The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. It forms an authoritative source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman life and history. The Corpus continues to be updated in new editions and supplements.
CIL also refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and publishing the Latin inscriptions. It was founded in 1853 by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey.
The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the whole territory of the Roman Empire, ordering them geographically and systematically. The earlier volumes collected and published authoritative versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been previously published in a wide range of publications. The descriptions include images of the original inscription if available, drawings showing the letters in their original size and position, and an interpretation reconstructing abbreviations and missing words, along with discussion of issues and problems. The language of the CIL is Latin.
In 1847 a committee was created in Berlin with the aim of publishing an organized collection of Latin inscriptions, which had previously been described piecemeal by hundreds of scholars over the preceding centuries. The leading figure of this committee was Theodor Mommsen (who wrote several of the volumes covering Italy). Much of the work involved personal inspections of sites and monuments in an attempt to replicate the original as much as possible. In those cases where a previously cited inscription could no longer be found, the authors tried to get an accurate reading by comparing the versions of the published inscription in the works of previous authors who had seen the original. The first volume appeared in 1853.
The CIL presently consists of 17 volumes in about 70 parts, recording approximately 180,000 inscriptions. Thirteen supplementary volumes have plates and special indices. The first volume, in two sections, covered the oldest inscriptions, to the end of the Roman Republic; volumes II to XIV are divided geographically, according to the regions where the inscriptions were found. The other volumes cover other topics. Volume XVII, for instance, is entirely devoted to milestones. A volume XVIII is planned, which will contain the Carmina Latina Epigraphica (Latin verse inscriptions). A two-volume "Index of Numbers", correlating inscription numbers with volume numbers, was published in 2003.
The Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften continues to update and reprint the CIL.
Abthugni (Punic: 𐤀𐤐𐤁𐤂𐤍, ʾPBGN, or 𐤀𐤐𐤕𐤁𐤂𐤍, ʾPTBGN) was an ancient city in Roman North Africa at present day Suwar (Henchir-es-Souar) in Tunisia. It was in Roman times in the province of Africa Proconsularis, Africa, and latter in Byzacena. In late antiquity Abthugni was also the seat of a bishop, and the diocese is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church to this day.Andautonia
Andautonia was a Roman settlement located on the southern bank of the river Sava, located in the modern-day village of Šćitarjevo, southeast of the city of Zagreb, Croatia.
Andautonia was located in the Roman province of Pannonia, on the Roman road connecting Poetovia (modern Ptuj) and Siscia (Sisak). The name Andautonia was mentioned by the ancient geographer Ptolemaeus, while the name Dautonia was mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary. The road connected Andautonia with Poetovium via Pyrri and Aquaviva to the north, and Siscia to the south. The settlement existed between the 1st and the 4th century, after which it is believed to have been destroyed during the Great Migration in Europe.In the modern age, its name was first discovered written on a stone tablet recovered in Stenjevec in 1758 and then another one in Šćitarjevo in 1768. During the 19th century, Roman stone and brick material that could still be found in these areas was by and large removed and reused in the construction of new buildings, thereby removing the surface traces of Andautonia's location. The settlement's location was disputed at the time, with various claims made by cartographers and historians including Latius, Lapie, Reichard, d'Anville, Krčelić, Blašković, Katančić and Kukuljević. It was finally properly deduced by Theodor Mommsen and published in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum in 1873. The Zagreb Archaeological Museum subsequently started its first excavations in Šćitarjevo and found numerous Roman artifacts at the depth of about 1 metre (3.3 ft).The Museum staff returned to the site for a series of explorations between 1969 and 1980, and since 1981 they also analyzed the garden of the parish office in the center of the village. They recovered traces of streets, the sewer system, various buildings, city walls and a necropolis. In 1994, an archeological park was first built in the village center.The name of Andautonia is derived from the Proto-Indo-European prefix an- ("near") and *dheu̯- ("to flow"), meaning "a place by the river".Arduinna
In Gallo-Roman religion, Arduinna (also Arduina, Arduinnae or Arduinne) was the eponymous tutelary goddess of the Ardennes Forest and region, thought to be represented as a huntress riding a boar (primarily in the present-day regions of Belgium and Luxembourg). Her cult originated in the Ardennes region of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. She was identified with the Roman goddess Diana.August Wilhelm Zumpt
August Wilhelm Zumpt (4 December 1815 – 22 April 1877 in Berlin) was a German classical scholar, known chiefly in connection with Latin epigraphy. He was a nephew of philologist Karl Gottlob Zumpt.
