Cornucopia

In classical antiquity, the cornucopia /ˌkɔːrnjəˈkoʊpiə, ˌkɔːrnə-/ (from Latin cornu copiae), also called the horn of plenty, was a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers or nuts.

Peter Paul Rubens - Abundance (Abundantia) - Google Art Project
Allegorical depiction of the Roman goddess Abundantia with a cornucopia, by Rubens (ca. 1630)

In mythology

Salvator Rosa (Italian) - Allegory of Fortune - Google Art Project
Allegory of Fortune (1658) by Salvator Rosa, representing Fortuna, the Goddess of luck, with the horn of plenty
Cornucopia
Poster of cornucopia for California

Mythology offers multiple explanations of the origin of the cornucopia. One of the best-known involves the birth and nurturance of the infant Zeus, who had to be hidden from his devouring father Kronus. In a cave on Mount Ida on the island of Crete, baby Zeus was cared for and protected by a number of divine attendants, including the goat Amaltheia ("Nourishing Goddess"), who fed him with her milk. The suckling future king of the gods had unusual abilities and strength, and in playing with his nursemaid accidentally broke off one of her horns, which then had the divine power to provide unending nourishment, as the foster mother had to the god.[1]

In another myth, the cornucopia was created when Heracles (Roman Hercules) wrestled with the river god Achelous and wrenched off one of his horns; river gods were sometimes depicted as horned.[2] This version is represented in the Achelous and Hercules mural painting by the American Regionalist artist Thomas Hart Benton.

The cornucopia became the attribute of several Greek and Roman deities, particularly those associated with the harvest, prosperity, or spiritual abundance, such as personifications of Earth (Gaia or Terra); the child Plutus, god of riches and son of the grain goddess Demeter; the nymph Maia; and Fortuna, the goddess of luck, who had the power to grant prosperity. In Roman Imperial cult, abstract Roman deities who fostered peace (pax Romana) and prosperity were also depicted with a cornucopia, including Abundantia, "Abundance" personified, and Annona, goddess of the grain supply to the city of Rome. Hades, the classical ruler of the underworld in the mystery religions, was a giver of agricultural, mineral and spiritual wealth, and in art often holds a cornucopia.[3]

Modern depictions

In modern depictions, the cornucopia is typically a hollow, horn-shaped wicker basket filled with various kinds of festive fruit and vegetables. In most of North America, the cornucopia has come to be associated with Thanksgiving and the harvest. Cornucopia is also the name of the annual November Food and Wine celebration in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. Two cornucopias are seen in the flag and state seal of Idaho. The Great Seal of North Carolina depicts Liberty standing and Plenty holding a cornucopia. The coat of arms of Colombia, Panama, Peru and Venezuela, and the Coat of Arms of the State of Victoria, Australia, also feature the cornucopia, symbolizing prosperity.

In Terry Pratchett's Discworld series of fantasy novels, the witch Tiffany Aching was briefly in possession of the Cornucopia which is badge of office of Summer, when she contracted avatarism as well as ped fecundis during the events of Wintersmith. This causes problems by spurting out food and animals, including a massive flock of chickens.

The motif of the cornucopia is used in the book series The Hunger Games. In the eponymous gladiatorial games described in the series, a large horn-like cache filled with weapons and equipment is placed at the starting point: this cache serves as the focal point of fighting during the games' first minutes, and is even called the "Cornucopia". In the film adaptation, the national anthem of Panem, the series' primary setting, is called "the Horn of Plenty", which is mentioned several times in the lyrics.

The horn of plenty is used for body art and at Halloween, as it is a symbol of fertility, fortune and abundance.[4]

Gallery

Pfarrkirchen - Deckenfresco - Lauretanische Litanei - Engel mit Füllhorn

Angel with cornucopia

Corne d'Abondance Statue Louis XV Reims 270608 1

Base of a statue of
Louis XV of France

Cornucopia kitsch

Cornucopia as an object used in interior decoration

Jacob Jordaens- Al·legoria de la Pau

Allegory of peace and happiness of the state. Eirene with cornucopia

Hunts CoA

Coat of arms of
Huntingdonshire, England

PosagFloryWSzczecinie

Cornucopia in the Statue of Flora in Szczecin, Poland

See also

References

  1. ^ David Leeming, The Oxford Companion to World Mythology (Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 13; Robert Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 422.
  2. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 9.87–88, as cited by J. Rufus Fears, "The Cult of Virtues and Roman Imperial Ideology," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.17.2 (1981), p. 821.
  3. ^ Kevin Clinton, Myth and Cult: The Iconography of the Eleusinian Mysteries (Stockholm, 1992), pp. 105–107.
  4. ^ Hastings, James, ed. (1910). Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. III.
A Christmas Cornucopia

A Christmas Cornucopia is the fifth studio album, and the first Christmas album, by Scottish singer-songwriter Annie Lennox, released in November 2010. It was Lennox's first album after signing to the Universal Music Group (Island Records in the UK, Decca in the US and Canada) following her departure from Sony BMG, which had been her label for almost 30 years.

