Coroner

A coroner may conduct or order an inquest into the manner or cause of death, and investigate or confirm the identity of an unknown person who has been found dead within the coroner's jurisdiction.

In medieval times, English coroners were Crown officials who held financial powers and conducted some judicial investigations in order to counterbalance the power of sheriffs.

The word coroner derives from the same source as the word crown, and it is believed to denote an officer of the Crown.

Duties and functions

Responsibilities of the coroner may include overseeing the investigation and certification of deaths related to mass disasters that occur within the coroner's jurisdiction. A coroner's office typically maintains death records of those who have died within the coroner's jurisdiction.

Depending on the jurisdiction, the coroner may adjudge the cause of death personally, or may act as the presiding officer of a special court (a "coroner's jury"). The office of coroner originated in medieval England[1][2] [3] and has been adopted in many countries whose legal systems have at some time been subject to English or United Kingdom law. The additional roles that a coroner may oversee in judicial investigations may be subject to the attainment of suitable legal and medical qualifications. The qualifications required of a coroner vary significantly between jurisdictions, and are described under the entry for each jurisdiction. Coroners, medical examiners, and forensic pathologists are different professions.[4] They have different roles and responsibilities.

In Middle English, the word "coroner" referred to an officer of the Crown, derived from the French couronne and Latin corona, meaning "crown".[5]

History

The office of the coroner dates from approximately the 11th century, shortly after the Norman conquest of England in 1066.

The office of coroner was formally established in England by Article 20 of the "Articles of Eyre" in September 1194 to "keep the pleas of the Crown" (Latin, custos placitorum coronae) from which the word "coroner" is derived.[6] This role provided a local county official whose primary duty was to protect the financial interest of the Crown in criminal proceedings. The office of coroner is, "in many instances, a necessary substitute: for if the sheriff is interested in a suit, or if he is of affinity with one of the parties to a suit, the coroner must execute and return the process of the courts of justice."[7] This role was qualified in Chapter 24 of Magna Carta in 1215, which states: "No sheriff, constable, coroner or bailiff shall hold pleas of our Crown." "Keeping the pleas" was an administrative task, while "holding the pleas" was a judicial one that was not assigned to the locally resident coroner but left to judges who traveled around the country holding assize courts. The role of custos rotulorum or keeper of the county records became an independent office, which after 1836 was held by the lord-lieutenant of each county.

The person who found a body from a death thought sudden or unnatural was required to raise the "hue and cry" and to notify the coroner.[8] While coronial manuals written for sheriffs, bailiffs, justices of the peace and coroners were published in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, handbooks specifically written for coroners were distributed in England in the eighteenth century.[9]

Coroners were introduced into Wales following its military conquest by Edward I of England in 1282 through the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284.

Coroners by country (region)

Australia

Australian coroners are responsible for investigating and determining the cause of death for those cases reported to them. In all states and territories, a coroner is a magistrate with legal training, and is attached to a local court. Four states – New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia – also have state coroners and specialised coronial courts. In Tasmania, the Chief Magistrate also acts as the state coroner.[10]

Canada

In Canada the officer responsible for investigating all unnatural and natural unexpected, unexplained, or unattended deaths goes under the title "coroner" or "medical examiner" depending on location.[11] While the title differs, however, they act in similar capacities. They do not determine civil or criminal responsibility, but instead make and offer recommendations to improve public safety and prevention of death in similar circumstances.

Coroner or Medical Examiner services are under the jurisdiction of provincial or territorial governments, generally within the public safety and security or justice portfolio. These services are headed by a Chief Coroner (or Chief Medical Examiner) and comprise coroners or medical examiners appointed by the executive council.

The provinces of Alberta,[12] Manitoba,[13] Nova Scotia[14] and Newfoundland and Labrador[15] have a Medical Examiner system, meaning that all death investigations are conducted by specialist physicians trained in Forensic Pathology, with the assistance of other medical and law enforcement personnel. All other provinces run on a coroner system. In Prince Edward Island, and Ontario, all coroners are, by law, physicians. In the other provinces and territories with a coroner system, namely British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Quebec, New Brunswick, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon, coroners are not necessarily physicians but generally have legal, medical, or investigative backgrounds.