Born in Königsberg, Zumpt studied at the University of Berlin (1832–36). From 1839 to 1851, he was a professor at Friedrich Werder Gymnasium (Berlin), afterwards working as a professor at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Gymnasium under the direction of Karl Ferdinand Ranke. He travelled extensively during his career; England (1845, 1860), Italy (1851, 1857, 1864), Greece, Egypt, Palestine and Asia Minor (1871–72).His papers on epigraphy (collected in "Commentationes epigraphicae", 2 vols., 1850, 1854) brought him into conflict with Theodor Mommsen in connexion with the preparation of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, a scheme for which, drawn up by Mommsen, was approved in 1847.Bartolomeo Borghesi
Bartolomeo (also Bartolommeo) Borghesi (11 July 1781 – 16 April 1860) was an Italian antiquarian who was a key figure in establishing the science of numismatics.
He was born at Savignano, near Rimini, and studied at Bologna and Rome. Having weakened his eyesight by the study of documents of the Middle Ages, he turned his attention to epigraphy and numismatics. At Rome he arranged and cataloged several collections of coins, amongst them those of the Vatican, a task which he undertook for Pope Pius VII. In consequence of the disturbances of 1821, Borghesi retired to San Marino, where he died in 1860.Although mainly an enthusiastic student, he was for some time podestà of the little republic. His monumental work, Nuovi Frammenti dei Fasti Consolari Capitolini (1818–1820), attracted the attention of the learned world as furnishing positive bases for the chronology of Roman history, while his contributions to Italian archaeological journals established his reputation as a numismatist and antiquarian.Before his death, Borghesi conceived the design of publishing a collection of all the Latin inscriptions of the Roman world. The work was taken up by the Academy of Berlin under the auspices of Theodor Mommsen, and the result was the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Napoleon III ordered the publication of a complete edition of the works of Borghesi. This edition, in ten volumes, of which the first appeared in 1862, was not completed until 1897.Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities
The Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities (German: Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften), abbreviated BBAW, is the official academic society for the natural sciences and humanities for the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg. Housed in three locations in and around Berlin, Germany, the BBAW is the largest non-university humanities research institute in the region.The BBAW was constituted in 1992 by formal treaty between the governments of Berlin and Brandenburg on the basis of several older academies, including the historic Prussian Academy of Sciences from 1700 and East Germany's Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic from 1946. By this tradition, past members include the Brothers Grimm, Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt, Lise Meitner, Theodor Mommsen, Albert Einstein, and Max Planck. Today the BBAW operates as a public law corporation under the auspices of the German National Academy of Sciences, and has over 300 fellows and 250 additional staff members. Its elected scientific membership has included 78 Nobel laureates.The BBAW operates several subsidiary research centers. Projects include compiling large dictionaries; editing texts from ancient, medieval, and modern history; and editing the classical literature from diverse fields. Notable examples include Inscriptiones Graecae, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, the German Dictionary (German: Deutsches Wörterbuch), the Ancient Egyptian Dictionary (Altägyptischen Wörterbuch), the bibliography of works by Alexander von Humboldt, and a scholarly edition of the works of Ludwig Feuerbach.Borvo
In Lusitanian and Celtic polytheism, Borvo (also known variously as Bormo, Bormanus, Bormanicus, Borbanus, Boruoboendua, Vabusoa, Labbonus or Borus) was the Celtic God of Minerals and healing deity associated with bubbling spring water.Eugen Bormann
Eugen Ludwig Bormann (6 October 1842, Hilchenbach – 4 March 1917, Klosterneuburg) was a German-Austrian historian, known for his work in the field of Latin epigraphy.
