The corrido (Spanish pronunciation: [koˈriðo]) is a popular narrative song and poetry that form a ballad. The songs are often about oppression, history, daily life for peasants, and other socially relevant topics. It is still a popular form today in Mexico and was widely popular during the Mexican Revolutions of the 20th century. The corrido derives largely from the romance, and in its most known form consists of a salutation from the singer and prologue to the story, the story itself, and a moral and farewell from the singer.
Until the arrival and success of electronic mass-media (mid-20th century), the corrido served in Mexico as the main informational and educational outlet, even with subversive purposes, due to an apparent linguistic and musical simplicity that lent itself to oral transmission. After the spread of radio and television, the genre evolved into a new stage and is still in the process of maturation. Some scholars, however, consider the corrido to be dead or moribund in more recent times (see e.g. Vicente T. Mendoza, El corrido mexicano, 1954). In more rural areas where Spanish and Mexican cultures have been preserved because of isolation, the romance has taken on other forms related to the corrido as well. In New Mexico, for example, a story-song emerged during the colonial period that was known as an Indita, which loosely follows the format of a corrido, but is chanted rather than sung, similar to a Native American chant, hence the name Indita.
The earliest living specimens of corrido are adapted versions of Spanish romances or European tales, mainly about disgraced or idealized love, or religious topics. These, that include (among others) "La Martina" (an adaptation of the romance "La Esposa Infiel") and "La Delgadina", show the same basic stylistic features of the later mainstream corridos (1/2 or 3/4 tempo and verso menor lyric composing, meaning verses of eight or less phonetic syllables, grouped in strophes of six or less verses).
Beginning with the Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821) and culminating during the Mexican Revolution (1910–1921), the genre flourished and acquired its "epic" tones, along with the three-step narrative structure as described above.
Some corridos may be love stories. These are not exclusively male by any means, there are also corridos about women such as La Venganza de Maria, Laurita Garza, El Corrido de Rosita Alvirez and La adelita, or couples such as La Fama de la Pareja sung by Los Tigres del Norte. Some even employ fictional stories invented by their composers.
Prior to widespread use of radio, popular corridos were passed around as an oral tradition, often to spread news of events (for example, La cárcel de Cananea) and popular heroes and humor to the population, many of whom were illiterate prior to the post-Revolution improvements to the educational system. Academic study of corridos written during the Revolution shows that they were used as a means to communicate news throughout Mexico as a response to the propaganda being spread in the newspapers which were owned by the corrupt government of Porfirio Díaz. Sheet music of popular corridos was sold or included in publications. Other corrido sheets were passed out free as a form of propaganda, to eulogize leaders, armies, and political movements, or in some cases to mock the opposition. The best known Revolutionary corrido is La cucaracha, an old song that was rephrased to celebrate the exploits of Pancho Villa's army and poke fun at his nemesis Victoriano Huerta.
With the consolidation of "Presidencialismo" (the political era following the Mexican Revolution) and the success of electronic mass-media, the corrido lost its primacy as a mass communication form, becoming part of a folklorist cult in one branch and, in another, the voice of the new subversives: oppressed workers, drug growers or traffickers, leftist activists and emigrated farmworkers (mainly to the USA). This is what scholars designate as the "decaying" stage of the genre, which tends to erase the stylistic or structural characteristics of "revolutionary" or traditional corrido without a clear and unified understanding of its evolution. This is mainly signified by the "narcocorrido", many of which are egocentric ballads paid for by drug smugglers to anonymous and almost illiterate composers (more about this assertion here l), but with others coming from the most popular norteño and banda artists and written by some of the most successful and influential ranchera composers.
