Cornell George Hopley-Woolrich (December 4, 1903 – September 25, 1968) was an American novelist and short story writer who wrote using the name Cornell Woolrich, and sometimes the pseudonyms William Irish and George Hopley.
His biographer, Francis Nevins Jr., rated Woolrich the fourth best crime writer of his day, behind Dashiell Hammett, Erle Stanley Gardner and Raymond Chandler. A check of film titles reveals that more film noir screenplays were adapted from works by Woolrich than any other crime novelist, and many of his stories were adapted during the 1940s for Suspense and other dramatic radio programs.
Cornell George Hopley-Woolrich
December 4, 1903
|Died||September 25, 1968 (aged 64)|
New York City
|Other names||William Irish, George Hopley|
|Alma mater||Columbia University|
|Spouse(s)||Violet Virginia Blackton (m. 1930–1933)|
Woolrich was born in New York City; his parents separated when he was young. He lived for a time in Mexico with his father before returning to New York to live with his mother, Claire Attalie Woolrich.
He attended Columbia University but left in 1926 without graduating when his first novel, Cover Charge, was published. As Eddie Duggan observes, "Woolrich enrolled at New York's Columbia University in 1921 where he spent a relatively undistinguished year until he was taken ill and was laid up for some weeks. It was during this illness (a Rear-Window-like confinement involving a gangrenous foot, according to one version of the story) that Woolrich started writing, producing Cover Charge, which was published in 1926." Cover Charge was one of his Jazz Age novels inspired by the work of F. Scott Fitzgerald. A second short story, Children of the Ritz, won Woolrich the first prize of $10,000 the following year in a competition organised by College Humor and First National Pictures; this led to his working as screenwriter in Hollywood for First National Pictures. While in Hollywood, Woolrich explored his sexuality, apparently engaging in what Frances M. Nevins Jr. describes as "promiscuous and clandestine homosexual activity" and by marrying Violet Virginia Blackton, the 21-year-old daughter of J. Stuart Blackton one of the founders of the Vitagraph studio. Failing in both his attempt at marriage and at establishing a career as a screenwriter (the unconsummated marriage was annulled in 1933; Woolrich garnered no screen credits), Woolrich sought to resume his life as a novelist:
Although Woolrich had published six 'jazz-age' novels, concerned with the party-antics and romances of the beautiful young things on the fringes of American society, between 1926 and 1932, he was unable to establish himself as a serious writer. Perhaps because the 'jazz-age' novel was dead in the water by the 1930s when the depression had begun to take hold, Woolrich was unable to find a publisher for his seventh novel, I Love You, Paris, so he literally threw away the typescript, dumped it in a dustbin, and re-invented himself as a pulp writer.
When he turned to pulp and detective fiction, Woolrich's output was so prolific his work was often published under one of his many pseudonyms. For example, "William Irish" was the byline in Dime Detective Magazine (February 1942) on his 1942 story "It Had to Be Murder", source of the 1954 Alfred Hitchcock movie Rear Window and itself based on H.G. Wells' short story "Through a Window". François Truffaut filmed Woolrich's The Bride Wore Black and Waltz into Darkness in 1968 and 1969, respectively, the latter as Mississippi Mermaid. Ownership of the copyright in Woolrich's original story "It Had to Be Murder" and its use for Rear Window was litigated before the US Supreme Court in Stewart v. Abend, 495 U.S. 207 (1990).
He returned to New York where he and his mother moved into the Hotel Marseilles (Broadway and West 103rd Street). Eddie Duggan observes that "[a]lthough his writing made him wealthy, Woolrich and his mother lived in a series of seedy hotel rooms, including the squalid Hotel Marseilles apartment building in Harlem, among a group of thieves, prostitutes and lowlifes that would not be out of place in Woolrich's dark fictional world". Woolrich lived there until his mother's death on October 6, 1957, which prompted his move to the Hotel Franconia (20 West 72nd Street). In later years, he socialized on occasion in Manhattan bars with Mystery Writers of America colleagues and younger fans such as writer Ron Goulart, but alcoholism and an amputated leg (caused by an infection from a too-tight shoe which went untreated) left him a recluse. As Duggan writes:
[After] Woolrich's mother died in 1957, he [went] into a sharp physical and mental decline. Although he moved from Harlem's decrepit Hotel Marseilles to a more upmarket residence in the Hotel Franconia near Central Park, and later to the Sheraton-Russell on Park Avenue, Woolrich was a virtual recluse. Now in his 60s, with his eyesight failing, lonely, psychologically wracked by guilt over his homosexuality, tortured by his alcoholism, self-doubt, and a diabetic to boot, Woolrich neglected himself to such a degree that he allowed a foot infection to become gangrenous which resulted, early in 1968, in the amputation of a leg.