He studied at the University of Bonn as a pupil of Otto Jahn and Friedrich Ritschl, and at the University of Berlin, where his influences were August Boeckh, Eduard Gerhard and especially Theodor Mommsen. As an employee of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, he spent several years conducting research in Italy. Following military service during the Franco-Prussian War (in which he was badly wounded), he taught courses in classical languages at the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin.In 1881 he was appointed professor of ancient history at the University of Marburg, then in 1885, relocated as a professor to the University of Vienna. Here, he became a member of the Academy of Sciences.He is credited with expansion of the Archäologisch-epigraphische Seminar (Archaeological-epigraphic Seminar), a scholarly entity that was founded by Otto Hirschfeld and Alexander Conze. In addition to his extensive work on the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, he edited the epigraphic material collected from the Roman Limes in Austria (Carnuntum, Lauriacum). With archaeologist Ernst Kalinka, he published a treatise on ancient monuments found in Bulgaria, titled "Antike Denkmäler in Bulgarien".The thoroughfare, Eugen Bormann-Gasse in Vienna Donaustadt (22nd District), is named in his honor.Gargonia (gens)
The gens Gargonia was a minor Roman family during first and second centuries BC. Some of the gens were of equestrian rank, but none appear to have held any curule magistracies.Heia (gens)
The gens Heia was a Roman family at Messana, which appears in history during the final century of the Republic. They were part of the ancient nobility of the city, and at some time became hereditary clientes of the Claudian gens.Hermann Dessau
Hermann Dessau (6 April 1856, Frankfurt am Main – 12 April 1931, Berlin) was a German ancient historian and epigrapher. He is noted for a key work of textual criticism published in 1889 on the Historia Augusta, which uncovered reasons to believe that this surviving text of ancient Roman imperial history had been written under circumstances very different from those previously believed.
He studied at the University of Berlin as a pupil of Theodor Mommsen, receiving his doctorate in 1877 from the University of Strasbourg. On behalf of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) he travelled to Italy and North Africa. In 1884 he was habilitated as a historian in Berlin, where he subsequently became an associate professor (1912) and full professor (1917). From 1900 to 1922 he served as a scientific officer for the Prussian Academy of Sciences.Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae
Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, standard abbreviation ILS, is a three-volume selection of Latin inscriptions edited by Hermann Dessau. The work was published in five parts serially from 1892 to 1916, with numerous reprints. Supporting material and notes are all written in Latin. Inscriptions are organized within chapters (capita, singular caput) by topic, such as funerary inscriptions, or inscriptions pertaining to collegia. Each inscription has an identifying number. Scholars citing a Latin inscription will often provide the ILS number in addition to a reference for the more comprehensive Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL); for example, CIL 12.2.774—ILS 39. A concordance with CIL was published in 1950 (Rome) and 1955 (Berlin).
ILS can also be found cited as Dessau or D.Milliarium of Aiton
Milliarium of Aiton is an ancient Roman milestone (milliarium) discovered in the 1758 in Aiton commune, near Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dating from 108 AD, shortly after the Roman conquest of Dacia, the milestone shows the construction of the road from Potaissa to Napoca, by demand of the Emperor Trajan. It indicates the distance of ten thousand feet (P.M.X.) to Potaissa. This is the first epigraphical attestation of the settlements of Potaissa and Napoca in Roman Dacia.
The complete inscription is: "Imp(erator)/ Caesar Nerva/ Traianus Aug(ustus)/ Germ(anicus) Dacicus/ pontif(ex) maxim(us)/ (sic) pot(estate) XII co(n)s(ul) V/ imp(erator) VI p(ater) p(atriae) fecit/ per coh(ortem) I Fl(aviam) Vlp(iam)/ Hisp(anam) mil(liariam) c(ivium) R(omanorum) eq(uitatam)/ a Potaissa Napo/cam / m(ilia) p(assuum) X". It was recorded in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol.III, the 1627, Berlin, 1863.
This milliarium is an attestation of the road known to be built by Cohors I Hispanorum miliaria.A copy of this milliarium was erected in June 1993 in front of the Turda Post Office (1 Dec. 1918 Street). Another copy exists in the front of the Aiton School.Octavena gens
The gens Octavena was an obscure plebeian family at Rome. The gens is known primarily from a single individual, the jurist Octavenus, cited by a number of later authorities, although several other Octaveni are known from inscriptions.Otto Hirschfeld
Otto Hirschfeld (March 16, 1843 – March 27, 1922) was a German epigraphist and professor of ancient history who was a native of Königsberg.