Hong Kong

The Coroner's Court is responsible to inquire into the causes and circumstances of some deaths. The Coroner is a judicial officer who has the power to:

  • Grant:
    • Burial orders
    • Cremation orders
    • Waivers of autopsy
    • Autopsy orders
    • Exhumation orders
    • Orders to remove dead bodies outside Hong Kong
  • Order police investigations of death
  • Order inquests
  • Approve removal and use of body parts of the dead body
  • Issue certificates of fact of death

The Coroner makes orders after considering the pathologist's report.

Ireland

The Coroners Service is a network of Coroners situated across Ireland, usually covering areas based on Ireland's traditional counties.[16] They are appointed by local authorities as independent experts and must be either qualified doctors or lawyers.[17] Their primary function is to investigate any sudden, unexplained, violent or unnatural death in order to allow a death certificate to be issued. Any death due to unnatural causes will require an inquest to be held.[17]

New Zealand

Two coronial services operate in New Zealand. The older one deals only with deaths before midnight of 30 June 2007 that remain under investigation. The new system operates under the Coroners Act 2006, which:

  • Established the office of the chief coroner to provide leadership and coordination
  • Moved to a smaller number of full-time legally-qualified coroners who are Judges of the Coroners Court
  • Ensured families are notified of significant steps in the coronial process
  • Introduced wide-ranging cultural matters to be considered in all aspects of dealing with the dead body
  • Introduced a specific regime for attention and release of body parts and body samples
  • Enhanced inquiry and inquest processes[18]

Poland

In Poland, a coroner is a forensic doctor (colloquially called a forensic medicine), whose job is to legally identify patients who died. As a separate profession, it has existed since 2002, its introduction aimed to relieve home doctors and emergency physicians, as well as to prevent funeral corruption and corpses. The coroner is bound by business secret.

The responsibilities of the city coroner working on behalf of the city authorities in Poland include: declaring death, assessing the causes of death (natural or criminal), issuing relevant documents and keeping records.

A family doctor may also be called to declare a death. In the event of an emergency, the doctor diagnoses an ambulance from the ambulance service. Doctors who have the legal right to declare death cooperate with funeral institutions.

The position of the first coroners was chosen in Łódź for experienced forensic doctors, who are on call and cooperating with the ambulance service, will be notified of evidental death reports to go to the indicated address. Just in case, the coroners were also equipped with the apparatus necessary to provide first aid.

The widespread employment of coroners requires adjusting the relevant provisions regulating who may, according to the law in force, make an act of finding a human death. It is believed that forensic doctors have appropriate education and professional practice to perform the function of coroners.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the Ministry of Justice appoints Inquirers into Sudden Deaths under the Code of Criminal Procedure to carryout an inquest into the death of a sudden, unexpected and suspicious nature. Some large cities such as Colombo and Kandy have a City Coroners' Court attached to the main city hospital, with a Coroner and Additional Coroner.

United Kingdom

Overview

In the United Kingdom a coroner is an independent judicial office holder, appointed and paid for by the relevant local authority. The Ministry of Justice, which is headed by the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice has the responsibility for the coronial law and policy only, and no operational responsibility.[19] There are separate services for England and Wales, and for Northern Ireland. A different system applies in Scotland, which does not have a coroner service. The coroner service in England and Wales is supervised by the Chief Coroner, a judge appointed by the Lord Chief Justice after consulting the Lord Chancellor. He provides advice, guidance and training to coroners and aims to secure uniformity of practice throughout England and Wales. The post is currently part-time. The present Chief Coroner is Judge Mark Lucraft QC, who is one of the judges sitting at the Central Criminal Court. He has also been appointed a deputy judge of the High Court, and as such he normally sits as a member of the bench when that court has occasion to hold a judicial review of an inquest. England and Wales are divided into coroner districts by the Lord Chancellor, each district consisting of the area or areas of one or more local authorities. The relevant local authority, with the consent of the Chief Coroner and the Lord Chancellor, must appoint a Senior Coroner for the district. It must also appoint Area Coroners (in effect deputies to the Senior Coroner) and Assistant Coroners, to the number that the Lord Chancellor considers necessary in view of the physical character and population of the district. The cost of the coroner service for the district falls upon the local authority or authorities concerned, and thus ultimately upon the local inhabitants.