In the mestizo-Mexican cultural area the three variants of corrido (romance, revolutionary and modern) are both alive and sung, along with popular sister narrative genres, such as the "valona" of Michoacán state, the "son arribeño" of the Sierra Gorda (Guanajuato, Hidalgo and Querétaro states) and others. Its vitality and flexibility allow original corrido lyrics to be built on non-Mexican musical genres, such as blues and ska, or with non-Spanish lyrics, like the famous song El Paso by Marty Robbins, and corridos composed or translated by Mexican indigenous communities or by the "Chicano" people in the USA, in English or "Spanglish". The corrido was, for example, a favorite device employed by the Teatro Campesino led by Luis Valdez in mobilizing largely Mexican and Mexican-American farmworkers in California during the 1960s.
Corridos have seen a renaissance in the 21st century. Contemporary corridos feature contemporary themes such as drug trafficking (narcocorridos), immigration, migrant labor and even the Chupacabra.
Corridos, like rancheras, have introductory instrumental music and adornos (ornamentations) interrupting the stanzas of the lyrics. However, unlike rancheras, the rhythm of a corrido remains fairly consistent. The corrido has a rhythm similar to that of the European waltz; rancheras can be banda, played at a variety of rhythms. Corridos often tell stories, while rancheras are for dancing.
The corrido was originally performed as a melodically simple tune with guitar accompaniment. It was performed in waltz time and now commonly adopts a polka rhythm. Since the commercialization of the corrido, it is often performed by conjuntos produced professionally by recording companies.
Norberto "Beto" Quintanilla Iracheta (23 May 1948 – 18 March 2007) was a Mexican singer, songwriter and musician. Beto was known as "El Mero León Del Corrido" [the word "mero" is idiomatic or slang and means more than its cognate "mere"; an English translation could be "The Boss Lion Of The Corrido"].Capoeira music
In capoeira, music sets the rhythm, the style of play, and the energy of a game.
In its most traditional setting, there are three main styles of song that weave together the structure of the capoeira roda. The roda represents the most strict and traditional format for capoeira and is ideally suited for an introduction and discussion of the music. Though we may consider the music traditional, because it has been passed orally from one to the next until the early - mid 20th century when songs and rhythms began to be notated and recorded, there is no record of to what extent and exactly how the music has evolved over time. Capoeira's Brazilian heritage plays a heavy role in the way capoeira is perceived by its practitioners and understood at a subconscious level. It is a common feature of many Brazilian ethnic groups, for instance, as well as others throughout the world, that music is not so much a form of personal entertainment as it is a medium to bring about group cohesion and dynamic. Music in the context of capoeira is used to create a sacred space through both the physical act of forming a circle (the roda) and an aural space that is believed to connect to the spirit world. This deeper religious significance exists more as a social memory to most capoeira groups, but is generally understood as evidenced in the use of ngoma drums (the atabaques of Yoruba candomblé), the berimbau whose earlier forms were used in rituals in Africa and the diaspora in speaking with ancestors, the ever-present term axé which signifies life force, the invocation of both Afro-Brazilian and Catholic spirituality, and certain semi-ritualized movements used in Capoeira Angola that bring "spiritual protection".
The instruments are:
up to 3 berimbaus
up to 2 pandeiros
1 reco-reco (notched wooden tube similar to a guiro)
1 atabaque or conga
Not every roda will contain all these instruments. Mestre Bimba, for instance, preferred only one berimbau and two pandeiros in his rodas, but there will always be at least one berimbau in any roda.
The berimbaus preside over the roda, their rhythmic combinations suggesting variations in movement style between the two players in the roda. Some capoeira groups insist that among the three berimbaus, the lowest-toned (called a gunga or berraboi) is the lead instrument, while other groups follow the lead of the middle (medio or viola) berimbau. The roda begins and ends at the discretion of the lead berimbau player, who may determine who plays next, can stop games, set the tempo of the music, and calm the players if they get too rough. There appears to be agreement that the treble-most berimbau (viola or violinha) is an accompaniment instrument, freely improvising based on rhythms of the middle instrument.Carlazzo
Carlazzo (Comasco: Carlasc [karˈlaʃ]) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Milan and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of Como. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,838 and an area of 12.7 square kilometres (4.9 sq mi).Carlazzo borders the following municipalities: Bene Lario, Corrido, Cusino, Grandola ed Uniti, Porlezza, San Bartolomeo Val Cavargna, San Nazzaro Val Cavargna, Val Rezzo.Churrasco
Churrasco (Spanish: [tʃuˈrasko], Portuguese: [ʃuˈʁasku]) is a Spanish and Portuguese term referring to beef or grilled meat more generally, differing across Latin America and Europe, but a prominent feature in the cuisine of Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru, Guatemala and other Latin American countries. The related term churrascaria (or churrasqueria) is mostly understood to be a steakhouse.