In 1863 received his doctorate from the University of Königsberg, and in 1869 became a professor at the University of Göttingen. In 1872 he became a professor of classical studies at the University of Prague, and in 1876 a professor of epigraphy and ancient history at the University of Vienna. In 1885 he succeeded Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) as professor of ancient history at the University of Berlin, where he remained until his retirement in 1917.
At Vienna he organized the Archeologic-Epigraphic Seminary with archaeologist Alexander Conze (1831-1914). Hirschfeld edited several volumes of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, in which he largely dealt with inscriptions of Gaul and Germania. Other writings include: Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der römischen Verwaltungsgeschichte (1876), Inscriptiones Galliae Narbonensis Latinae (1888) and Inscriptiones Aquitaniae et Lugdunensis (1899).Prosopographia Imperii Romani
The Prosopographia Imperii Romani, abbreviated PIR, is a collective historical work to establish the prosopography of high-profile people from the Roman empire. The time period covered extends from the Battle of Actium in 31 BC to the reign of Diocletian. The final volume of the second edition, PIR2, vol. IX, V-Z, appeared in November 2015.
The first edition was rapidly achieved and published in Berlin in the line of the great works of scholarship from the historical school of economics which had been successful in achieving the project of a corpus of all the Latin inscriptions, the Corpus inscriptionum latinarum. Led by Elimar Klebs, Hermann Dessau and Paul von Rohden, the first edition of the PIR was edited in three volumes from 1897 to 1898.
The implementation of a second edition was last updated in 1933 for publication in Berlin. The first booklet of the second edition was led by Edmund Groag and Arthur Stein who brought together the letters A and B. The publication was interrupted by World War II while working on the letter F (1943). From 1952 they took the direction of Stein and then Leiva Petersen. After German unification the project found a new dynamic. It was from then on led by K. Wachtel. The fascicle concerning the letter S was then published in 2006, and T in 2009. The index of names and people integral to the PIR was in the meantime made searchable on the website of the PIR.Volume 2 of the PIR includes notes for all the well-known Roman senators, the nobles, and some civil servants not of equestrian rank, such as manumitted imperial freedmen who are attested in the literary tradition. Entries in the PIR are indexed by the initial letter of the name, then by the number of the entry, i.e. Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus corresponds to the entry PIR2 C 973: the 973rd entry under the letter C.
For periods after the third century which the PIR does not cover, there is Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire by A.H.M. Jones, J.R. Martindale, and John Morris.Theodor Mommsen
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist. He was one of the greatest classicists of the 19th century. His work regarding Roman history is still of fundamental importance for contemporary research. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902 for being "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome", after having been nominated by 18 members of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. He was also a prominent German politician, as a member of the Prussian and German parliaments. His works on Roman law and on the law of obligations had a significant impact on the German civil code.Volusia Saturnina
Volusia Saturnina also known from her funeral inscription as Volusia Latina Saturnina was a Roman noble woman that lived in the Roman Empire in the second half of the 1st century BC and first half of the first century.Wilhelm Henzen
Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Henzen (January 24, 1816 – January 27, 1887) was a German philologist and epigraphist born in Bremen.
He studied philology at the Universities of Bonn and Berlin, afterwards traveling to Paris and London, where he furthered his education by becoming fluent in French and English. With Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (1784-1868), he undertook archaeological investigations in Italy and Greece, and in 1842 settled in Rome, where in 1856 he succeeded August Emil Braun (1809-1856) as first secretary of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (German Archaeological Institute). From 1876 onward, he was a member of the Accademia dei Lincei.
Henzen was a leading authority on Latin epigraphy. With Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) and Giovanni Battista de Rossi (1822-1894), he carried out plans for a universal "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum" based on a scheme presented to the Berlin Academy by Mommsen in 1847. Also, he provided a supplemental volume to Johann Caspar von Orelli's collection of Latin inscriptions, "Inscriptionum latinarum collectio" (1856).