Jurisdiction

The majority of deaths are not investigated by the coroner. If the deceased has been under medical care, or has been seen by a doctor within 14 days of death, then the doctor can issue a death certificate. However if the deceased died without being seen by a doctor, or if they are unwilling to make a determination, the coroner will investigate the cause and manner of death. The coroner will also investigate when a death is deemed violent or unnatural, where the cause is unknown, where a death is the result of poisoning or industrial injury, or if it occurred in police custody or prison. Any person aware of a dead body lying in the district of a coroner has a duty to report it to the coroner; failure to do so is an offence. This can include bodies brought into England or Wales.[20][21]

The coroner has a team of Coroner's Officers (previously often ex-police officers, but increasingly from a nursing or other paramedical background) who carry out the investigation on the coroner's behalf. A coroner's investigation may involve a simple review of the circumstances, ordering a post-mortem examination, or they may decide that an inquest is appropriate. When a person dies in the custody of the legal authorities (in police cells, or in prison), an inquest must be held. In England, inquests are usually heard without a jury (unless the coroner wants one). However, a case in which a person has died under the control of central authority must have a jury, as a check on the possible abuse of governmental power.[20][21]

The coroner's court is a court of law, and accordingly, the coroner may summon witnesses. Those found lying are guilty of perjury.

Additional powers of the coroner may include the power of subpoena and attachment, the power of arrest, the power to administer oaths, and sequester juries of six during inquests.

Coroners also have a role in treasure trove cases. This role arose from the ancient duty of the coroner as a protector of the property of the Crown. It is now contained in the Treasure Act 1996. This jurisdiction is no longer exercised by local coroners, but by specialist "Coroners for Treasure" appointed by the Chief Coroner.

Qualification

To become a coroner in England and Wales the applicant must be a qualified lawyer (solicitor/barrister), or a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives (CILEx), with at least 5 years' qualified experience. [22] This reflects the role of a coroner: to determine the cause of death of a deceased in cases where the death was sudden, unexpected, occurred abroad, was suspicious in any way, or happened while the person was under the control of central authority (e.g., in police custody). Until 2013 a qualified medical practitioner could be appointed, but that is no longer possible. Any medical coroner still in office will either have been appointed before 2013, or, exceptionally, will hold both medical and legal qualifications.

Formerly, every justice of the High Court was, ex officio, a coroner for every district in England and Wales. This is no longer so; there are now no ex officio coroners. A senior judge is sometimes appointed ad hoc as a deputy coroner to undertake a high-profile inquest, such as those into the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and the victims of the 2005 London bombings.

Inquest

The coroner's jurisdiction is limited to determining who the deceased was and how, when and where they came by their death. When the death is suspected to have been either sudden with unknown cause, violent, or unnatural, the coroner decides whether to hold a post-mortem examination and, if necessary, an inquest.

Verdict (more correctly called Conclusions)

The coroner's former power to name a suspect in the inquest verdict and commit them for trial has been abolished.[23] The coroner's verdict sometimes is persuasive for the police and Crown Prosecution Service, but normally proceedings in the coroner's court are suspended until after the final outcome of any criminal case is known. More usually, a coroner's verdict is also relied upon in civil proceedings and insurance claims. The coroner commonly tells the jury which verdicts are lawfully available in a particular case.

The most common verdicts include:[24]

Lawful killing includes lawful self-defence. There is no material difference between an accidental death verdict and one of misadventure.[25]

Conclusions are arrived at on the balance of probabilities.

A verdict of neglect requires that there was a need for relevant care (such as nourishment, medical attention, shelter or warmth) identified, and there was an opportunity to offer or provide that care that was not taken. Neglect can be ruled an aggravating factor in other verdicts as well as a freestanding verdict.[26]

An open verdict is given where the cause of death cannot be identified on the evidence available to the inquest.

A coroner giving a narrative verdict may choose to refer to the other verdicts.[27] A narrative verdict may also consist of answers to a set of questions posed by the Coroner to himself or to the jury (as appropriate).

England and Wales

There are 98 coroners in England and Wales, covering 109 local authority areas.[28]

Northern Ireland

Coronial services in Northern Ireland are broadly similar to those in England and Wales, including dealing with treasure trove cases under the Treasure Act 1996. Northern Ireland has three coroners, who oversee the province as a whole. They are assisted by Coroners Liaison Officers and a medical Officer.[29]

Scotland

In Scotland there are no longer coroners. Coroners were used in Scotland between about 1500 and 1800 when they ceased to be used. Now deaths requiring judicial examination are reported to the Procurator Fiscal and dealt with by Fatal Accident Inquiries conducted by the Sheriff for the area.

