Coronation

A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible. The monarch's consort may also be crowned, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event.

Once a vital ritual among the world's monarchies, coronations have changed over time for a variety of socio-political and religious factors; most modern monarchies have dispensed with them altogether, preferring simpler ceremonies to mark a monarch's accession to the throne. In the past, concepts of royalty, coronation and deity were often inexorably linked. In some ancient cultures, rulers were considered to be divine or partially divine: the Egyptian pharaoh was believed to be the son of Ra, the sun god, while in Japan, the emperor was believed to be a descendant of Amaterasu, the sun goddess. Rome promulgated the practice of emperor worship; in Medieval Europe, monarchs claimed to have a divine right to rule (analogous to the Mandate of Heaven in dynastic China). Coronations were once a direct visual expression of these alleged connections, but recent centuries have seen the lessening of such beliefs.

Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, and several Asian and African countries. In Europe, most monarchs are required to take a simple oath in the presence of the country's legislature. Besides a coronation, a monarch's accession may be marked in many ways: some nations may retain a religious dimension to their accession rituals while others have adopted simpler inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. Some cultures use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country.

Coronation in common parlance today may also, in a broader sense, refer to any formal ceremony in relation to the accession of a monarch, whether or not an actual crown is bestowed, such ceremonies may otherwise be referred to as investitures, inaugurations, or enthronements. The date of the act of ascension, however, usually precedes the date of the ceremony of coronation. For example, the Coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953, almost sixteen months after her accession to the throne on 6 February 1952 on the death of her father George VI.

Karel Leo
Miniature of Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III, from Chroniques de France ou de Saint Denis, vol. 1; France, second quarter of 14th century.
Charles-vii-courronement- Panthéon III
The coronation of Charles VII of France (1429), detail of the painting Jeanne d'Arc (1886–1890) by Jules Eugène Lenepveu

History and development

Martorana RogerII2008
Roger II of Sicily receiving his crown directly from Jesus Christ, mosaic from Martorana, Palermo

The coronation ceremonies in medieval Christendom, both Western and Eastern, are influenced by the practice of the Roman Emperors as it developed during Late Antiquity, indirectly influenced by Biblical accounts of kings being crowned and anointed.[1] The European coronation ceremonies, perhaps best known in the form they have taken in Great Britain (the most recent of which occurred in 1953), descend from rites initially created in Byzantium, Visigothic Spain, Carolingian France and the Holy Roman Empire and brought to their apogee during the Medieval era.

In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, often related to the religious beliefs of that particular nation. Buddhism, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand, Cambodia and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia, Brunei and Iran were shaped by Islam, while Tonga's ritual combines ancient Polynesian influences with more modern Anglican ones.

Antiquity

An ancient coronation
An ancient coronation from the Indian subcontinent

Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC.[2] Judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11:12 and II Chronicles 23:11.

The corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, and perhaps worn by the Helios that was the Colossus of Rhodes, was worn by Roman emperors as part of the cult of Sol Invictus, part of the imperial cult as it developed during the 3rd century. The origin of the crown is thus religious, comparable to the significance of a halo, marking the sacral nature of kingship, expressing that either the king is himself divine, or ruling by divine right.

The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, which had been worn by the Achaemenid rulers, was adopted by Constantine I, and was worn by all subsequent rulers of the later Roman Empire. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine, Roman and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the supreme symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century. The emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers;[3] he later wore a jewel-studded diadem. Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a similar manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperor's head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was clearly established by the reign of Leo II, who was crowned by the Patriarch Acacius in 473. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, a further—and extremely vital—development in the liturgical ordo of crowning. After this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop[ed]".[3]

In some European Celtic or Germanic countries prior to the adoption of Christianity, the ruler upon his election was raised on a shield and, while standing upon it, was borne on the shoulders of several chief men of the nation (or tribe) in a procession around his assembled subjects.[1] This was usually performed three times.[1] Following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen (not to be confused with a crown) was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority.[1]

Middle Ages

Demetre I (Matskhvarishi)
The Coronation of King Demetrius I of Georgia by the angels, 12th century.