The album is a collection of Lennox's favourite Christmas songs, though includes one original track written by Lennox, "Universal Child", which was released digitally as a single on 12 October 2010. A music video for Lennox's version of the classic Christmas carol "God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen" premiered on 4 November 2010, which was released as the second digital single from the album.

Coat of arms of Colombia

The coat of arms of Colombia contains a shield with numerous symbols. Perched on top of the shield is an Andean condor holding an olive crown and the condor symbolizing freedom. The national motto, Libertad y Orden (Spanish for Liberty and Order), is on a scroll in between the bird and the shield in black font over golden background. The condor is depicted as displayed (with his wings extended) and looking to the right.

Coat of arms of Honduras

The coat of arms of Honduras features the text "Republic of Honduras free sovereign and independent", topped with a cornucopia, a quiver of arrows, flanked by deciduous trees and limestone cliffs, with a Masonic eye at the center. The coat of arms of Honduras was accepted in 1825 and is valid today. It was slightly modified in 1935. It is similar to the coat of arms of Guatemala of 1843.

The coat of arms shows the triangle coat of arms of the Federal Republic of Central America with a volcano between two golden towers in an oval. The towers stand for the defense readiness and the independence of the country. The triangle symbolizes equality and freedom. Behind it are a sun and a rainbow.

Around the oval is the text Republica de Honduras Libre Soberana E Independiente, thus free, sovereign, independent Republic of Honduras. On the oval are two cornucopia and a bundle of arrows. The arrows remind of the native inhabitants of the country. Under the oval a landscape with oaks, Pine, tillage implements and devices for the mining industry is shown - symbols of the natural wealth of the country.

Coat of arms of Peru

The Coat of arms of Peru is the national symbolic emblem of Peru. Four variants are used: the Coat of arms per se (Escudo de Armas); the National Coat of arms, or National Shield (Escudo Nacional); the Great Seal of the State (Gran Sello del Estado); and the Naval Coat of arms (Escudo de la Marina de Guerra).

Cornucopia, Oregon

Cornucopia is a ghost town built during the gold mining boom of the 1880s in Eastern Oregon, United States. The town was officially platted in 1886 and was a mining town with various levels of success until it was abandoned in 1942. It is now primarily a tourist attraction as a ghost town. It is located east of Baker City high in the mountains of Pine Valley almost due north of Halfway, Oregon, on Oregon Route 86.

Cornucopia, Wisconsin

Cornucopia is an unincorporated census-designated place in the town of Bell in northern Bayfield County, Wisconsin, United States. It is situated on Lake Superior at the northern end of the Bayfield Peninsula, on Wisconsin Highway 13. As of the 2010 census, its population was 98. The community borders the lake at Siskiwit Bay, between Roman's Point and Mawikwe (formerly Squaw) Point. It is near a mainland portion of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, which features the Mawikwe Bay Sea Caves.

Most residents of the Town of Bell with Cornucopia mailing addresses are considered residents of Cornucopia.

Cornucopia (Björk concert tour)

Cornucopia is an upcoming concert series and theatrical production by Icelandic singer and songwriter Björk. Directed by award-winning film director, screenwriter and producer Lucrecia Martel, it will feature several musical acts that performed with Björk on her 2018 Utopia Tour. Media artist Tobias Gremmler will create digital visuals in an environment designed by stage designer Chloe Lamford. It is Björk's first theatrical presentation and she described it as "my most elaborate stage concert yet." It will premiere as one of the inaugural shows at Manhattan's The Shed art space on 6 May 2019.

Cornucopia (album)

Cornucopia is an album by American jazz trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie featuring performances of popular songs recorded in 1969 and originally released on the Solid State label.

Cornucopia (magazine)

Cornucopia is a magazine about Turkish culture, art and history, published jointly in the United Kingdom and Turkey.

Flag and coat of arms of New Jersey

The coat of arms of the state of New Jersey includes:

A shield with three plows, representative of New Jersey's agricultural tradition.

A forward-facing helmet.

A horse's head as the crest of the helmet.

The female figures Liberty and Ceres, representative of the state's motto (see next item). Liberty is holding a staff supporting a "liberty cap"; Ceres is holding an overflowing cornucopia.

The streamer at the foot of the emblem contains the State Motto of New Jersey, "Liberty and Prosperity", and the year of statehood, 1776.It was originally designed by Pierre Eugene du Simitiere in 1777 and was modified slightly in 1928.The seal is the central motif in the flag of New Jersey and the great seal of the state of New Jersey.

