Coronet

In English, a coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. By one definition, a coronet differs from a crown in that a coronet never has arches, and from a tiara in that a coronet completely encircles the head, while a tiara does not. By a slightly different definition, a crown is worn by an emperor, empress, king or queen; a coronet by a nobleman or lady. See also diadem.

In other languages, this distinction is not made as usually the same word for crown is used irrespective of rank (Krone in German, kroon in Dutch, krona in Swedish, couronne in French, etc.)

The main use is now actually not on the head (indeed, many people entitled to a coronet never have one made; the same even applies to some monarchs' crowns, as in Belgium) but as a rank symbol in heraldry, adorning a coat of arms.

Coronet EarlOfDevon PowderhamCastle
Coronet of an Earl (as worn by the 17th Earl of Devon at the Coronation of Elizabeth II and now on display at Powderham Castle)

Etymology

The word stems from the Old French coronete, a diminutive of co(u)ronne ("crown"), itself from the Latin corona (also "wreath"), from the Ancient Greek κορώνη (korōnē, "garland, wreath").

Traditionally, such headgear is – as indicated by the German equivalent Adelskrone (literally "crown of nobility") – used by nobles and by princes and princesses in their coats of arms, rather than by monarchs, for whom the word crown is customarily reserved in formal English, while many languages have no such terminological distinction. Other than a crown, a coronet shows the rank of the respective noble. Hence, in German and Scandinavian languages there is also the term Rangkrone.

For equivalents, both physical and emblematic, in other languages and cultures, see under crown (headgear).

Commonwealth usage

St Mary Magdalene, Croome, Worcs - Memorial to 4th Baron Coventry (1654–1687) coronet
Depiction of a baron's coronet on a 17th-century funerary monument

In the United Kingdom, a peer wears his or her coronet on one occasion only: for a royal coronation, when it is worn along with coronation robes, equally standardised as a luxurious uniform.

In the peerages of the United Kingdom, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German, French and various other heraldic traditions. Dukes were the first individuals authorised to wear coronets. Marquesses acquired coronets in the 15th century, earls in the 16th and viscounts and barons in the 17th. Until the barons received coronets in 1661, the coronets of earls, marquesses and dukes were engraved while those of viscounts were plain. After 1661, however, viscomital coronets became engraved, while baronial coronets were plain. Coronets may not bear any precious or semi-precious stones.[1]

  • The coronet of a duke (a silver-gilt circlet, chased as jewelled but not actually gemmed) has eight strawberry leaves of which five are seen in two-dimensional representations;
  • The coronet of a marquess has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls (known as "pearls", but not actually pearls), slightly raised on points above the rim, of which three leaves and two balls are seen;
  • The coronet of a earl has eight strawberry leaves (four visible) and eight "pearls" raised on stalks, of which five are visible (an example of one actually being worn can be seen here [1]);
  • The coronet of a viscount has sixteen "pearls" touching one another, nine being seen in representation; and
  • The coronet of a baron or Lord of Parliament in the Scots peerage (a plain silver-gilt circlet) has six "pearls" of which four are visible.

Since a person entitled to wear a coronet customarily displays it in his or her coat of arms above the shield and below the helm and crest, this can provide a useful clue as to the owner of a given coat of arms. In Canadian heraldry, descendants of the United Empire Loyalists are entitled to use a Loyalist military coronet (for descendants of members of Loyalist regiments) or Loyalist civil coronet (for others) in their arms.

Royal usage

Coronet of the British Heir Apparent
The crown of the British Heir Apparent

Members of the British Royal Family often have coronets on their coats of arms, and may wear actual coronets at coronations (e.g., Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret at the 1937 coronation of their father as George VI). They were made, according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661, shortly after his return from exile in France (getting a taste for its lavish court style; Louis XIV started monumental work at Versailles that year) during the Restoration. They vary depending upon the prince's relationship to the monarch. Occasionally, additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals. The most recent (and most comprehensive) royal warrant concerning coronets was the 19 November 1917 warrant of George V.[2]

Rather than a coronet, the heir apparent receives a crown with a single arch.

There is evidence to support the wearing of coronets amongst Welsh royalty and nobility, particularly in the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Llywelyn's coronet was for a while kept with the English crown jewels.