According to Adomnan of Iona, the King of Dal Riata Áedán mac Gabráin came to the monastery at Iona in 574 to be crowned as King by St Columba.[4] In 610, Heraclius arranged a ceremony in Constantinople where he was crowned and acclaimed emperor. In Spain, the Visigothic king Sisenand was crowned in 631, and in 672, Wamba was the first occidental king to be anointed as well, by the archbishop of Toledo. In England, the Anglo-Saxon king Eardwulf of Northumbria was "consecrated and enthroned" in 796, and Æthelstan was crowned and anointed in 925. These practices were nevertheless irregularly used or occurred some considerable time after the rulers had become kings, until their regular adoption by the Carolingian dynasty in France. To legitimate his deposition of the last of the Merovingian kings, Pepin the Short was twice crowned and anointed, at the beginning of his reign in 752, and for the first time by a pope in 754 in Saint-Denis. The anointing served as a reminder of the baptism of Clovis I in Reims in 496, where the ceremony was finally transferred in 816. His son Charlemagne, who was crowned emperor in Rome in 800, passed as well the ceremony to the Holy Roman Empire, and this tradition acquired a newly constitutive function in England too, with the kings Harold Godwinson and William the Conqueror immediately crowned in Westminster Abbey in 1066.

The European coronation ceremonies of the Middle Ages were essentially a combination of the Christian rite of anointing with additional elements. Following Europe's conversion to Christianity, crowning ceremonies became more and more ornate, depending on the country in question, and their Christian elements—especially anointing—became the paramount concern.[1][3] Crowns and sceptres, used in coronations since ancient times, took on a Christian significance together with the orb as symbols of the purported divine order of things, with the monarch as the divinely ordained overlord and protector of his dominion. During the Middle Ages, this rite was considered so vital in some European kingdoms that it was sometimes referred to as an "eighth sacrament".[5] The anointed ruler was viewed as a mixta persona, part priest and part layman, but never wholly either.[1] This notion persisted into the twentieth century in Imperial Russia, where the Tsar was considered to be "wedded" to his subjects through the Orthodox coronation service.[6] Coronation stones marked the site of some medieval ceremonies, though some alleged stones are later inventions.

Crowning ceremonies arose from a worldview in which monarchs were seen as ordained by God[N 1] to serve not merely as political or military leaders, nor as figureheads, but rather to occupy a vital spiritual place in their dominions as well.[5] Coronations were created to reflect and enable these alleged connections; however, the belief systems that gave birth to them have been radically altered in recent centuries by secularism, egalitarianism and the rise of constitutionalism and democracy. During the Protestant Reformation, the idea of divinely ordained monarchs began to be challenged.[7][8]

Modern history

The Age of Enlightenment and various revolutions of the last three centuries all helped to further this trend.[5] Hence, many monarchies—especially in Europe—have dispensed with coronations altogether, or transformed them into simpler inauguration or benediction rites. Majority of contemporary European monarchies today have either long abandoned coronations ceremonies (e.g. Spain, last practiced in 1494) or have never practiced coronations (e.g. Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg). Of all European monarchies today, only the United Kingdom still retains its coronation rite.[3] Other nations still crowning their rulers include Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Thailand, and Tonga, as well as several subnational entities such as the Toro Kingdom. The Papacy retains the option of a coronation, but no pope has used it since 1963 after Pope John Paul I opted for an Inauguration in 1978.[9]

Canonical Coronation

A Canonical Coronation (Latin: Coronatam Canonicus) is a pious institutional act of the Pope, on behalf of a devotion. This tradition still stands in 2015, in 2014 Pope Francis crowned Our Lady of Immaculate Conception of Juquila. Since 1989, the act has been carried out through the authorised decree by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments.

Coronations and monarchical power

In most kingdoms, a monarch succeeding hereditarily does not have to undergo a coronation to ascend the throne or exercise the prerogatives of their office. King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, for example, did not reign long enough to be crowned before he abdicated, yet he was unquestionably the King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India during his brief reign. This is because in Britain, the law stipulates that in the moment one monarch dies, the new one assumes automatically and immediately the throne; thus, there is no point at which the throne is vacant.[10]

France likewise followed automatic succession, though by tradition the new king ascended the throne when the coffin of the previous monarch descended into the vault at Saint Denis Basilica, and the Duke of Uzes proclaimed "Le Roi est mort, vive le Roi"![N 2][11] In Hungary, on the other hand, no ruler was regarded as being truly legitimate until he was physically crowned with St. Stephen's Crown performed by the archbishop of Esztergom in Székesfehérvár Cathedral (during the Turkish invasion of Hungary in Pozsony, then Budapest),[12][13][N 3] while monarchs of Belgium or Albania were not allowed to succeed or exercise any of their prerogatives until swearing a formal constitutional oath before their respective nations' parliaments.[14] Following their election, the kings of Poland were permitted to perform a variety of political acts prior to their coronation, but were not allowed to exercise any of their judicial powers prior to being crowned.[15]