The coat of arms contains a horse's head; beneath that is a helmet, showing that New Jersey governs itself, and it has three plows on a shield to highlight the state's agriculture tradition, which shows why the state has the nickname "Garden State". The two Goddesses represent the state motto, "Liberty and Prosperity". Liberty is on the left. She is holding a staff with a liberty cap on it, and the word liberty underneath her. The goddess on the right is Ceres, goddess of agriculture. She is holding a cornucopia with prosperity written below her.According to the minutes of the New Jersey General Assembly for May 11, 1896, the date on which the Assembly officially approved the flag as the state emblem, the buff color is due indirectly to George Washington, who had ordered on September 14, 1779, that the uniform coats of the New Jersey Continental Line be dark (Jersey) blue, with buff facings. Buff-colored facings had until then been reserved only for his own uniform and those of other Continental generals and their aides. Then, on February 14, 1780 the Continental War Officers in Philadelphia directed that the uniform coat facings of all regiments were to be the same as the background color of the regiments' state flag.The seal is described in New Jersey statute Title 52, §2-1:

The great seal of this state shall be engraved on silver, which shall be round, of two and a half inches in diameter and three-eighths of an inch thick; the arms shall be three ploughs in an escutcheon, azure; supporters, Liberty and Ceres. The Goddess Liberty to carry in her dexter hand a pole, proper, surmounted by a cap gules, with band azure at the bottom, displaying on the band six stars, argent; tresses falling on shoulders, proper; head bearing over all a chaplet of laurel leaves, vert; overdress, tenne; underskirt, argent; feet sandaled, standing on scroll. Ceres: Same as Liberty, save overdress, gules; holding in left hand a cornucopia, or, bearing apples, plums and grapes surrounded by leaves, all proper; head bearing over all a chaplet of wheat spears, vert. Shield surmounted by sovereign's helmet, six bars, or; wreath and mantling, argent and azure. Crest: A horse's head, proper. Underneath the shield and supporting the goddesses, a scroll azure, bordered with tenne, in three waves or folds; on the upper folds the words "Liberty and Prosperity" ; on the under fold in Arabic numerals, the figures "1776". These words to be engraved round the arms, viz., "The Great Seal of the State of New Jersey".

In 2015 a circular letter issued by the State of New Jersey Department of the Treasury addressed the issue of unapproved and incorrect versions of "The Great Seal of the State of New Jersey". Many incorrectly show the underskirt in blue and not argent.

Genius loci

In classical Roman religion, a genius loci (plural genii locorum) was the protective spirit of a place. It was often depicted in religious iconography as a figure holding attributes such as a cornucopia, patera (libation bowl) or snake. Many Roman altars found throughout the Western Roman Empire were dedicated to a particular genius loci. The Roman imperial cults of the Emperor and the imperial house developed in part in connections with the sacrifices made by neighborhood associations (vici) to the local genius. These 265 local districts had their cult organised around the Lares Compitales (guardian spirits or lares of the crossroads), which the emperor Augustus transformed into Lares Augusti along with the Genius Augusti. The Emperor's genius is then regarded as the genius loci of the Roman Empire as a whole.

Roman examples of these Genii can be found, for example, at the church of St. Giles, Tockenham, Wiltshire where the genius locus is depicted as a relief in the wall of a Norman church built of Roman material. This shows "a youthful and curly-haired Roman Genius worked in high relief, holding a cornucopia in his left hand and a patera in his right", which previously has been "erroneously identified as Asclepius".

Leszek Kołakowski

Leszek Kołakowski (; Polish: [ˈlɛʂɛk kɔwaˈkɔfskʲi]; 23 October 1927 – 17 July 2009) was a Polish philosopher and historian of ideas.

He is best known for his critical analyses of Marxist thought, especially his three-volume history, Main Currents of Marxism (1976). In his later work, Kolakowski increasingly focused on religious questions. In his 1986 Jefferson Lecture, he asserted that "We learn history not in order to know how to behave or how to succeed, but to know who we are."Due to his criticism of Marxism and Communism, Kołakowski was effectively exiled from Poland in 1968. He spent most of the remainder of his career at All Souls College, Oxford. Despite this exile, Kołakowski was a major inspiration for the Solidarity movement that flourished in Poland in the 1980s and helped bring about the collapse of the Soviet Union, leading to his being described as the "awakener of human hopes".

Oregon Route 86

Oregon Route 86 is an Oregon state highway running from Interstate 84 at Baker City to the Idaho state line at Oxbow (near the former site of Copperfield). OR 86 comprises most of the Baker-Copperfield Highway No. 12 (see Oregon highways and routes). It is 67.82 miles (109.15 km) long and runs east–west. OR 86 has an unsigned spur near Halfway, which runs for 1.15 miles (1.85 km). Most of OR 86 is part of the Hells Canyon Scenic Byway.