British coronet rankings

Coronet of a Child of the Sovereign

Prince or Princess – son or daughter of a sovereign; also brother or sister of the sovereign

Coronet of a Child of the Heir Apparent

Prince or Princess – children of the Heir Apparent

Coronet of a Grandchild of the Sovereign

Prince or Princess – children of sons of a Sovereign

Coronet of a Child of a Daughter of the Sovereign

Children of a daughter of a Sovereign [3]

Coronet of a British Baron

Baron or Lord of Parliament in the Scots peerage

Crown of a British King of Arms

English King of Arms

Military Coronet of a Loyalist

Loyalists military coronet (Canadian)

Civil Coronet of a Loyalist

Loyalists civil coronet (Canadian)

Danish coronet rankings

Crown of a Prince of Denmark

Not hereditary Prince or Princess

T06 Danish Nobility

Crown of Nobility

Spanish coronet rankings

All over the world, Spanish heraldry has used these crowns and coronets:

Crown of Spanish Infantes for the Aragonese Terriories

Infante or Infanta
(Variant for the Spanish territories of the former Crown of Aragon)

Heraldic Crown of Spanish Dukes (Variant 1)

Duke

Heraldic Crown of Spanish Marqueses (Variant 1)

Marquis

Heraldic Crown of Spanish Count

Count

Heraldic Crown of Spanish Barons

Baron

Heraldic Crown of Spanish Lords

Señor / Don (Spanish Lord)

Heraldic Crown of Hispanic Hidalgos

Hidalgo (Spanish Nobleman)

Heraldic Crown of a Spanish King of Arms

Spanish Officer of Arms (Herald and Pursuivant / Persevante)

Swedish coronet rankings

Coronet of Carl of Sweden (1748) & subsequent Princes 2014
The coronet of a Swedish duke (always a Swedish prince).
Coronet of the Crown Prince of Sweden

Heir Apparent

Obetitlad adel

Crown of Nobility

Former monarchies

Kingdom of France usage

This hierarchy among the French nobility, which was identical for non-royal titles to the British hierarchy of peers, should not be understood to be as rigid in the ranking of titleholders as the latter. In particular, title was not a good indication of actual preeminence or precedence: Ancestry, marriages, high office, military rank and the family's historical renown (as documented, e.g., in the Honneurs de la Cour or in Père Anselme's histories of the nobility) counted far more than the precise title. Some distinguished families held no higher title than count or even baron, but were proud of their ancient origin. Moreover, most of the nobility was legally untitled, some hereditary titles could be acquired by a nobleman who purchased a "titled" fief, while titres de courtoisie were freely assumed in the absence of strict regulation by the French crown and became more numerous than titles legally borne. As an example, the title of marquis ranks in principle immediately after duke, but was so ridiculed by the late 18th century (cf. the phrase "petit marquis" meaning a presumptuous and vain person) that Napoleon omitted it from his own scale of titles. It should also be noted that, in the 17th and 18th centuries, people assumed and used freely coronets of ranks that they did not have; and, in the 19th and 20th centuries abuse was still made of "courtesy titles". Titles continued to be granted until the Second Empire fell in 1870, and legally survive among their descendants.

The only title that was never usurped under the ancien régime, and rarely without some excuse afterwards, was the title of duc, because it was so often attached to the rank peer of France, which carried specific legal prerogatives such as the right to a seat in the Parlement of Paris. As a result, the title of duc was actually, as well as nominally, at the top of the scale after the royal family and foreign princes, and a cut above all of the other nobility.

Prince: this was not a title in Old Regime France, but a rank, hence there was no coronet.