A churrascaria is a restaurant serving grilled meat, many offering as much as one can eat: the waiters move around the restaurant with the skewers, slicing meat onto the client's plate. This serving style is called espeto corrido or rodízio, and is quite popular in Brazil, specially in southern states like Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina and São Paulo.Corrido, Lombardy
Corrido (Comasco: Còrid [ˈkɔrit] or Coret [ˈkɔret])is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Milan and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of Como. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 762 and an area of 6.3 km².Corrido borders the following municipalities: Carlazzo, Porlezza, Val Rezzo.Corrido (Spain)
A corrido is a traditional style of dance and music of Spain. In some areas of Castilla, this form was known as salteado. This dance was very popular in all Castilla and León in 19th and early 20th century.
This form has an irregular rhythm, typically Castillian. The corrido consists of two parts, the first being of oscillatory and lateral movement in fast pace, and the second is similar to the jota.El Corrido
El Corrido is a 1976 musical comedy made for TV film directed and written by Luis Valdez, and produced by El Teatro Campesino. The film was adapted from Valdez's stage musical La Gran Carpa de los Rasquachis, which was also produced with El Teatro Campesino. El Corrido was aired on PBS on November 4, 1976 as part of its Ballad of a Farmworker television series.The film stars Felix Alvarez as Jesus Pelado Rasquachi, a young Mexican man who travels to the United States in search of work, suffering various unfortunate and comical events along the way.El corrido de Lupe Reyes
El corrido de Lupe Reyes is a Mexican telenovela produced by Televisa for Telesistema Mexicano in 1966.Himno Zapatista
The Zapatista Anthem (Spanish: Himno Zapatista) is the anthem of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN), a political group which launched a rebellion in the Mexican state of Chiapas on 1 January 1994. The
music was taken from a Mexican Revolution corrido "Carabina 30-30".Jaula de oro (song)
"Jaula de oro" ("Golden cage") is a 1983 corrido or cancion ranchera by Enrique Franco, performed by Los Tigres del Norte on the album Jaula de Oro. The subject of the song is US immigration.Los Tigres del Norte re-recorded the song with Juanes for MTV Unplugged: Los Tigres del Norte and Friends in 2011.Music of Mexico
The music of Mexico is very diverse and features a wide range of musical genres and performance styles. It has been influenced by a variety of cultures, most notably the culture of the indigenous peoples of Mexico and Europe. Music was an expression of Mexican nationalism, beginning in the nineteenth century.Many traditional Mexican songs are well-known everywhere, including María Grever's first international hit "Júrame" ("Swear to me"), and her song "Te quiero dijiste" (English version "Magic Is the Moonlight"), written for the 1944 Esther Williams film. "La Noche de los Mayas," Huapango de Moncayo, "Sinfonía India (Second Symphony)," "Sobre las Olas," "La Sandunga," "Cielito Lindo" ("Beautiful Sweetheart"), "Bésame Mucho" ("Kiss Me a Lot"), "Perfidia", "Solamente una vez" (English version "You Belong to My Heart"), "Esta Tarde Vi Llover" (English version "Yesterday I Heard the Rain"), "Somos Novios" (English version "We Are Dating"), "¡Ay, Jalisco, no te rajes!", and "Jesusita en Chihuahua,"
Other famous songs include "México Lindo y Querido" ("Beautiful, Beloved Mexico"), "Jarabe Tapatío' (known internationally as "The Mexican Hat Dance"), "El Rey" ("The King"), "El Triste" ("The sad one"), "Pelea de gallos", "Enamorada" ("Enamoured"), "Échame a mi la culpa" ("Blame me"), "La ley del monte" ("The law of the land"), "La Bikina" ("The Bikina"), "Por Debajo de la Mesa," "La Media Vuelta," "La Bamba," ("The Bamba"), "Lilongo," and "Jarabe Pateño". "La Cucaracha" ("The Cockroach"), although popularized during the Mexican Revolution, is a Mexican corrido.Narcocorrido
A narcocorrido (Spanish pronunciation: [naɾkokoˈriðo], "narco-corrido" or drug ballad) is a subgenre of the Mexican norteño-corrido (northern ballad) music genre, traditional folk music from northern Mexico, from which several other genres have evolved. This type of music is heard and produced on both sides of the Mexico–US border. It uses a danceable, accordion-based polka as a rhythmic base.