Pollicipes pollicipes

Pollicipes pollicipes, known as the goose neck barnacle, goose barnacle or leaf barnacle is a species of goose barnacle, also well known under the taxonomic synonym Pollicipes cornucopia. It is closely related to Pollicipes polymerus, a species with the same common names, but found on the Pacific coast of North America, and to Pollicipes elegans a species from the coast of Chile. It is found on rocky shores in the north-east Atlantic Ocean and is prized as a delicacy, especially in the Iberian Peninsula.

Rosmerta

In Gallo-Roman religion, Rosmerta was a goddess of fertility and abundance, her attributes being those of plenty such as the cornucopia. Rosmerta is attested by statues, and by inscriptions. In Gaul she was often depicted with the Roman god Mercury as her consort, but is sometimes found independently.

Seal of North Carolina

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina was first authorized by the North Carolina Constitution of 1776, created in its first form in 1778, and largely took on its modern form in 1835. According to a state law passed by the North Carolina General Assembly in the 19th century:

The Governor shall procure of the State a Seal, which shall be called the great seal of the State of North Carolina, and shall be two and one-quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representation of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not more than half-fronting each other and other-wise disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole with a cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word "Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of grain in her right hand, and in her left, the small end of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of the horn rolling out.

The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains running from the left to the right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three-masted ship shall be located on the ocean and to the right of Plenty. The date "May 20, 1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the seal and the words "esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around the perimeter. No other words, figures or other embellishments shall appear on the seal.

The date of May 20, 1775, refers to the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, allegedly the first declaration of independence adopted during the American Revolution.

The motto "Esse quam videri" means "To Be Rather Than To Seem." The "pole with a cap" is a liberty pole.

In 1971, the seal was officially standardized after the state's chief deputy attorney general discovered that there was more than one version in use. In 1983, state Senator Julian R. Allsbrook proposed a revision to the seal to add to the seal the date April 12, 1776, the date of the Halifax Resolves; this revision was approved by the state legislature. These two dates are also on the flag of North Carolina.

Seal of Wisconsin

The Great Seal of the State of Wisconsin is a seal used by the secretary of state to authenticate all of the governor’s official acts, except laws. It consists of the state coat of arms, with the words "Great Seal of the State of Wisconsin" above it and 13 stars, representing the original states, below it.

Top:

Forward, the state motto

A badger, the state animal

Center, the state shield:

Top left: A plow, representing agriculture

Top right: A pick and shovel, representing mining

Bottom left: An arm-and-hammer, representing manufacturing

Bottom right: An anchor, representing navigation

Center: The U.S. coat of arms, including the motto E Pluribus Unum

The shield is supported by a sailor and a yeoman (usually considered a miner), representing labor on water and land

Bottom:

A cornucopia, representing prosperity and abundance

13 lead ingots, representing mineral wealth and the 13 original United StatesThe state seal emphasizes mining and shipping because at the time of Wisconsin's founding in 1848 the mining of lead and iron and shipping (via the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River) were major industries.

The Secretary of State is the keeper of Wisconsin's great seal. The seal is displayed in all courtrooms in the state, often alongside the county seal.

Tragedy of the commons

The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action. The concept and phrase originated in an essay written in 1833 by the British economist William Forster Lloyd, who used a hypothetical example of the effects of unregulated grazing on common land (also known as a "common") in Great Britain and Ireland. The concept became widely known over a century later due to an article written by the American ecologist and philosopher Garrett Hardin in 1968. In this modern economic context, commons is taken to mean any shared and unregulated resource such as atmosphere, oceans, rivers, fish stocks, or even an office refrigerator.

It has been argued that the very term 'tragedy of the Commons' is a misnomer, since 'the commons' referred to land resources with rights jointly owned by members of a community, and no individual outside the community had any access to the resource. However, the term is now used in social science and economics when describing a problem where all individuals have equal and open access to a resource. Hence, 'tragedy of open access regimes' or simply 'the open access problem' are more apt terms.The 'tragedy of the commons' is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation and sociology.

Although common resource systems have been known to collapse due to overuse (such as in over-fishing), many examples have existed and still do exist where members of a community with access to a common resource co-operate or regulate to exploit those resources prudently without collapse. Elinor Ostrom was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics for demonstrating exactly this concept in her book Governing the Commons, which included examples of how local communities were able to do this without top-down regulations.

Vol. 4 (Black Sabbath album)

Vol. 4 is the fourth studio album by English rock band Black Sabbath, released in September 1972. It was the first album by Black Sabbath not produced by Rodger Bain; guitarist Tony Iommi assumed production duties. Patrick Meehan, the band's then-manager, was listed as co-producer, though his actual involvement in the album's production was minimal.

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