Corporate synergy

Corporate synergy refers to a financial benefit that a corporation expects to realize when it merges with or acquires another corporation. Corporate synergy occurs when corporations interact congruently.

This type of synergy is a nearly ubiquitous feature of corporate mergers and acquisitions and is a negotiating point between the buyer and seller that impacts the final price both parties agree to.

Positive synergies arise when the combined corporation will bring about better results than the two independent corporations, as in the saying "the whole is better than the sum of the parts". If the corporations do not do due diligence, negative synergies may arise, in which the corporations would have been better off existing on their own.[1]

Cost

A cost synergy refers to the opportunity of a combined corporate entity to reduce or eliminate expenses associated with running a business. Cost synergies are realized by eliminating positions that are viewed as duplicate within the merged entity. Examples include the headquarters of one of the predecessor companies, certain executives, the human resources department, or other employees of the predecessor companies. This is related to the economic concept of economies of scale. This leads to companies sometimes to try to reduce costs too much and make that their main goal after merging, which was found in the study from McKinsey, a global consultancy making revenues, and therefore suffer due to neglecting day-to-day activities that will bring in revenue.[2] For example, when Kraft took over Cadbury, they tried to reduce costs by shutting down a factory that employed 400 staff. This led to greater problems as Cadbury's staff became uncertain about their job security which resulted in Cadbury's staff changing their attitude to work due to the fears that arose.[3]

Advantages

Managerial synergy

Increase in managerial effectiveness, which is required for the success of a corporation, will result in more innovative ideas that will improve the performance of the corporation as a whole. Synergies therefore result in more creative ideas and people are more likely to take risks due to merging of ideas so there are more innovative solutions brought up compared to working alone Hunt, & Osborn, 1991). Synergy thus results in the strength of one corporation complementing the other.[4] Thus, corporate synergies are able to overcome problems faced by independent firms and are able to reach positions that could take six years if these firms existed independently. Subsidiaries are offered the most advantages.[5]

Tax advantages

The amount of tax a corporation pays is based on the amount of profits so they could merge with a corporation making a loss in order to reduce their tax burden. However this has been discouraged.

Increase in size

Corporate synergies due to mergers result in larger firm size which is perceived as more attractive to some investors as well as a larger firm gives competitive advantage in an industry as higher market share allows firms to be more dominant and able control the market more.[6]

Disadvantages with Corporate Synergy

Managerial biases conflicts with the aims of synergies, This is because executives view that the advantages that synergies bring along is their job so their thinking is therefore distorted and rather than focusing on the most important aspects. This consists of:

Synergy bias

Managers consciously or unconsciously underestimate the costs of the synergy and overestimate the benefits so as to give themselves reason for the organization to go ahead with the synergy whether or not its benefits will outweigh the costs, this is because some executive base their achievement in an organization on this and they therefore make it their most important priority. A 2012 survey by Bain & Company found that overestimating synergies was the second biggest cause of post-deal disappointment.[7]

Parenting bias

Managers compel the business units to cooperate in the synergy. It encourages executive managers to intervene greatly, which could lead to more harm than good.

Skills bias

Managers assume that the know-how that is required for the synergy is within the organization and a lot of the time, this is not the case. This bias comes hand in hand with parenting bias because if you intervene to make synergies occur than you going to assume that your corporation has the skills required thereby overlooking the skills gap. This then makes it difficult for a positive synergy to occur and might then make the joint corporation a waste of resources and cause resulting in a negative synergy.

Upside bias

Executives concentrating on the benefits of the synergy and ignore or overlook their potential drawbacks. “In large part, this upside bias is a natural accompaniment to the synergy bias: if parent managers are inclined to think the best of synergy, they will look for evidence that backs up their position while avoiding evidence to the contrary. “[8]