  • Roi: closed crown of fleurs-de-lis (the crown was open until the early 16th century).
  • Dauphin (or heir apparent): initially an open crown of fleurs-de-lis; starting with Henri IV's son (1601–10), the crown is closed with dolphins instead of arches.
  • Fils de France et Petit-Fils de France (children and grandchildren of a sovereign): open coronet of fleurs-de-lis.
  • Prince du Sang (Prince of the Blood – descended in male line from a sovereign): first a coronet alternating fleurs-de-lis and acanthus leaves (called strawberry leaves in English blazon), e.g., on François de Montpensier's coinage in Dombes, c. 1575. In the 17th and 18th centuries they used a coronet of fleurs-de-lis like the enfants de France. The legitimized princes (descended from legitimized children of sovereigns) ranked immediately after the princes of the blood (from 1694 to 1717 and from 1723 onward), and were given the same coronet.
  • Pair de France (Peer of the Realm): a coronet of the title (usually duke) with a crimson velvet cap, a mantle armoyé (reproducing the arms) fringed with gold and lined with ermine.
  • Duc (duke): a coronet of acanthus leaves.
  • Marquis: a coronet of alternating acanthus leaves and groups of three pearls in trefoil (or two pearls side by side in some versions).
  • Comte (count): a coronet of pearls.
  • Vicomte (viscounts): 4 large pearls (3 visible) alternating with smaller pearls.
  • Vidame (a peculiar French title, for protectors of the temporal estates of a bishopric): a small coronet with 4 crosses (3 visible).
  • Baron: a circle of gold wreathed with a string of small pearls.
  • Chevalier (knight): coronet, but a helm.
  • Ecuyer (squire): no coronet, but a helm. Helms were reserved for nobles, titled or untitled, by the 16th century regulations that were universally ignored. In principle, a helm without coronet indicated an untitled noble, chevalier or écuyer (on this distinction, see a discussion of the French nobility).
Royal Crown of France

Roi

Crown of a Duke of France

Duc (Peer)

Crown of a Duke of France (variant)

Duc

Crown of a Marquis of France

Marquis (Peer)

Crown of a Count of France

Comte (Peer)

Old Crown of a Count (France & Belgium)

Comte (older variant)

Crown of a Chevalier of France

Chevalier

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire, and consequently its successor states (Austria, Germany and others), had a system very similar to that of the British, although the design varied.

  • Herzogskrone: the coronet of a Herzog (duke) displays five visible leaves, with a crimson bonnet on top, surmounted by five visible arches and a globus cruciger.
  • Fürstenkrone: the coronet of a Fürst (prince) shows five visible leaves, with a crimson bonnet on top, surmounted by three visible arches and a globus cruciger.
  • Landgrafenkrone: the coronet of a Landgraf (landgrave) shows five visible leaves, surmounted by three visible arches and a globus cruciger.
  • Grafenkrone: the coronet of a Graf (count) displays nine visible tines with pearls. Some of the senior comital houses used coronets showing five leaves and four pearls (some mediatized counties and minor principalities had other types of coronets that distinguished them from regular counts).
  • Freiherrnkrone: the coronet of a Freiherr (baron) shows seven visible tines with pearls.
  • Adelskrone: the coronet of Adel members (untitled nobility) displays five visible tines with pearls. Sometimes, the central and outer tines are leaves and the other tines are headed by pearls. In the southern states of Bavaria and Württemberg, usually all tines are headed by pearls.
T09 Herzog

Herzogskrone

T12 Fürst

Fürstenkrone

T10 Landgraf

Landgrafenkrone

Rangkronen-Fig. 18

Grafenkrone

Rangkronen-Fig. 27

Freiherrnkrone

Rangkronen-Fig. 37

Adelskrone

Considering the religious nature of the Holy Roman Empire, one can say that, except for the short-lived Napoleonic states, no continental secular system of heraldry historically was so neatly regulated as under the British crown. Still, there are often traditions (often connected to the Holy Roman Empire, e.g., those in Sweden, Denmark or Russia) that include the use of crown and coronets. While most languages do not have a specific term for coronets, but simply use the word meaning crown, it is possible to determine which of those crowns are for peerage or lower-level use, and thus can by analogy be called coronets.

Precisely because there are many traditions and more variation within some of these, there is a plethora of continental coronet types. Indeed, there are also some coronets for positions that do not exist or entitle one to a coronet in the Commonwealth tradition. Such a case in French (ancien, i.e., royal era) heraldry, where coronets of rank did not come into use before the 16th century, is the vidame, whose coronet (illustrated) is a metal circle mounted with three visible crosses (there is no documentary or archeological evidence that such a coronet was ever made).

Often, coronets are substituted by helmets, or only worn on a helmet.

