Correct name

In botany, the correct name according to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the one and only botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon, when that taxon has a particular circumscription, position and rank.[1] Determining whether a name is correct is a complex procedure.[2] The name must be validly published, a process which is defined in no less than 16 Articles of the ICN.[3] It must also be "legitimate", which imposes some further requirements.[4] If there are two or more legitimate names for the same taxon (with the same circumscription, position and rank), then the correct name is the one which has priority, i.e. it was published earliest,[5] although names may be conserved if they have been very widely used. Validly published names other than the correct name are called synonyms.[6] Since taxonomists may disagree as to the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, there can be more than one correct name for a particular plant. These may also be called synonyms.

The correct name has only one correct spelling, which will generally be the original spelling (although certain limited corrections are allowed). Other spellings are called orthographical variants.[7]

The zoological equivalent of "correct name" is "valid name".

Example

Starr 070215-4478 Falcataria moluccana
Linnaeus' Adenanthera falcataria has many other names

Different taxonomic placements may well lead to different correct names. For example, the earliest name for the fastest growing tree in the world is Adenanthera falcataria L. The "L." stands for "Linnaeus" who first validly published the name. Adenanthera falcataria is thus one of the correct names for this plant. There are other correct names, based on different taxonomic treatments.

  • It can be placed in the genus Albizia, as Fosberg first did. When placed in this genus, the first choice of correct name is the new genus name followed by the earlier species epithet, giving Albizia falcataria.[8] This name cannot be used if there is already a species in the genus with this epithet, so that an illegitimate duplicate would be created.[9] As this is not the case, the correct name for the plant in this genus is Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg. "Fosberg" is the authority for the transfer to the new genus; "L(innaeus)" the authority for the 'base name' (basionym) from which the new name is derived.
  • It can also be placed in the genus Paraserianthes. Its correct name in that position is Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) I.C.Nielsen.
  • Within the genus Paraserianthes, it is placed in section Falcataria. If the section is raised in rank to become the genus Falcataria, the correct name cannot be Falcataria falcataria, as might be expected, since under the botanical code (but not the zoological code) names with the same word as both the genus and the specific epithet (tautonyms) are forbidden.[10] An alternative basionym must be sought or a new name created. The correct name is Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby and J.W.Grimes.

The four names Adenanthera falcataria, Albizia falcataria, Paraserianthes falcataria and Falcataria moluccana are each correct, given that the plant is placed in these four genera. Which is the 'right' genus is a problem for taxonomy, not nomenclature. Thus this tree species will have a different correct botanical name for different people.

See also

(specific to botany)

(more general)

References

  1. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Glossary
  2. ^ Turland, N. (2013). The Code Decoded: A user's guide to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. Regnum Vegetabile Volume 155. Koeltz Scientific Books. ISBN 978-3-87429-433-1.
  3. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Article 6.2
  4. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Articles 6.3 and 6.4
  5. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Principle III
  6. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Article 7.2
  7. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Articles 60-61
  8. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Article 11.4
  9. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Article 53
  10. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Article 23.4

Bibliography

.243 Winchester Super Short Magnum

The 243 Winchester Super Short Magnum or 243 WSSM is a rifle cartridge introduced in 2003. It uses a .300 WSM (Winchester Short Magnum) case shortened and necked down to accept a .243in/6mm diameter bullet, and is a high velocity round based on ballistics design philosophies that are intended to produce a high level of efficiency. The correct name for the cartridge, as listed by the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI), is 243 WSSM, without a decimal point. Winchester has discontinued the manufacture of 243 WSSM ammunition.

As of the first half of 2016, Winchester/Olin did manufactured and release for sale some WSSM ammunition. The product is only manufactured periodically, often on inconsistent intervals.

.270 Winchester Short Magnum

The 270 Winchester Short Magnum or 270 WSM is a short, unbelted, magnum cartridge created by necking down the .300 Winchester Short Magnum and fitting it with a .277 caliber bullet. The correct name for the cartridge, as listed by the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI), is 270 WSM, without a decimal point.

Acidava

Acidava (Acidaua) was a Dacian and later Roman fortress on the Olt river near the lower Danube. The settlements remains are located in today's Enoşeşti, Olt County, Romania.

After the Roman conquest of Dacia by Roman Emperor Trajan, Acidava became a civilian and military center, with castra being built in the area. Acidava was part of the Limes Alutanus, a line of fortifications built under emperor Hadrian running north-south along the Alutus - the Olt river. The function of the limes was to monitor the Roxolani to the east and deter any possible attacks.Acidava is depicted in the Tabula Peutingeriana between Romula and Rusidava.