In the Holy Roman Empire an individual became King of the Romans, thus gained governance of the Empire unless he was elected during his predecessor's lifetime, upon his acceptance of the election capitulation, not his coronation. However, prior to Maximilian I he could not style himself "Emperor" until his coronation by the Pope, resulting in many individuals being "Kings of the Romans" or "Kings of Germany," but not "Emperor." Maximilian received Papal permission to call himself "Elected Emperor of the Romans" when he was unable to travel for his coronation. His successors likewise adopted the title with the last Emperor crowned by the Pope being Maxmilian's grandson Charles V.

Official and personal coronation Gifts

The official coronation gifts Royal or Imperial commencing in the 19th century were commissioned by the coronation commission, intended for the incoming monarch, as personal mementos of the coronation event. Personal coronation gifts presented at the coronation festivities directly by the newly crowned monarch to the official coronation guest were similar or identical to the official coronation gift all according to the Royal or Imperial protocol and Court status of the recipient. Presentation of coronation gifts was major anticipated reviling function of the incoming monarch.

Coronation of heirs apparent

Couronnement de Philippe Auguste
Coronation of Philip, son of King Louis VII of France, as junior king

During the Middle Ages, Capetian Kings of France chose to have their heirs apparent crowned during their own lifetime in order to avoid succession disputes.[16][17] This practice was later adopted by Angevin Kings of England, Kings of Hungary and other European monarchs. From the moment of their coronation, the heirs were regarded as junior kings (rex iunior), but they exercised little power and historically were not included in the numbering of monarchs if they predeceased their fathers. The nobility disliked this custom, as it reduced their chances to benefit from a possible succession dispute.[18]

The last heir apparent to the French throne to be crowned during his father's lifetime was the future Philip II, while the only crowned heir apparent to the English throne was Henry the Young King, who was first crowned alone and then with his wife, Margaret of France. The practice was eventually abandoned by all kingdoms that had adopted it, as the rules of primogeniture became stronger. The last coronation of an heir apparent, with the exception of investitures of the Prince of Wales in 1911 and 1969, was the coronation of the future Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria as junior King of Hungary in 1830.[19]

In the modern era

Specific coronation rituals by country, arranged by continent or region, are described in the following articles:

Other uses

The term coronation is sometimes used in a semi-ironic sense to refer to uncontested party leadership elections, with all potential party leaders choosing to back a single candidate or to stay silent, rather than stand in an election they are likely to lose.[20] This typically happens where there has been a protracted behind-the-scenes attempt to remove the outgoing leader, leading to a significant amount of time to determine who has the most party support before the election proper.

Image gallery

Pepin le Bref

Coronation of Pepin the Short

Lvisrdce korunovace 1189

Richard I of England crowned king.

Bela4 korunovace

The coronation of Béla IV King of Hungary

Coelestin V

Coronation of Pope Celestine V.

Koronacja Jana Kazimierza

Coronation of John II Casimir Vasa

Preussen 1701 Königsberg

Frederick I of Prussia, being anointed by two Protestant bishops after his coronation at Königsberg in 1701.

SerovV MiropomazanNikolAlek

Anointing of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia during his coronation in 1896.

The Anointing of Queen Alexandra at the Coronation of Edward VII

The Anointing of Queen Alexandra at the Coronation of Edward VII

Coroaçao pedro I 001

Coronation ceremony of Emperor Pedro I of Brazil in 1822

Abraham Bloemaert - Coronation Scene - 1993.1 - Indianapolis Museum of Art

Coronation Scene by Dutch painter Abraham Bloemaert

See also

Bibliography

Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual. ed. Janos M. Bak. University of California Press 1990. ISBN 978-0520066779.

(in German) Bernhard A. Macek: Die Kroenung Josephs II. in Frankfurt am Main. Logistisches Meisterwerk, zeremonielle Glanzleistung und Kulturgueter fuer die Ewigkeit. Peter Lang 2010. ISBN 978-3-631-60849-4.