References

  1. ^ "Synergy". Reference for business.
  2. ^ McClure, Ben (2004-04-19). "Mergers and Acquisitions: Why They Can Fail". www.investopedia.com.
  3. ^ "Kraft and Cadbury: How is it working out?". BBC News. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  4. ^ Williams, Dmitri (7 June 2010). "Synergy Bias: Conglomerates and Promotion in the News". Journal of Broadcasting. 46 (3): 456. doi:10.1207/s15506878jobem4603_8.
  5. ^ Williamson, Peter J.; Verdin, Paul J. (25 February 1992). "Age, Experience and Corporate Synergy: When Are". British Journal of Management. 3 (4): 233. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.1992.tb00047.x.
  6. ^ "Why Firms Merge And The Problem They Cause". www.articlesalley.com. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  7. ^ http://www.bain.com/Images/BAIN_BRIEF_Why_some_merging_companies_become_synergy_overachievers.pdf
  8. ^ Michael, Goold; Andrew, Campbell (September 1998). "Desperately seeking synergy" (PDF). Harvard Business Review: 132–138. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
Anna Kooiman

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Bluprint

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The service was originally launched in 2011 as Craftsy, which primarily focused on offering online video courses on crafts-oriented topics, as well as selling crafts products. Within a year, Craftsy had attracted over half a million enrollments. In 2017, the site was acquired by NBCUniversal; the following year, Craftsy launched a new over-the-top video platform known as Bluprint, which expanded to include other lifestyle-oriented topics beyond crafts, as well as increased synergies with NBCUniversal media properties. Craftsy was merged entirely into Bluprint in January 2019.

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Donaghy's penchant for wealth, power, authority, Republican values, and social status has been acclaimed as a high point of the series and his characterization. Fey intended for the character to serve as an oppositional but complimentary counter to Lemon, expressed through various gender, social, and power dynamics.Baldwin has received two Primetime Emmy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, seven Screen Actors Guild Awards, and one Television Critics Association Award for his portrayal of this character.

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Johnny Mnemonic (film)

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The film was shot on location in Canada, with Toronto and Montreal filling in for the film's Newark and Beijing settings. A number of local sites, including Toronto's Union Station and Montreal's skyline and Jacques Cartier Bridge, feature prominently.

The film premiered in Japan on April 15, 1995, in a longer version (103 mins) that is closer to the director's cut, featuring a score by Mychael Danna and different editing. The film was released in the United States on May 26, 1995.

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Dan Stevens stars as Haller, a mutant diagnosed with schizophrenia at a young age. Also starring in the first season are Rachel Keller as Syd Barrett, Aubrey Plaza as Lenny Busker, Bill Irwin as Cary Loudermilk, Jeremie Harris as Ptonomy Wallace, Amber Midthunder as Kerry Loudermilk, Katie Aselton as Amy Haller, and Jean Smart as Melanie Bird. Aselton returned as Amy briefly in the second season, when Jemaine Clement and Hamish Linklater were promoted from guest roles to series regulars and Navid Negahban joined the cast.

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Recorded at studios in Los Angeles and Massachusetts from 2012 to 2014, the album contains twelve songs, which include parodies of songs by Pharrell Williams, Robin Thicke, Iggy Azalea, Lorde and Imagine Dragons. It also features original songs in the form of pastiche, imitating the styles of the Pixies, Cat Stevens, Foo Fighters, Crosby, Stills & Nash and Southern Culture on the Skids. Yankovic composed the originals first, and wrote parodies last in order for them to be as timely as possible upon the album's release. Many artists reacted positively to being parodied; Williams remarked that he was "honored" to be spoofed by Yankovic, while Imagine Dragons advised Yankovic on how to replicate sounds in their original song.

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Product placement

Product placement, also known as embedded marketing, is a marketing technique where references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent.

While references to brands may be voluntarily incorporated into works to maintain a feeling of realism and/or be a subject of commentary, product placement is the deliberate incorporation of references to a brand or product in exchange for compensation. Product placements may range from unobtrusive appearances within an environment, to prominent integration and acknowledgement of the product within the work. Common categories of products used for placements include automobiles and consumer electronics. Works produced by vertically integrated companies (such as Sony) may use placements to promote their other divisions as a form of corporate synergy.

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Synergy

Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts. The term synergy comes from the Attic Greek word συνεργία synergia from synergos, συνεργός, meaning "working together".

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Aspects of corporations

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