The same document depicts a second Acidava, between Cedoniae and Apula, but some authors believe it is actually a copy error and the correct name is Sacidava, another Dacian town.

Akiek people

The Akiek are an ethnic and linguistic group in Tanzania and Kenya, living in the Arusha Region in northern Tanzania and in southern Kenya, with an estimated population of 3,700 people. The Akiek language is said to be a moribund language: only a few elderly speakers are left. The Akiek in Tanzania now speak Maasai, and those in Kenya speak kalenjin.The Akiek are a subgroup of the Ogiek or Okiek, who intermarried and lost contact with the core of the Ogiek. The terms Akiek and Okiek are sometimes used interchangeably and confusingly. The correct name of the original people is Ogiek.

Betty Kelly

Betty Kelly (born September 16, 1944) (also known as her correct name Betty Kelley) is a former American singer, most famous for her tenure in the popular Motown singing group Martha and the Vandellas.

Botanical nomenclature

Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy. Plant taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus' Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Fossil plants are also covered by the code of nomenclature.

Within the limits set by that code there is another set of rules, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which applies to plant cultivars that have been deliberately altered or selected by humans (see cultigen).

Ebbw River

The Ebbw River (; Welsh: Afon Ebwy) is a river in South Wales.

The main Ebbw River is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the Ebbw Fach (Little Ebbw) with its main tributary the River Tyleri, and the Ebbw Fawr (Great Ebbw), the latter of which gives its name to Ebbw Vale.

The tributary Sirhowy River joins at Crosskeys, then the river continues flowing south east, through the town of Risca, then through the western suburbs of Newport, alongside Tredegar Park.

The Ebbw then in turn joins with the River Usk, before flowing into the Severn Estuary.

In common with the nearby Sirhowy River and Rhymney River the correct name for the river is "Ebbw River", not the more usual "River Ebbw".

Goudi

Goudi (Greek: Γουδή, pronounced [ɣuˈði] since 2006; formerly Γουδί [ɣuˈði]) is a residential neighbourhood of Athens, Greece, on the eastern part of town and on the foothills of Mount Hymettus.

Index Fungorum

Index Fungorum is an international project to index all formal names (scientific names) in the fungus kingdom. As of 2015 the project is based at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, one of three partners along with Landcare Research and the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

It is somewhat comparable to the International Plant Names Index (IPNI), in which the Royal Botanic Gardens is also involved. A difference is that where IPNI does not indicate correct names, the Index Fungorum does indicate the status of a name. In the returns from the search page a currently correct name is indicated in green, while others are in blue (a few, aberrant usages of names are indicated in red). All names are linked to pages giving the correct name, with lists of synonyms.

Index Fungorum is one of three nomenclatural repositories recognized by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi; the others are MycoBank and Fungal Names.

Kata-kat

Kata-kat or tak-a-tak (Urdu: کٹاکٹ) is a special meat dish popular throughout Pakistan. It is a dish originating from Karachi, Pakistan made from offal (i.e., a mixture of various meat organs), including testicles, brain, kidney, heart, liver, lungs and lamb chops in butter. The dish's name is an onomatopoeia from the sound of the two sharp blades that hit the griddle as they cut up the meat. It is still an open question whether the correct name is kata-kat or tak-a-tak.

Le Regourdou

Le Regourdou (or Le Régourdou) is an archaeological site in the Dordogne department, France, on top of a hill just 800 m (2,600 ft) from the famous cave complex of Lascaux. At this now collapsed 35 m (115 ft) deep ancient karst cavity remarkably well preserved Neanderthal fossils were recovered, that might be skeletal remains of deliberate burials. According to the current excavation team at the site, the correct name of the location is "Regourdou". "Le Régourdou" is considered a misnomer and should be avoided.

List of country names in various languages

Most countries of the world have different names in different languages. Some countries have also undergone name changes for political or other reasons. This article attempts to give all known alternative names for all nations, countries and sovereign states. It does not offer any opinion about what the "original", "official", "real", or "correct" name of any country is or was.

Countries are listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English. Each English name is followed by its currently best-known equivalents in other languages, listed in English alphabetical order (ignoring accents) by name and by language. Historical and/or alternative versions, where included, are noted as such. Foreign names that are the same as their English equivalents are listed, to provide an answer to the question "What is that name in..."?. See also: List of alternative country names

Please format entries as follows: for languages written in the Latin alphabet, write "Name (language)", for example, "Afeganistão (Portuguese)", and add it to the list according to English rules of alphabetical order. For languages written in other writing systems, write "Romanization - native script (language)", for example "Argentine - אַרגענטינע (Yiddish)", and alphabetize it in the list by the Romanized form.