Zupka, Dušan: Power of rituals and rituals of power: Religious and secular rituals in the political culture of medieval Kingdom of Hungary. IN: Historiography in Motion. Bratislava - Banská Bystrica, 2010, pp. 29–42. ISBN 978-80-89388-31-8.

Notes

This section contains expansions on the main text of the article, as well as links provided for context that may not meet Wikipedia standards for reliable sources, due largely to being self-published.

  1. ^ Christian references include I Peter 2:13,17 and Romans 13:1-7. Information on the Islamic viewpoint may be found at Islamic Monarchy, from the Science Encyclopedia website. A Hindu perspective on this subject may be explored at the hindujagruti.org website; Why is it Said that Only a Brahman is Capable of Creating an Ideal King?. Retrieved on 10 September 2008.
  2. ^ English: The [old] king is dead; long live the [new] King!
  3. ^ An account of this service, written by Count Miklos Banffy, a witness, may be read at The Last Habsburg Coronation: Budapest, 1916. From Theodore's Royalty and Monarchy Website.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Wikisource Fallow, Thomas Macall (1911). "Coronation" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 185–187.
  2. ^ "Coronation scene of Seti I — Painted Relief, Temple of Abidos, Egypt. 19th. Dynasty 1317 B.C.:". aurorahistoryboutique.com. Archived from the original on 2005-12-27. Retrieved 2008-08-09.
  3. ^ a b c d Wikisource-logo.svg Thurston, Herbert (1913). "Coronation" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  4. ^ Adomnan of Iona. The life of St Columba. Penguin Classics, 1995
  5. ^ a b c Coulombe, Charles A (2005-05-09). "Coronations in Catholic theology". Charles. A Coulombe. Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2008-09-08.
  6. ^ Oldenburg, Sergei S. (1975). Last Tsar: Nicholas II, His Reign and His Russia. I. Gulf Breeze, Florida: Academic International Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 0-686-83125-X.
  7. ^ Dickens, A.G. (1978). The English Reformation. London & Glasgow: Fontana/Collins. p. 399. ISBN 0-8052-0177-7.
  8. ^ Ponet, John (1994) [1556]. Patrick S. Poole (ed.). A Shorte Treatise of Politike Power. Patrick S. Poole. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
  9. ^ Wister, Fr. Robert J. (2002-12-04). "The Coronation of Pope Paul VI". Retrieved 2008-09-25.
  10. ^ Royal Household. "Accession". Ceremony and Symbol. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
  11. ^ Giesey, Ralph E. (1990). "Inaugural Aspects of French Royal Ceremonials". In Bak, János M (ed.). Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
  12. ^ Yonge, Charlotte (1867). "The Crown of St. Stephen". A Book of Golden Deeds Of all Times and all Lands. London, Glasgow and Bombay: Blackie and Son. Retrieved 2008-08-21.
  13. ^ Nemes, Paul (2000-01-10). "Central Europe Review — Hungary: The Holy Crown". Retrieved 2008-09-26.
  14. ^ "The Constitution (Belgium), Article 91" (PDF). Parliament of Belgium. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
  15. ^ Gieysztor, Aleksander (1990). "Gesture in the Coronation Ceremonies of Medieval Poland". In Bak, János M (ed.). Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
  16. ^ Bartlett, Robert (2003). England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075-1225. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925101-0.
  17. ^ Staunton, Michael (2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-5455-9. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
  18. ^ Sedlar, Jean W. (1994). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. USA: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97290-4.
  19. ^ Taylor, Alan John Percivale (1976). The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809-1918 (Paperback ed.). USA: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-79145-9. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
  20. ^ "FA could face reprimands for failed attempt to stop postpone Sepp Blatter's coronation in Fifa presidential election". London: The Daily Telegraph. 2011-06-02. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
Coronation Street

Coronation Street (also known as Corrie) is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. The programme centres on Coronation Street in Weatherfield, a fictional town based on inner-city Salford. In the show's fictional history, the street was built in 1902 and named in honour of the coronation of King Edward VII.

The show airs six times a week: Monday, Wednesday and Friday 7:30-8 pm and 8:30-9 pm. Since 2017, ten sequential classic episodes of the series from 1986 onwards have been broadcast weekly on ITV3. The programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Warren's initial kitchen sink drama proposal was rejected by the station's founder Sidney Bernstein, but he was persuaded by producer Harry Elton to produce the programme for 13 pilot episodes. Within six months of the show's first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, and is now a significant part of British culture. The show has been one of the most lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television and wider ITV network.

