as the way of choosing the Italian entry to the Eurovision Song Contest and it has launched the careers of some of Italy's most successful singers, including Andrea Bocelli, Paola e Chiara, Il Volo, Giorgia, Laura Pausini, Eros Ramazzotti, and Gigliola Cinquetti.

Sette (magazine)

Sette, also known as Corriere della Sera Sette, is an Italian language news, political and lifestyle magazine based in Milan, Italy. The magazine is the weekly supplement of the daily newspaper Corriere della Sera. It is the first colour supplement distributed with a daily paper in Italy.

Social Action

Social Action (Italian: Azione Sociale, AS), previously known as Freedom of Action (Libertà di Azione, LdA), was a national-conservative political party in Italy, founded and led by maverick politician Alessandra Mussolini, who is the granddaughter of Benito Mussolini. The party became a faction within Silvio Berlusconi's People of Freedom party.

Mussolini, who had been a member of the National Alliance (AN) since its foundation, suddenly left that party on 28 November 2003, following the visit of party leader and the Deputy Prime Minister Gianfranco Fini to Israel, where he described fascism as "the absolute evil" as he apologised for Italy's role as an Axis Power during the Second World War. Mussolini however defended the right of Israel to exist and declared that the world "should beg forgiveness of Israel".Mussolini then formed her party and organized a far-right coalition named Social Alternative. That was a surprising move, as Mussolini, during her political career, had always taken social progressive stances on many issues, including abortion, artificial insemination, gay rights and civil unions. She has been an outspoken "feminist". and has been described by conservative commentators as a "socialist" and a "left-winger"The Social Alternative coalition was disbanded after the 2006 general election and by 2007 the party was almost disbanded as most of its original members returned to the National Alliance. Mussolini herself re-approached with Fini and was preparing her re-entry in AN when Silvio Berlusconi launched The People of Freedom (PdL). Mussolini decided to merge what remained of Social Action into the new party and was elected in the 2008 general election as part of the PdL. In October 2012, the balance of accounts of the People of Freedom showed that Social Action had received €100,000 of financial support from the PdL.Within the PdL Mussolini soon became the leader of the "pro-immigrant" wing of the party, often opposing some of the policies of the Berlusconi government or taking an independent line from it.

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The People of Freedom

The People of Freedom (Italian: Il Popolo della Libertà, PdL) was a centre-right political party in Italy.

The PdL, launched by Silvio Berlusconi on 18 November 2007, was initially a federation of political parties, notably including Forza Italia and National Alliance, which participated as a joint election list in the 2008 general election. The federation was later transformed into a party during a party congress on 27–29 March 2009.

The party's leading members included Angelino Alfano (national secretary), Renato Schifani, Renato Brunetta, Roberto Formigoni, Maurizio Sacconi, Maurizio Gasparri, Mariastella Gelmini, Antonio Martino, Giancarlo Galan, Maurizio Lupi, Gaetano Quagliariello, Daniela Santanchè, Sandro Bondi and Raffaele Fitto.

The PdL formed Italy's government from 2008 to 2011 in coalition with Lega Nord. After having supported Mario Monti's technocratic government in 2011–2012, the party was part of Enrico Letta's government with the Democratic Party, Civic Choice and the Union of the Centre. Alfano functioned as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior.

In June 2013 Berlusconi announced Forza Italia's revival and the PdL's transformation into a centre-right coalition. On 16 November 2013 the PdL's national council voted to dissolve the party and start a new Forza Italia; the assembly was deserted by a group of dissidents, led by Alfano, who had launched the New Centre-Right the day before.

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