The first corridos that focus on drug smugglers—the narco comes from "narcotics"—have been dated by Juan Ramírez-Pimienta to the 1930s. Early corridos (non-narco) go back as far as the Mexican Revolution of 1910, telling the stories of revolutionary fighters. Music critics have also compared narcocorrido lyrics and style to gangster rap and mafioso rap.Narcocorrido lyrics refer to particular events and include real dates and places. The lyrics tend to speak approvingly of illegal activities, mainly drug trafficking.Norteño (music)
Norteño or Norteña (Spanish pronunciation: [noɾˈteɲo], northeren), also música norteña, is a genre of Mexican music from Northern Mexico, hence the name. The music is most often based on a polka or waltz tempo and its lyrics often deal with socially relevant topics. The famous corridos are considered Norteña music. The accordion and the bajo sexto are norteño's most characteristic instruments, but the genre can include brass bands (banda music) as well. Norteña music developed in the late 19th century, as a mixture between German folk music (which was introduced to Mexico with the arrival of German migrant workers in those years), and local Northern Mexican music.
The genre is popular in both Mexico and the United States, especially among the Mexican and Mexican-American community, and it has become popular in many Latin American countries as far as Chile and Colombia and in Spain. Though originating from rural areas, norteño is popular in both urban and rural areas.
Some popular norteño artists include Ramón Ayala, Cornelio Reyna, Intocable, Los Invasores de Nuevo León, Los Cadetes de Linares, Los Alegres de Terán, Los Tigres del Norte, Los Huracanes del Norte, Los Rieleros del Norte, La Leyenda, and Los Tucanes de Tijuana. Local radio stations have continued to be a major influence in popularizing norteño in the Mexican-American community.
A conjunto norteño is a type of Mexican folk ensemble. It mostly includes diatonic accordion, bajo sexto, electric bass or double bass, and drums, and sometimes saxophone.Porlezza
Porlezza is a comune (municipality) on Lake Lugano in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Milan and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of Como.
Porlezza borders the following municipalities: Bene Lario, Carlazzo, Claino con Osteno, Corrido, Lenno, Ossuccio, Ponna, Val Rezzo, Valsolda.
Between 1873 and 1939, Porlezza was linked to Menaggio, on Lake Como, by the Menaggio–Porlezza railway, a steam hauled narrow gauge line built as part of a multi-modal transport link between Menaggio and Luino, on Lake Maggiore.Ranchera
Ranchera (pronounced [ranˈtʃeɾa]), or canción ranchera is a genre of the traditional music of Mexico. It dates before the years of the Mexican Revolution. It later became closely associated with the mariachi groups which evolved in Jalisco. Ranchera today is also played by norteño (or Conjunto) or banda and Tamborazo. Drawing on rural traditional folk music, ranchera developed as a symbol of a new national consciousness in reaction to the aristocratic tastes of the period. Some well-known interpreters of the genre are the following singers: Amalia Mendoza, Antonio Aguilar, Chelo, Cuco Sánchez, Flor Silvestre, Irma Serrano, Javier Solís, Jorge Negrete, José Alfredo Jiménez, Lola Beltrán, Lucha Villa, Pedro Infante, Rocío Dúrcal, Vicente Fernández, and presently: Pedro Fernández and Pepe Aguilar.Regional styles of Mexican music
Regional styles of Mexican music vary greatly vary from state to state. Norteño, banda, duranguense, Mexican Son music and other Mexican country music genres are often known as regional Mexican music because each state produces different musical sounds and lyrics.