Coronation Street is made by Granada Television at MediaCityUK and shown in all ITV regions, as well as internationally. On 17 September 2010, it became the world's longest-running television soap opera and was listed in Guinness World Records. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITV's sixtieth anniversary.Influenced by the conventions of the kitchen sink drama, Coronation Street is noted for its depiction of a down-to-earth, working-class community, combined with light-hearted humour and strong characters. The show currently averages 8 million viewers per episode.

Coronation of Elizabeth II

The coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953 at Westminster Abbey, London. Elizabeth II ascended the throne at the age of 25 upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952, being proclaimed queen by her privy and executive councils shortly afterwards. The coronation was held more than one year later because of the tradition of allowing an appropriate length of time to pass after a monarch dies before holding such festivals. It also gave the planning committees adequate time to make preparations for the ceremony. During the service, Elizabeth took an oath, was anointed with holy oil, invested with robes and regalia, and crowned Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).Celebrations took place across the Commonwealth realms and a commemorative medal was issued. It was the first British coronation to be televised; television cameras had not been allowed inside the abbey during her father's coronation in 1937. Elizabeth's was the fourth and last British coronation of the 20th century. It was estimated to have cost £1.57 million (c. ₤43,427,400 in 2019)

Coronation of Napoleon I

The coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French took place on Sunday December 2, 1804 (11 Frimaire, Year XIII according to the French Republican Calendar) at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. It marked "the instantiation of modern empire" and was a "transparently masterminded piece of modern propaganda".

Napoleon wanted to establish the legitimacy of his imperial reign, with its new royal family and new nobility. To this end, he designed a new coronation ceremony unlike that for the kings of France, which had emphasized the king's consecration (sacre) and anointment and was conferred by the archbishop of Reims in Reims Cathedral. Napoleon's was a sacred ceremony held in the great cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris in the presence of Pope Pius VII. Napoleon brought together various rites and customs, incorporating ceremonies of Carolingian tradition, the ancien régime and the French Revolution, all presented in sumptuous luxury.On May 18, 1804, the Sénat conservateur vested the Republican government of the French First Republic in an Emperor, and preparations for a coronation followed. Napoleon's elevation to Emperor was overwhelmingly approved by the French citizens in the French constitutional referendum of 1804. Among Napoleon's motivations for being crowned were to gain prestige in international royalist and Catholic circles and to lay the foundation for a future dynasty.

Coronation of the British monarch

The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey. It corresponds to the coronations that formerly took place in other European monarchies, all of which have abandoned coronations in favour of inauguration or enthronement ceremonies.

The coronation usually takes place several months after the death of the previous monarch, as it is considered a joyous occasion that would be inappropriate while mourning continues. This interval also gives the planners enough time to complete the elaborate arrangements required. For example, Queen Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953, having ascended the throne on 6 February 1952; the date of her coronation was announced almost a year in advance, and preparations inside the abbey took five months.

The ceremony is performed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the most senior cleric in the Church of England, of which the monarch is supreme governor. Other clergy and members of the nobility also have roles; most participants in the ceremony are required to wear ceremonial uniforms or robes and coronets. Many other government officials and guests attend, including representatives of other countries.

The essential elements of the coronation have remained largely unchanged for the past thousand years. The sovereign is first presented to, and acclaimed by, the people. He or she then swears an oath to uphold the law and the Church. Following that, the monarch is anointed with holy oil, invested with regalia, and crowned, before receiving the homage of his or her subjects. Wives of kings are then anointed and crowned as queen consort. The service ends with a closing procession, and since the 20th century it has been traditional for the royal family to appear later on the balcony of Buckingham Palace, before attending a banquet there.

Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn by British kings and queens at their coronations.Symbols of 800 years of monarchy, the coronation regalia are the only working set in Europe – other present-day monarchies have abandoned coronations in favour of secular ceremonies – and the collection is the most historically complete of any regalia in the world. Objects used to invest and crown the monarch variously denote his or her roles as head of state, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, and head of the British armed forces. They feature heraldic devices and national emblems of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and recent pieces were designed to reflect the monarch's role as Head of the Commonwealth.