Kingdom of Portugal coronet rankings

These coronets and crowns were used in Portuguese heraldry:

Crown of the Heir Apparent of the Kingdom of Portugal

Prince (Heir Apparent)

Crown of the Prince of Beira

Prince of Beira
(Heir Apparent´s eldest son)

Coronet of a Infante - Kingdom of Portugal

Infante (Prince)

See also

References

  1. ^ Cox, Noel (1999). "The Coronets of Members of the Royal Family and of the Peerage." The Double Tressure, the Journal of The Heraldry Society of Scotland. No. 22, pp. 8–13. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  2. ^ 1917 royal warrant
  3. ^ Cox, Noel The Coronets of Members of the Royal Family and of the Peerage. Originally published in (1999) 22 The Double Tressure, the Journal of The Heraldry Society of Scotland 8-13. Acceded 8 April 2017

Sources and external links

1955 Dodge

The 1955 Dodge lineup, consisting of the entry-level Coronet, Royal, and ornate Custom Royal, was a major departure for the company. Driven almost out of business in 1953 and 1954, the Chrysler Corporation was revived with a $250 million loan from Prudential and new models designed by Virgil Exner. The Dodge lineup was positioned as the mainstream line in Chrysler's hierarchy, between DeSoto and Plymouth.

Archducal hat of Joseph II

The archducal hat of Joseph II is an imperial insignia of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Coronet (magazine)

Coronet was a general interest digest magazine published from October 23, 1936, to at least March 1971 and ran for 299 issues. Coronet magazine continued publication under some form and ownership through at least September 1976, an issue with actress Angie Dickinson on the cover. The magazine was owned by Esquire and published by David A. Smart from 1936 to 1961.

Coronet (yacht)

Coronet, is a 131' wooden-hull schooner yacht built for oil tycoon Rufus T. Bush in 1885. It is one of the oldest and largest vessels of its type in the world, and one of the last grand sailing yachts of the 19th century extant. After numerous owners and decades of neglect, it underwent an extensive restoration at Newport, Rhode Island's, The International Yacht Restoration School beginning in 2010.

Coronet Books

Coronet Books was established in 1966 as the paperback imprint of Hodder & Stoughton. The imprint was closed in 2004, but then re-launched in 2010 publishing fiction and non-fiction in hardback and paperback, including works by Chris Ryan, Lorna Byrne, and Auberon Waugh.

Coronet large cent

The Coronet large cent was a type of large cent issued by the United States Mint in Philadelphia from 1816 until 1839.

There are two similar designs of the Coronet large cent, the Matron Head and the Braided Hair, the latter with a slightly altered profile. This was the last large cent produced by the mint, being replaced by the reduced diameter Flying Eagle cent in 1857.

Coronet of Charles, Prince of Wales

The Coronet of Charles, Prince of Wales is a small crown that is part of the Honours of Wales. The gold coronet, with diamonds set in platinum, was made for and used by Prince Charles at his investiture as Prince of Wales in 1969. Designed by the artist Louis Osman, the coronet was a gift from the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths to the Prince's mother, Queen Elizabeth II. It has been described as modern but its form is traditional. The coronet is in storage along with the other Welsh regalia at St James's Palace, London.

Crown (heraldry)

A crown is often an emblem of a sovereign state, usually a monarchy (see The Crown), but also used by some republics.

A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium.

Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees.

A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the coat of arms of Norway.

Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn at their coronations by British kings and queens.Symbols of 800 years of monarchy, the coronation regalia are the only working set in Europe – other present-day monarchies have abandoned coronations in favour of secular ceremonies – and the collection is the most historically complete of any regalia in the world. Objects used to invest and crown the monarch variously denote his or her roles as head of state, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, and head of the British armed forces. They feature heraldic devices and national emblems of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and recent pieces were designed to reflect the monarch's role as Head of the Commonwealth.

Use of regalia by monarchs in England can be traced back to when it was converted to Christianity in the Middle Ages. A permanent set of coronation regalia, once belonging to Edward the Confessor, was established after he was made a saint in the 12th century. They were holy relics kept at Westminster Abbey – venue of coronations since 1066. Another set was used at religious feasts and State Openings of Parliament. Collectively, these objects came to be known as the Jewels of the Crown. Most of the present collection dates from around 350 years ago when Charles II ascended the throne. The medieval and Tudor regalia had been sold or melted down after the monarchy was abolished in 1649 during the English Civil War. Only four original items pre-date the Restoration: a late 12th-century anointing spoon (the oldest object) and three early 17th-century swords. Upon the Acts of Union 1707, the English Crown Jewels were adopted by British monarchs; the Scottish regalia are known today as the Honours of Scotland.