United States

As of 2004, of the 2,342 death investigation offices in the United States, 1,590 were coroners' offices, 82 of which served jurisdictions of more than 250,000 people.[30] Qualifications for coroners are set by individual states and counties in the U.S., and vary widely. In many jurisdictions, little or no training is required, even though a coroner may overrule a forensic pathologist in naming a cause of death. Some coroners are elected, and others appointed. Some coroners hold office by virtue of holding another office: in Nebraska, the county district attorney is the coroner; in many counties in Texas, the Justice of the Peace may be in charge of death investigation; in other places, the sheriff is the coroner.

In different jurisdictions the terms "coroner" and "medical examiner" are defined differently. In some places, stringent rules require that the medical examiner be a forensic pathologist. In others, the medical examiner must be a physician, though not necessarily a forensic pathologist or even a pathologist; physicians with no experience in forensic medicine have become medical examiners.[31] In others, such as Wisconsin, each county sets standards, and in some, the medical examiner does not need any medical or educational qualifications.[32]

Not all U.S. jurisdictions use a coroner system for medicolegal death investigation—some are on a medical examiner system, others are on a mixed coroner–medical examiner system. In the U.S., the terms "coroner" and "medical examiner" vary widely in meaning by jurisdiction, as do qualifications and duties for these offices.[33]

Local laws define the deaths a coroner must investigate, but most often include those that are sudden, unexpected, and have no attending physician—and deaths that are suspicious or violent.[33] In some places in the United States, a coroner has other special powers, such as the ability to arrest the county sheriff.

Duties

Duties always include determining the cause, time, and manner of death. This uses the same investigatory skills of a police detective in most cases, because the answers are available from the circumstances, scene, and recent medical records. In many American jurisdictions, any death not certified by the person's own physician must be referred to the medical examiner. If an individual dies outside of his/her state of residence, the coroner of the state in which the death took place issues the death certificate. Only a small percentage of deaths require an autopsy to determine the time, cause and manner of death.

In some states, additional functions are handled by the coroner. For example, in Louisiana, coroners are involved in the determination of mental illness of living persons. In Georgia, the coroner has the same powers as a county sheriff to execute arrest warrants and serve process, and in certain situations where there is no sheriff, in addition to conducting cause and manner of death investigations and inquests,[34] the coroner officially acts as sheriff for the county. Also the Coroner is the only official who can arrest the sheriff of a county. This is also the case in Colorado.[35] Also in North Carolina, the coroner exists in approximately 65 counties by law, but is only an active office on ten.[36] In Kentucky, section 72.415 of the Kentucky Revised Statutes gives coroners and their deputies the full power and authority of peace officers. This includes the power of arrest and the authority to carry firearms. In North Carolina, in the counties that have coroners, they are set forth as common law peace officers, yet the coroner of the county also has judicial powers; not only to investigate cause and manner of death, but to conduct inquests, issue court orders, to empanel a coroner's jury and to act as Sheriff in certain cases or even arrest the Sheriff for cause. Beginning in 2015, the NC Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) began optional training for coroners to become special assistant medical examiner investigators (NC CH130A & 152). In Indiana the coroner is the only law enforcement officer who has the authority to arrest the county sheriff, incarcerate him, and take command of the county jail. The coroner is also the only official who may serve the sheriff with civil process. In New York City, the office of coroner was actually abolished in 1915,[37] since before that time, having medical knowledge was not actually a requirement, leading to much abuse of position.[38]

Equivalents in other countries

The office of coroner is common to most countries with a British colonial influence, but unusual outside of that. The equivalent offices in other nations follow the Medical Examiner model, or are part of the Police and Judiciary. In France the relevant official is the Médecin légiste (fr) and in Italy the Medico legale(it); in Germany it is the Gerichtmediziner(de). In Spain and Portugal investigations are carried out by a forensic pathologist under the supervision of an Examining magistrate (a Juez de instrucción(es), Juiz de instrução(pt)).

In Japan the office of kenshi-kan (検視官)(ja) generally translates as "coroner", but holders of the office are police detectives with field experience, thus resembling scenes of crime officers or crime scene investigators in English-speaking countries. A kenshi-kan typically holds the rank of captain, and has studied forensic medicine and investigation techniques at the National Police Academy.