is well known for música norteña (northern music) that incorporates modern rock and cumbia into its music.
has produced many marimba bands and artists, such as Marimbas de Chiapas. Chiapas has its own "son" tradition (son chiapaneco), often played on the marimba. Mexican waltzes are also particularly popular here.
norteño is unique in that it uses the saxophone in addition to the usual accordion, and thus has two lead instruments. Zacatecas norteño is similar to norteña chihuahuense.
is widely famous for its many duranguense (Durangan) bands. Duranguense bands are basically considered música norteña, but uses brass and wind instruments instead of guitars and accordions. Duranguense bands are often called Banda … or Los … de Durango.
has its own traditional "son" tradition, known as "Son Guerrerense", which has a violin lead, with guitar and percussion for the rhythm section. The son music from Tierra Caliente is very closely related to this. "Gustos" are another very popular song form here, and these are played at half-tempo (in relation to the sones). Violinist Juan Reynoso is a renowned interpreter of the music from this region.
Many musical bands sound comes from Norteño music by way of Michoacán, yet also the rich folk music tradition of this backcountry mountaneous state informs original compositions (ex. Modesta Ayala). The Jaripeo is a most powerful influence on Guerrero banda music today. Jaripeos are the popular local musical bullriding events featuring young bullriders, a 12+ piece brass band, cattle hands, rodeo announcer, dancing, clowns, families, kids, village officials, and drunks. Top Bandas in northern Guerrero are Autoridad de la Sierra, La Banda Dominguera, Los Indomables. Typical professional village bands would be Santa Cecilia (Axixintla) and La Rancherita (Tecalpulco)
In every town and city in Guerrero, musicians play for money. An old blind fiddler led by a grandson, or a trio with two guitars and an accordion. The music coming up from the rocky valleys of mineral Guerrero deriving from Spanish ballads with a heavy frontier admixture. Still today rural musiscans gather for all-night stylized musical jam sessions of "bolas" and "corridos". These are both folk verse renditions of traditional vocal and guitar expressions. The musical trios that proliferate in the streets and popular markets of Guerrero perform songs of venerable composition.
"With both western and prehispanic musical heritage, emerges a sonorous phenomenon transcendental for America. This had and has a significance of great importance for the development of the villages. With the ferocious and pitiless conquest, takes place a combination of rape by force and home invasion generating new structures. In the case of band music, a group of instruments or a combination of metals, percussions, woods…"
"One of the most extended genres of America and especially in Mexico is the corrido; whats more it is the county where its diffusion reaches surprising ranges…" "In Guerrero and particularly in the zone of Zapatista influence Michoacán, Morelos, State of Mexico, Puebla, Oaxaca, the corrido reaches creative dimensions without comparison in the Mexican popular lyric. Work that is awaiting the specialists."
The Son Jalisciense is the most traditional and representative style of folk music of the mariachi tradition. El Son de la Negra is one of the pieces more representative. In the 1990s, bands such as Banda Machos, and Banda Maguey popularized techno-banda. These bands were the music for the popular dance quebradita.
Danzon is a Cuban style of music which also developed in Mexico City (in El Salón México) and Veracruz. It is comparable to tango for its elegance and complex structure. Cha-cha-cha is also an important style which was played a lot in the past century, it was very popular in Mexican films. Mambo, created by Cachao López in 1938 in Cuba, derives from Cuban style of music called rumba and was popularized by Perez Prado in Mexico City where he lived from 1948 to 1989. Mexican bolero also originated in Mexico City, one of the most important Bolero singers is Agustín Lara.