The regalia contain 23,578 stones, among them Cullinan I (530 carats (106 g)), the largest clear cut diamond in the world, set in the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross. It was cut from the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found, the Cullinan, discovered in South Africa in 1905 and presented to Edward VII. On the Imperial State Crown are Cullinan II (317 carats (63 g)), the Stuart Sapphire, St Edward's Sapphire, and the Black Prince's Ruby – a large spinel given to Edward the Black Prince by a Spanish king in 1367. The Koh-i-Noor diamond (105 carats (21 g)), originally from India, was acquired by Queen Victoria and has featured on three consort crowns. A small number of historical objects at the Tower are either empty or set with glass and crystals.

At a coronation the monarch is anointed using holy oil poured from an ampulla into the spoon, invested with robes and ornaments, and crowned with St Edward's Crown. Afterwards, it is exchanged for the lighter Imperial State Crown, which is also usually worn at State Openings of Parliament. Wives of kings are invested with a plainer set of regalia, and since 1831 a new crown has been made specially for each queen consort. Also regarded as Crown Jewels are state swords, trumpets, ceremonial maces, church plate, historical regalia, banqueting plate, and royal christening fonts. They are part of the Royal Collection and belong to the institution of monarchy, passing from one sovereign to the next. When not in use the Jewels are on public display in the Jewel House and Martin Tower where they are seen by 2.5 million visitors every year.

Dodge Coronet

The Coronet is an automobile that was marketed by Dodge as a full-size car in the 1950s, initially the division's highest trim line but, starting in 1955, the lowest trim line. From the 1965 to 1975 model years the name was on intermediate-sized models. A coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring.

Eugene O'Neill Theatre

The Eugene O'Neill Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 230 West 49th Street in midtown Manhattan. The O’Neill Theatre, named after playwright Eugene O’Neill, is owned and operated by Jujamcyn Theaters. The house can accommodate up to 1108 guests and has been home to big hits, Big River, Spring Awakening, and the long-running 2011 Tony Award Best Musical winner, The Book of Mormon.

Jollibee

Jollibee is a Filipino multinational chain of fast food restaurants owned by Jollibee Foods Corporation (JFC). As of April 2018, JFC had a total of about 1,200 Jollibee outlets worldwide; with presence in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, East Asia (Hong Kong, Macau), North America, Europe (Italy, UK).

Jonkheer

Jonkheer (female equivalent: jonkvrouw; French: Écuyer) is an honorific in the Low Countries denoting the lowest rank within the nobility. In the Netherlands, this in general concerns a prefix used by the untitled nobility. In Belgium, this is the lowest title within the nobility system, recognised by the Court of Cassation. It is the cognate and equivalent of the German noble honorific Junker, which was historically used throughout the German-speaking part of Europe, and to some extent also within Scandinavia.

Mount Brazeau

Mount Brazeau is a mountain in Alberta, Canada.

The mountain is located in the upper Coronet Creek Valley of Jasper National Park, and stands west of the Coronet Glacier and south of Maligne Lake. The mountain was named in 1902 by Arthur P. Coleman after Joseph Edward Brazeau, who had provided his translation skills to the Palliser expedition.

Norwegian Crown Prince's Coronet

The coronet of Crown prince is one of the Norwegian Royal Regalia.

The coronet was made in 1846, designed by Johannes Flintoe based on a crown dating from the Middle Ages, and commissioned to the goldsmith Herman Colbjørnsen Øyset. It was originally made for Crown Prince Carl of Sweden, future King Charles XV. It was meant to be used by Carl when his parents Oscar I and Josephine were crowned, but the ceremony never took place. It is the only piece of Norway's coronation regalia to be made entirely within Norway, and it has never been worn. It is a crown of the open type with spikes. It weighs a little over 1 kg, and contains a green peridot, freshwater pearls and an amethyst.