Notable coroners

Artistic depictions

Film

Literature

(The following entries are organized by author's last name)

Television

Although coroners are often depicted in police dramas as a source of information for detectives, there are a number of fictional coroners who have taken particular focus on television. (The following entries are alphabetized by program title.)

  • Dr. Camille Saroyan is a federal coroner and the Head of the Forensic Division at Jeffersonian Institute in the TV series Bones.
  • British television drama series The Coroner has as its main character a coroner based in a fictional Devon town.
  • Crossing Jordan features Jill Hennessy as Jordan Cavanaugh, M.D., a crime-solving forensic pathologist employed in the Massachusetts Office of the Chief Medical Examiner.
  • The coroner is a significant character and a main cast member on CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and its spin-offs CSI: Miami and CSI: NY.
  • The television series Da Vinci's Inquest has a coroner as its title character.
  • The American police procedural drama series Hawaii Five-0 features a coroner named Dr. Max Bergman, played by Japanese-American actor Masi Oka.
  • Kujo Kiriya from the 2016 Japanese TV series Kamen Rider Ex-Aid is a coroner.
  • Kurt Fuller plays Woody, a Coroner on the American detective comedy-drama Psych.
  • The television series Quincy, M.E. has a coroner as its title character.
  • The television series Wojeck (the Canadian ancestor of Quincy, M.E.) has a coroner as its title character, inspired by the coroner Dr. Morton Shulman.[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ "coroner". Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. Accessed 10 August 2009.
  2. ^ Coroner History. Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. Accessed 10 August 2009.
  3. ^ Duggan, Kenneth F. (2017). "The Hue and Cry in Thirteenth-Century England". Thirteenth Century England. XVI: 153–172.
  4. ^ "Coroner vs. medical examiner". Visible Proofs. United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  5. ^ "coroner". Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam Webster. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  6. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary: coroner (n.)".
  7. ^ James Wilson, Lectures on Law, vol. 2, chapter 7
  8. ^ Duggan, Kenneth F. (2017). "The Hue and Cry in Thirteenth-Century England". Thirteenth Century England. XVI: 153–172.
  9. ^ Trabsky, Marc (2016). "The Coronial Manual and the Bureaucratic Logic of the Coroner's Office". International Journal of Law in Context. 12 (2): 195–209. doi:10.1017/S1744552316000069. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  10. ^ "Who works at a morgue?". Australian Museum. 27 October 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  11. ^ Introduction: Coroner Canadian Medical Examiner Database: Annual Report
  12. ^ "Office of the Chief Medical Examiner". justice.alberta.ca. Alberta Justice and Solicitor General. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  13. ^ "The Role of the Chief Medical Examiner's Office". www.gov.mb.ca. Manitoba Justice. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  14. ^ "Nova Scotia Medical Examiner Service". www.gov.ns.ca. Nova Scotia. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  15. ^ "Office of the Chief Medical Examiner". www.justice.gov.nl.ca. Newfoundland - Labrador Department of Justice. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  16. ^ "Coroner Service". Coroner Service. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  17. ^ a b "Who are the coroners". Coroner Service. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  18. ^ "Welcome to the Coronial Services of New Zealand". New Zealand Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  19. ^ "Coroners - Ministry of Justice". Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
  20. ^ a b Coroners at cps.gov.uk; retrieved 6 July 2018
  21. ^ a b General information about the coroner service at manchester.gov.uk; retrieved 6 July 2018
  22. ^ "Coroners" at judiciary.uk; reviewed 2 July 2018
  23. ^ Criminal Law Act 1977, section 56(1)
  24. ^ "Enforcement Guide (England & Wales) - Work-related deaths and inquests - Chronology".
  25. ^ R v Portsmouth Coroner ex parte Anderson (1987) 1 WLR 1640
  26. ^ R v N Humberside and Scunthorpe Coroner ex parte Jamieson [1994] 3 All ER 972
  27. ^ R v HM Coroner for the County of West Yorkshire ex parte Sacker [2004] UKHL 11.
  28. ^ Coroners at cps.gov.uk; retrieved 5 July 2018
  29. ^ Coroner service for Northern Ireland at justice-ni.gov.uk; retrieved 5 July 2018
  30. ^ J.M. Hickman, K.A. Hughes, K.J. Strom, and J.D. Ropero-Miller, Medical Examiners and Coroners’ Offices, (2004). U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report NCJ216756.
  31. ^ Frontline: Post Mortem
  32. ^ Keach, Jenifer. Coroners and Medical Examiners A Comparison of Options Offered by Both Systems in Wisconsin (2006)
  33. ^ a b National Academy of Sciences, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, (2009), pp. 241–253.
  34. ^ Title 15, Chapter 16, Section 8 of Georgia law and Ch. 152 of NC law
  35. ^ Section 30-10-604, Colorado revised statutes
  36. ^ Section 30-10-604, Colorado Revised Statutes.
  37. ^ Section 284, New York State Laws of 1915
  38. ^ Helpern, Milton (1977). "Beginnings". Autopsy: the memoirs of Milton Helpern, the world's greatest medical detective. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-451-08607-4.
  39. ^ CBC Television Series, 1952-1982: Wojeck Archived 15 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