Pirekua(Purépecha) is a song form of the Purépecha (Michoacán, Mexico). The singer of a pirekua, a pirériecha, may be male or female, solo or accompanied, and pirekua may be performed instrumentally. Pirériechas act as social mediators and "express sentiments and communicate events of importance to the Purépecha communities."
is recognized for Huichol music, the most notable band being El Venado Azul. Nayarit Huichol bands often play traditional ranchero and corrido songs with unique homemade violins and guitars.
norteño bands resemble traditional norteño tejano (Texan norteño) somewhat more closely than other norteño bands due to Nuevo León's proximity to the southwestern American state of Texas.
has a musical tradition/style known as Son Istmeño, which is a continuation of the son folk tradition found throughout Mexico (as well as Cuba and Puerto Rico). It has very strong indigenous roots, and the songs are sung in both the Zapotec language as well as Spanish; the rhythms are often indigenous as well, while the basic melodic/harmonic structure is Spanish. The song "La Llorona" is an example of a son istmeño. Marimba ensembles are also found here.
Oaxaca also has many traditional Brass Bands, sometimes called Tambora Oaxaqueña, the music is very similar to the Balkan Music, and it is believed that they are both from the same roots. Bakanic composer, Goran Bregovic, made concerts in Mexico, with bands from Oaxaca.
is widely famous for banda, or Mexican big band music. Sinaloa was where the musical genre originated. Bandas play a wide variety of songs, include rancheras, boleros, and cumbias. Bandas often adapt songs from other duranguense and norteño bands. Sinaloa also has produced famous norteño artists, such as Calibre 50, and El Veloz de Sinaloa.
norteño is similar to Nuevo León norteño. It also has Huapango (also known as Son Huasteco) music.
has a unique style in music, it is called Son Jarocho and it is played with some guitar-like instruments called "Jaranas". Recently the harp forms an important part of Son Jarocho. I Grupo Mono Blanco are a very influential band. In the capital Danzon is very popular and it is performed in the street. In the north of Veracruz Huapango (also known as Son Huasteco) music is more popular. Boleros are also very important in Veracruz.
has its own musical traditions, one in particular known as "musica/danza jarana." Although the jarana is the main/central instrument in a typical ensemble, other kinds of guitars are utilized. The local music generally includes both very strong Spanish and indigenous influences as well as, to an extent, Caribbean influences. Vocal harmonies also contribute to the trademark sound of Yucatán. "Son Yucateco", the traditional son music of the region, was also probably an influence on the Cuban-born bolero, and there is a strong connection between the music of Yucatán, Mexico and the music of Cuba. Boleros and "musica trova", a Cuban musical tradition, also have a very important place in musica Yucateca.
Bandas in Zacatecas play what it is known as "Tamborazo Zacatecano", the bands are formed with a drum and wind instruments. A notable band is La Banda Jerez. Also, Zacatecas norteño closely resembles that of Chihuahua norteño because of saxophone-accordion duets in their music.Roberto Tapia
Roberto Tapia is an American singer of Mexican ancestry. Tapia was born in 1984 in San Diego, California and raised in Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Tapia adopted the Regional Mexican genre and in August 2012, his album El Muchacho hit #1 on Billboard's Top Latin Albums chart. Tapia was one of three coaches on the first two seasons of La Voz Kids (The Voice Kids), a Spanish-language version of The Voice featuring American Spanish-speaking children on the Telemundo Network. He inclusively became a business man in the year of 2013, promoting restaurants, and still continuing with his singer life.Val Rezzo
Val Rezzo (Comasco: Val Rezz [ˌʋal ˈrɛts]) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) north of Milan and about 30 kilometres (19 mi) north of Como, on the border with Switzerland. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 202 and an area of 6.6 square kilometres (2.5 sq mi).Val Rezzo borders the following municipalities: Bogno (Switzerland), Carlazzo, Cavargna, Certara (Switzerland), Cimadera (Switzerland), Corrido, Porlezza, San Nazzaro Val Cavargna, Valsolda.
Music genres in the Hispanosphere
and protest music
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