Use of regalia by monarchs in England can be traced back to when it was converted to Christianity in the Middle Ages. A permanent set of coronation regalia, once belonging to Edward the Confessor, was established after he was made a saint in the 12th century. They were holy relics kept at Westminster Abbey – venue of coronations since 1066. Another set was used at religious feasts and State Openings of Parliament. Collectively, these objects came to be known as the Jewels of the Crown. Most of the present collection dates from around 350 years ago when Charles II ascended the throne. The medieval and Tudor regalia had been sold or melted down after the monarchy was abolished in 1649 during the English Civil War. Only four original items pre-date the Restoration: a late 12th-century anointing spoon (the oldest object) and three early 17th-century swords. Upon the Acts of Union 1707, the English Crown Jewels were adopted by British monarchs; the Scottish regalia are known today as the Honours of Scotland.

The regalia contain 23,578 stones, among them Cullinan I (530 carats (106 g)), the largest clear cut diamond in the world, set in the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross. It was cut from the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found, the Cullinan, discovered in South Africa in 1905 and presented to Edward VII. On the Imperial State Crown are Cullinan II (317 carats (63 g)), the Stuart Sapphire, St Edward's Sapphire, and the Black Prince's Ruby – a large spinel given to Edward the Black Prince by a Spanish king in 1367. The Koh-i-Noor diamond (105 carats (21 g)), originally from India, was acquired by Queen Victoria and has featured on three consort crowns. A small number of historical objects at the Tower are either empty or set with glass and crystals.

At a coronation the monarch is anointed using holy oil poured from an ampulla into the spoon, invested with robes and ornaments, and crowned with St Edward's Crown. Afterwards, it is exchanged for the lighter Imperial State Crown, which is also usually worn at State Openings of Parliament. Wives of kings are invested with a plainer set of regalia, and since 1831 a new crown has been made specially for each queen consort. Also regarded as Crown Jewels are state swords, trumpets, ceremonial maces, church plate, historical regalia, banqueting plate, and royal christening fonts. They are part of the Royal Collection and belong to the institution of monarchy, passing from one sovereign to the next. When not in use the Jewels are on public display in the Jewel House and Martin Tower where they are seen by 2.5 million visitors every year.

Edgar the Peaceful

Edgar (Old English: Ēadgār, [æːɑdɣɑːr]; c. 943—8 July 975), known as the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 until his death. He was the younger son of Edmund I and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury, and came to the throne as a teenager, following the death of his older brother Eadwig. As king, Edgar further consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors, with his reign being noted for its relative stability. His most trusted advisor was Dunstan, whom he recalled from exile and made Archbishop of Canterbury. The pinnacle of Edgar's reign was his coronation at Bath in 973, which was organised by Dunstan and forms the basis for the current coronation ceremony. After his death he was succeeded by his son Edward, although the succession was disputed.

Fleet review (Commonwealth realms)

A fleet review is a traditional gathering of ships from a particular navy to be observed by the reigning monarch or his or her representative, a practice allegedly dating back to the 15th century. Such an event is not held at regular intervals and originally only occurred when the fleet was mobilised for war or for a show of strength to discourage potential enemies. However, since the 19th century, they have often been held for the coronation or for special royal jubilees and increasingly included delegates from other national navies.

King George VI Coronation Medal

The King George VI Coronation Medal was a commemorative medal, instituted to celebrate the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.

List of Coronation Street characters

The following is a list of current characters in the ITV soap opera Coronation Street listed in order of appearance. If more than one actor has portrayed a character then the current actor portraying is listed.

List of Coronation Street characters (1961)

Coronation Street is a British soap opera, initially produced by Granada Television. Created by writer Tony Warren, Coronation Street first broadcast on ITV on 9 December 1960. The following is a list of characters introduced in the show's second year, by order of first appearance.

Originally written by Warren, the series is produced by Stuart Latham until July and then by Derek Granger from July onwards. In January, Latham introduced four new regular characters, the first batch to arrive since Warren's initial creations at the start of the series a month earlier. These were factory workers Sheila Birtles (Eileen Mayers) and Doreen Lostock (Angela Crow), timid shop assistant Emily Nugent (Eileen Derbyshire) and an extension to the Walker family, Annie and Jack's son Billy Walker (Ken Farrington). Derbyshire departed from the role of Emily in 2016.