External links

Coroners by country

Autopsy

An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes. (The term "necropsy" is generally reserved for non-human animals; see below). Autopsies are usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. In most cases, a medical examiner or coroner can determine cause of death and only a small portion of deaths require an autopsy.

Brittany Murphy

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In the 2000s Murphy appeared in Don't Say a Word (2001) alongside Michael Douglas, and alongside Eminem in 8 Mile (2002), for which she gained critical recognition. Her later roles included Riding in Cars with Boys (2001), Spun (2002), Uptown Girls (2003), Sin City (2005), and Happy Feet (2006). Murphy also voiced Luanne Platter on the animated television series King of the Hill (1997–2009). Her final film, Something Wicked, was released in April 2014.

In December 2009, Murphy died of pneumonia at the age of 32.

Clark County, Nevada

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Coroner's Court of New South Wales

The Coroner's Court of New South Wales is the court in the Australian state of New South Wales where legal proceedings, in the form of an inquest or inquiry, are held and presided over by the State Coroner of New South Wales (or NSW State Coroner), a Deputy State Coroner of New South Wales, or another coroner of the state of New South Wales.

Coroners must be magistrates in the state and sit in branches of the Local Court of New South Wales. They hold jurisdiction over the remains of a person and have the power to make findings in respect of the cause of death of a person or the cause of any fire in New South Wales.

Generally, there are no appeals from the decision(s) of a coroner; but, there is provision for the Supreme Court of New South Wales to order a fresh inquest or inquiry or to grant prerogative relief in respect of the proceedings.

Coroner (TV series)

Coroner is a Canadian drama television series based on the Jenny Cooper series of novels by M.R. Hall that started airing on CBC in January 2019. The series stars Serinda Swan as Jenny Cooper, a recently-widowed Toronto coroner who investigates suspicious deaths.The show was developed for television by Morwyn Brebner, and will be produced by Muse Entertainment, Back Alley Film Productions, and Cineflix Studios, with Adrienne Mitchell as executive producer and lead director.In October 2018, it was announced that NBCUniversal International Networks had acquired rights to air Coroner around the world. The series of eight one-hour episodes will premiere in the UK, Germany, France, Spain, Poland, Africa, Latin America, Brazil, and Australia from late 2019.

Coroner (band)

Coroner is a Swiss thrash metal band from Zürich. They garnered relatively little attention outside of Europe. Formed in 1983, the band broke up in 1996, but reformed 14 years later. The band has performed at multiple live venues and festivals around the world since 2011, and plans to release a new album in 2019. Coroner's music combines elements of thrash, classical music, avant-garde music, progressive rock, jazz, and industrial metal with suitably gruff vocals. With their increasingly complex style of progressive rock-infused thrash, they have been called "the Rush of thrash metal". Coroner's sound then progressed and the production became more refined, resulting in the more progressive albums No More Color (1989), Mental Vortex (1991) and Grin (1993).

Coroner Creek

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Cyril Wecht

Cyril Harrison Wecht (born March 20, 1931) is an American forensic pathologist. He has been a consultant in numerous high-profile cases, but is perhaps best known for his criticism of the Warren Commission's findings concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

He has been the president of both the American Academy of Forensic Science and the American College of Legal Medicine, and currently heads the board of trustees of the American Board of Legal Medicine. He served as County Commissioner and Allegheny County Coroner and Medical Examiner serving the Pittsburgh metropolitan area.

Forensic pathology

Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by a medical examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Coroners and medical examiners are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. Also see forensic medicine.