Operation Downfall

Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of the Japanese Home Islands near the end of World War II. The planned operation was canceled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet declaration of war and the invasion of Manchuria. The operation had two parts: Operation Olympic and Operation Coronet. Set to begin in November 1945, Operation Olympic was intended to capture the southern third of the southernmost main Japanese island, Kyūshū, with the recently captured island of Okinawa to be used as a staging area. Later, in the spring of 1946, Operation Coronet was the planned invasion of the Kantō Plain, near Tokyo, on the main Japanese island of Honshu. Airbases on Kyūshū captured in Operation Olympic would allow land-based air support for Operation Coronet. If Downfall had taken place, it would have been the largest amphibious operation in history.Japan's geography made this invasion plan quite obvious to the Japanese as well; they were able to accurately predict the Allied invasion plans and thus adjust their defensive plan, Operation Ketsugō, accordingly. The Japanese planned an all-out defense of Kyūshū, with little left in reserve for any subsequent defense operations. Casualty predictions varied widely, but were extremely high. Depending on the degree to which Japanese civilians would have resisted the invasion, estimates ran up into the millions for Allied casualties.

Print Room (theatre)

The Coronet Theatre is an Off West End theatre located in the old Coronet Cinema in London, England. The company was founded in Westbourne Grove, West London, and opened in September 2010. It produces a programme of theatre, art, dance, poetry, film and music. The theatre is run by Artistic Director Anda Winters.The theatre began in a converted 1950s warehouse which had served as a graphic design workshop in Westbourne Grove. The venue had two spaces: an 80-seater studio, which was used for its larger productions, and a 40-seater space for smaller theatre pieces, play readings and art exhibitions.

In July 2014, it was announced that the Print Room was taking over the Coronet Cinema in Notting Hill Gate as its new home. In May 2019, Print Room at the Coronet re-branded the company to the original 1898 name The Coronet Theatre.

The Coronet Theatre has a 195-seat main auditorium, and a smaller, 100-seat black box theatre and studio space named The Print Room.The Coronet Theatre stages lesser-known work by classic authors such as T.S Eliot, Arthur Miller and Harold Pinter, and new works by contemporary dramatists such as Brian Friel and Will Eno.

Torse

In heraldry, a torse or wreath is a twisted roll of fabric laid about the top of the helmet and the base of the crest. It has the dual purpose of masking the join between helm and crest, and holding the mantling in place.

The torse is sometimes mistakenly said to be the token, such as a handkerchief or sleeve, which the knight's lady-love gave him to wear when he left for the wars or participated in tournaments. This is due greatly to its original use being lost to history as the heraldic crest became more and more stylized and less representative of actual use.

The torse is blazoned as part of the crest. For example, the crest of Canada is blazoned On a wreath of the colours Argent and Gules, a lion passant guardant Or imperially crowned proper and holding in the dexter paw a maple leaf Gules. The tinctures of the torse are generally not mentioned in the blazon, as they are assumed to be of the principal metal and colour in the shield. Like the mantling, it must always be of a metal and a colour; usually the torse and the mantling are the same tinctures. In British heraldry, the torse is generally shown with six twists of material, alternately metal and colour.Occasionally the torse is replaced by a crown or coronet, which is then termed a "crest-coronet". In the past this practice was widespread amongst all ranks, but is nowadays usually denied to those outside the royalty and peerage, except in special circumstances. Some commoners have bypassed this rule by placing a coronet on top of a torse, rather than in place of it.

The torse is also often used as a decoration on a heraldic animal, either across the brow (as a form of circlet) or around the neck. Moors and Saracens are also traditionally depicted in heraldry with a torse across their brow.

Viscount

A viscount ( (listen) VY-kownt, for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status. In many countries a viscount, and its historical equivalents, was a non-hereditary, administrative or judicial position, and did not develop into an hereditary title until much later. In the case of French viscounts, it is customary to leave the title untranslated as vicomte [vi.kɔ̃t] and vicomtesse.

Types of crowns
By rank
By use
By form
Parts
Officials
Types
Charges
of
heraldic
achieve-
ments

(List)

See also:
Canting
Alliance
(Courtesy)
Funerary
Tinctures
Rules
Tricking
Hatching
Fimbriation

(with black and
white rendering)
External
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See also

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