January also saw the introduction of Len Fairclough (Peter Adamson), a character who would become one of the series' central figures and the show's most prominent alpha male. Adamson continued in the role for twenty-two years. Bryan Mosley also made his first appearance as Alf Roberts later in February, originally a recurring role, Alf was not made a regular until 1971. In April, petty criminal Jed Stone (Kenneth Cope) moved in. June saw the show's first birth, as Paul Cheveski was born to parents Linda and Ivan.

Granger took over as producer in July, and he introduces Valerie Tatlock (Anne Reid) in early August, followed by Bill Gregory (Jack Watson) in his first of four short stints in October.

List of Coronation Street characters (1978)

1978 saw three new characters making their debuts on Coronation Street: Ed Jackson, Ida Clough and Brian Tilsley.

List of Coronation Street characters (2005)

The following is a list of characters that first appeared in the ITV soap opera Coronation Street in 2005, by order of first appearance.

List of Coronation Street characters (2010)

The following is a list of characters that first appeared in the ITV soap opera Coronation Street in 2010, by order of first appearance.

List of Coronation Street characters (2018)

Coronation Street is a British soap opera first broadcast on 9 December 1960. The following is a list of characters introduced in 2018, by order of first appearance. All characters are introduced by series producer Kate Oates or her successor, Iain MacLeod. The first character to be introduced is Josh Tucker (Ryan Clayton), the rapist of David Platt (Jack P. Shepherd), in January. Gail Rodwell's (Helen Worth) clairvoyant Rosemary Piper (Sophie Thompson), Liz McDonald's (Beverley Callard) new love interest Mike Thornberry (Louis Emerick) and Geoff Metcalfe (Ian Bartholomew), Tim Metcalfe's (Joe Duttine) father, joined the show in March. April saw Emma Brooker (Alexandra Mardell), a new love interest for David, and Kayla Clifton (Mollie Winnard), a character introduced to continue Bethany Platt's (Lucy Fallon) sexual exploitation storyline, make their first appearances, while the year's first birth, Susie Barlow, daughter of Aidan Connor (Shayne Ward) and Eva Price (Catherine Tyldesley), also took place this month. Mr Fitzgerald (Adam Weafer) appeared in July. Sally Metcalfe's (Sally Dynevor) lawyer Paula Martin (Stirling Gallacher) joined the cast in August, while Liz and Jim McDonald's (Charles Lawson) fraudulent "daughter" Hannah Gilmore (Hannah Ellis Ryan), Tyrone Dobbs' (Alan Halsall) long-lost grandmother Evelyn Plummer (Maureen Lipman) and Vicky Jefferies (Kerri Quinn) were introduced in September. Elsa Tilsley (Kelly Harrison), Nick Tilsley's (Ben Price) secret wife, joined the cast in November.

List of past Coronation Street characters

Coronation Street is a British television soap opera. It was first broadcast on 9 December 1960. The following is a list of all the former characters and the actors who portrayed them in alphabetical order.

Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal

The Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal is a commemorative medal instituted to celebrate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on 2 June 1953.

Regalia

Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign.

The word stems from the Latin substantivation of the adjective regalis, "regal", itself from rex, "king". It is sometimes used in the singular, regale.

Stone of Scone

The Stone of Scone (; Scottish Gaelic: An Lia Fàil, Scots: Stane o Scuin)—also known as the Stone of Destiny, and often referred to in England as The Coronation Stone—is an oblong block of red sandstone that has been used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland, and later the monarchs of England and those of the United Kingdom. Historically, the artefact was kept at the now-ruined Scone Abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. It is also known as Jacob's Pillow Stone and the Tanist Stone, and in Scottish Gaelic, clach-na-cinneamhain. Its size is approximately 660 mm (26 in) by 425 mm (16.7 in) by 267 mm (10.5 in) and its weight is approximately 152 kg (335 lb). A roughly incised cross is on one surface, and an iron ring at each end aids with transport. The Stone of Scone was last used in 1953 for the coronation of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The British Soap Awards

The British Soap Awards is an annual awards ceremony in the United Kingdom which honours the best of British soap operas. The ceremony is televised on ITV and currently presented by Phillip Schofield. The trophies given to the winners are made from metal and glass and have been manufactured by British firm Creative Awards since their inception.

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Regalia and Crown jewels by country

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