Inquest

An inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law jurisdictions, particularly one held to determine the cause of a person's death. Conducted by a judge, jury, or government official, an inquest may or may not require an autopsy carried out by a coroner or medical examiner. Generally, inquests are conducted only when deaths are sudden or unexplained. An inquest may be called at the behest of a coroner, judge, prosecutor, or, in some jurisdictions, upon a formal request from the public. A coroner's jury may be convened to assist in this type of proceeding. Inquest can also mean such a jury and the result of such an investigation. In general usage, inquest is also used to mean any investigation or inquiry.

An inquest uses witnesses, but suspects are not permitted to defend themselves. The verdict can be, for example, natural death, accidental death, misadventure, suicide, or murder. If the verdict is murder or culpable accident, criminal prosecution may follow, and suspects are able to defend themselves there.

Since juries are not used in most European civil law systems, these do not have any (jury) procedure similar to an inquest, but medical evidence and professional witnesses have been used in court in continental Europe for centuries.Larger inquests can be held into disasters, or in some jurisdictions (not England and Wales) into cases of corruption.

Inquests in England and Wales

Inquests in England and Wales are held into sudden and unexplained deaths and also into the circumstances of discovery of a certain class of valuable artefacts known as "treasure trove". In England and Wales, inquests are the responsibility of a coroner, who operates under the jurisdiction of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009.

List of Big Brother housemates (UK series 7)

A total of 22 housemates participated in the seventh series of Big Brother in the UK, where they were observed by television viewers 24 hours a day and each week, and a housemate was voted to be evicted by the general public until the winner, Pete Bennett, was left.

Most of the housemates entered on the first day of the series but Aisleyne Horgan-Wallace and Sam Brodie entered the house as rewards from a task and Susie Verrico entered through a 'golden ticket' promotion with Nestle. As part of a twist, a new set of rooms, named the House Next Door, were built, and the housemates Jayne Kitt, Jennie Corner, Jonathan Leonard, Michael Cheshire and Glen 'Spiral' Coroner were introduced to the series through this twist. The House Next Door was used later on in the series where four previously evicted housemates were allowed to return temporarily, one of whom, Nikki Grahame stayed in the House until the final.

Lord Steward

The Lord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, is an important official of the Royal Household. He is always a peer. Until 1924, he was always a member of the Government. Until 1782, the office was one of considerable political importance and carried Cabinet rank.

The Lord Steward receives his appointment from the Sovereign in person and bears a white staff as the emblem and warrant of his authority. He is the first dignitary of the court. In the House of Lords Precedence Act 1539, an Act of Parliament for placing of the lords, he is described as the grand master or lord steward of the king's most honourable household. He presided at the Board of Green Cloth, until the Board of Green Cloth disappeared in the reform of local government licensing in 2004, brought about by the Licensing Act 2003 (section 195). In his department are the Treasurer of the Household and Comptroller of the Household, who rank next to him. These officials were usually peers or the sons of peers and Privy Councillors. They also sat at the Board of Green Cloth, carry white staves, and belong to the ministry. The offices are now held by Government whips in the House of Commons. The duties which in theory belong to the Lord Steward, Treasurer and Comptroller of the Household are in practice performed by the Master of the Household, who is a permanent officer and resides in the palace. However, by the Coroners Act 1988, the Lord Steward still appoints the Coroner of the Queen's Household.The Master of the Household is a white-staff officer and was a member of the Board of Green Cloth but not of the ministry, and among other things he presided at the daily dinners of the suite in waiting on the sovereign. He is not named in the Black Book of Edward IV or in the Statutes of Henry VIII and is entered as master of the household and clerk of the green cloth in the Household Book of Queen Elizabeth. But he has superseded the lord steward of the household, as the lord steward of the household at one time superseded the Lord High Steward of England.

In the Lord Steward's department were the officials of the Board of Green Cloth, the Coroner ("coroner of the verge", although now abolished, but it has yet to take place), and Paymaster of the Household, and the officers of the Royal Almonry. Other offices in the department were those of the Cofferer of the Household, the Treasurer of the Chamber, and the Paymaster of Pensions, but these, with six clerks of the Board of Green Cloth, were abolished in 1782.

The Lord Steward had formerly three courts besides the Board of Green Cloth under him—the Lord Steward's Court, superseded in 1541 by the Marshalsea Court, and the Palace Court.