For reasons of size, this article is broken into four parts:

List of country names in various languages (A–C)

List of country names in various languages (D–I)

List of country names in various languages (J–P)

List of country names in various languages (Q–Z)

Neoptera

Neoptera (from New Latin neo "new" and ptera "wing") is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.

Nomen illegitimum

Nomen illegitimum (Latin for illegitimate name) is a technical term, used mainly in botany. It is usually abbreviated as nom. illeg. Although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants uses Latin terms for other kinds of name (e.g. nomen conservandum for "conserved name"), the glossary defines the English phrase "illegitimate name" rather than the Latin equivalent. However, the Latin abbreviation is widely used by botanists and mycologists.

A superfluous name is often an illegitimate name. Again, although the glossary defines the English phrase, the Latin equivalent nomen superfluum, abbreviated nom. superfl. is widely used by botanists.

Phenylisobutylamine

Phenylisobutylamine, also known as α-ethylphenethylamine, Butanphenamine, B or AEPEA, is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine class. It is a higher homologue of amphetamine, differing from amphetamine's molecular structure only by the substitution of the methyl group at the alpha position of the side chain with an ethyl group. Compared to amphetamine, phenylisobutylamine has strongly reduced dopaminergic effects, and instead acts as a selective norepinephrine releasing agent. The dextroisomer of phenylisobutylamine partially substitutes for dextroamphetamine in rats.A number of derivatives of phenylisobutylamine are known, including BDB, MBDB, EBDB, butylone (bk-MBDB), eutylone (bk-EBDB), Ariadne (α-Et-DOM), 4-CAB, and 4-MAB.

"Phenylisobutylamine" is in fact a chemical misnomer because isobutylamine itself contains a branched chain. The correct name after this style for this class of compound would be "phenylsecbutylamine".

Principle of Priority

Priority is a fundamental principle of modern botanical nomenclature and zoological nomenclature. Essentially, it is the principle of recognising the first valid application of a name to a plant or animal. There are two aspects to this:

The first formal scientific name given to a plant or animal taxon shall be the name that is to be used, called the valid name in zoology and correct name in botany.

Once a name has been used, no subsequent publication of that name for another taxon shall be valid (zoology) or validly published (botany).There are formal provisions for making exceptions to this principle. If an archaic or obscure prior name is discovered for an established taxon, the current name can be declared a nomen conservandum (botany) or conserved name (zoology), and so conserved against the prior name. Conservation may be avoided entirely in Zoology as these names may fall in the formal category of nomen oblitum. Similarly, if the current name for a taxon is found to have an archaic or obscure prior homonym, the current name can be declared a nomen protectum (zoology) or the older name suppressed (nomen rejiciendum, botany).

S. Sreesanth

Shanthakumaran Nair Sreesanth (pronunciation , born 6 February 1983) is an Indian cricketer, who played all forms of the game. He was a right-arm fast-medium-pace bowler and a right-handed tail-ender batsman. In first class cricket, he played for Kerala and in the Indian Premier League, he played for Rajasthan Royals. He is also the first Kerala Ranji player to have played Twenty20 cricket for India. In 2018, he participated in the popular reality show, Bigg Boss and became the runner up.

Synonym (taxonomy)

In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies.

Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and vice versa).

Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently. They may also arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms also come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable; for example, Erica herbacea L. has been rejected in favour of Erica carnea L. and is thus its synonym.

Validly published name

In botanical nomenclature, a validly published name is a name that meets the requirements in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants for valid publication. Valid publication of a name represents the minimum requirements for a botanical name to exist: terms that appear to be names but have not been validly published are referred to in the ICN as "designations".A validly published name may not satisfy all the requirements to be legitimate. It is also not necessarily the correct name for a particular taxon and rank.Nevertheless, invalid names (nomen invalidum, nom. inval.) are sometimes in use. This may occur when a taxonomist finds and recognises a taxon and thinks of a name, but delays publishing it in an adequate manner. A common reason for this is that a taxonomist intends to write a magnum opus that provides an overview of the group, rather than a series of small papers. Another reason is that the code of nomenclature changes with time, and most changes have retroactive effect, which has resulted in some names that the author thought were validly published, becoming invalid.

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