The Lord Steward or his deputies formerly administered the oaths to the members of the House of Commons. In certain cases (messages from the sovereign under the sign-manual) the lords with white staves are the proper persons to bear communications between the Sovereign and the Houses of Parliament.

Los Angeles County Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner

The Los Angeles County Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner (formerly the Department of Coroner) was created in its present form in Boyle Heights on December 7, 1990 by an ordinance approved by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, although it has existed in some form since the late 19th century. On September 3, 2013, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved the name change for the department, from the Department of the Coroner to the Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner.On July 9, 2013, the Board of Supervisors approved the appointment of Mark A. Fajardo, the Chief Forensic Pathologist at Riverside County, as the new Medical Examiner-Coroner, at an annual salary of $275,000. He formally replaced Lakshmanan Sathyavagiswaran, who served 21 years as the Coroner, in August 2013.Dr. Mark Fajardo resigned in March 2016. A news report indicates that "he left because it became common to have up to 50 bodies waiting to be processed and the backlog of bodies was 'nuts'. ... and toxicology tests were taking six months to complete" due to inadequate staffing.Lakshmanan Sathyavagiswaran was re-appointed, but as interim coroner, on April 11, 2016. As of December 30, 2016, the position of Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner had not been permanently filled. A search process had been initiated by the county, with Ralph Andersen & Associates working "to develop a customized recruitment brochure for this position".Dr. Jonathan R. Lucas was appointed as the Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner on July 10, 2017.

Medical examiner

A medical examiner is an official trained in pathology that investigates deaths that occur under unusual or suspicious circumstances, to perform post-mortem examinations, and in some jurisdictions to initiate inquests.In the US, there are two death investigation systems, the coroner system based on English law, and the medical examiner system, which evolved from the coroner system during the latter half of the 19th century. The type of system varies from municipality to municipality and from state to state, with over 2000 separate jurisdictions for investigating unnatural deaths. In 2002, 22 states had a medical examiner system, 11 states had a coroner system, and 18 states had a mixed system. Since the 1940s, the medical examiner system has gradually replaced the coroner system, and serves about 48% of the US population.The coroner is not necessarily a medical doctor, but a lawyer, or even a layperson. In the 19th century, the public became dissatisfied with lay coroners and demanded that the coroner be replaced by a physician. In 1918, New York City introduced the office of the Chief Medical Examiner, and appointed physicians experienced in the field of pathology. In 1959, the medical subspecialty of forensic pathology was formally certified.The types of death reportable to the system are determined by federal, state or local laws. Commonly, these include violent, suspicious, sudden, and unexpected deaths, death when no physician or practitioner treated recently, inmates in public institutions, in custody of law enforcement, during or immediately following therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, or deaths due to neglect.

Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York

The Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York (OCME) is a department within the city government that investigates cases of persons who die within New York City from criminal violence; by casualty or by suicide; suddenly, when in apparent good health; when unattended by a physician; in a correctional facility; or in any suspicious or unusual manner. The OCME also investigates when an application is made pursuant to law for a permit to cremate the body of a deceased person.

Punky Brüster – Cooked on Phonics

Punky Brüster – Cooked on Phonics is the debut studio album by Canadian musician Devin Townsend, originally released as Cooked on Phonics under the fictional band name Punky Brüster. It was released on Townsend's label, HevyDevy Records, on March 19, 1996. It is a metal/punk rock parody concept album written by Townsend. Cooked on Phonics tells the story of a fictitious death metal band "from South Central Poland" called Cryptic Coroner that sells out their metal look and sound to become a commercial punk rock band called Punky Brüster (the band's name being a pun on the 1980s U.S. television series Punky Brewster).

At the end of the track "Larry's O," Townsend says the album took "A week-and-a-half to write, six days to record, 12 hours to mix."

State Coroner (TV series)

State Coroner was an Australian television series screened on Network Ten in 1997 and 1998. There were two series produced with a total of 29 episodes. The series was set in the State Coroner's office complex and featured investigations into deaths, murders, suicides, accidents and natural causes. The drama begins from the initial inquiry through to the courtroom appearances, the Coroner's final verdict and recommendations for trial or reform.

The Coroner

The Coroner is a BBC Birmingham daytime drama series of 20 episodes starring Claire Goose as Jane Kennedy, a coroner based in a fictional South Devon coastal town. Matt Bardock stars as Detective Sergeant Davey Higgins.The BBC announced on 2 March 2017 that there would be no further series.

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