After the amputation, and a conversion to Catholicism, Woolrich returned to the Sheraton-Russell, confined to a wheelchair. Some of the staff there would take Woolrich down to the lobby so he could look out on the passing traffic, thus making the wizened, wheelchair-bound Woolrich into a kind of darker, self-loathing version of the character played by James Stewart in Hitchcock's Rear Window.
With the type of closure that is usually only encountered as a literary device, the Woolrich story turns full-circle around the Oedipally charged foot motif, the writing career that apparently began with a period of confinement attributed to a foot infection ends with an amputation, and the deep Freudian resonance that amputation induces.
Woolrich did not attend the premiere of Truffaut's film of his novel The Bride Wore Black in 1968, even though it was held in New York City. He died weighing 89 pounds. He is interred in the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.
Woolrich bequeathed his estate of about $850,000 to Columbia University to endow scholarships in his mother's memory for writing students.
Woolrich's novels written between 1940 and 1948 are considered his principal legacy. During this time, he definitively became an author of novel-length crime fiction which stands apart from his first six works.
Most of Woolrich's books are out of print, and new editions have not come out because of estate issues. However, new collections of his short stories were issued in the early 1990s.
Woolrich died leaving fragments of an unfinished novel, titled The Loser; fragments have been published separately and also collected in Tonight, Somewhere in New York (2005).
|1926||Cover Charge||Cornell Woolrich|
|1927||Children of the Ritz||Cornell Woolrich|
|1929||Times Square||Cornell Woolrich|
|1930||A Young Man's Heart||Cornell Woolrich|
|1931||The Time of Her Life||Cornell Woolrich|
|1932||Manhattan Love Song||Cornell Woolrich|
|1940||The Bride Wore Black||Cornell Woolrich|
|1941||The Black Curtain||Cornell Woolrich|
|1942||Black Alibi||Cornell Woolrich|
|1942||Phantom Lady||William Irish|
|1943||The Black Angel||Cornell Woolrich|
|1944||The Black Path of Fear||Cornell Woolrich|
|1944||Deadline at Dawn||William Irish|
|1945||Night Has a Thousand Eyes||George Hopley|
|1947||Waltz Into Darkness||William Irish|
|1948||Rendezvous in Black||Cornell Woolrich|
|1948||I Married a Dead Man||William Irish|
|1950||Savage Bride||Cornell Woolrich|
|1951||You'll Never See Me Again||Cornell Woolrich|
|1951||Strangler's Serenade||William Irish|
|1952||Eyes That Watch You||William Irish|
|1952||Bluebeard's Seventh Wife||William Irish|
|1959||Death is My Dancing Partner||Cornell Woolrich|
|1960||The Doom Stone||Cornell Woolrich|
|1987||Into the Night||Cornell Woolrich||(Posthumous release, manuscript completed by Lawrence Block)|
|1943||I Wouldn't Be in Your Shoes||William Irish|
|1944||After-Dinner Story||William Irish||Includes his noted 1941 novella "Marihuana".|
|1946||If I Should Die Before I Wake||William Irish|
|1946||Borrowed Crime||William Irish|
|1946||The Dancing Detective||William Irish|
|1948||Dead Man Blues||William Irish|
|1949||The Blue Ribbon||William Irish|
|1950||Somebody on the Phone||William Irish||A.k.a "Deadly Night Call"|
|1950||Six Nights of Mystery||William Irish|
|1956||Nightmare||Cornell Woolrich||Includes some previously unpublished stories.|
|1958||Violence||Cornell Woolrich||Includes some previously unpublished stories.|
|1958||Hotel Room||Cornell Woolrich|
|1959||Beyond the Night||Cornell Woolrich|
|1964||The Dark Side of Love||Cornell Woolrich|
|1965||The Ten Faces of Cornell Woolrich||Cornell Woolrich|
|2010||Four Novellas of Fear||Cornell Woolrich|
Black Angel is a 1946 American crime film noir directed by Roy William Neill starring Dan Duryea, June Vincent and Peter Lorre.Deadline at Dawn
Deadline at Dawn is a 1946 film noir, the only film directed by stage director Harold Clurman. It was written by Clifford Odets and based on a novel of the same name by Cornell Woolrich (as William Irish). The RKO Pictures film release was the only cinematic collaboration between Clurman and his former Group Theatre associate, screenwriter Odets. The director of photography was RKO regular Nicholas Musuraca. The musical score was by German refugee composer Hanns Eisler.Don't Ever Open That Door
Don't Ever Open That Door (Spanish:No abras nunca esa puerta) is a 1952 Argentine thriller film directed by Carlos Hugo Christensen and starring Ángel Magana, Roberto Escalada and Norma Giménez. It is a film noir in two separate episodes, both based on short stories by Cornell Woolrich.
The film's sets were designed by the art director Gori Muñoz.Fall Guy (1947 film)
Fall Guy is a 1947 American crime film noir directed by Reginald Le Borg. The drama features Leo Penn, Robert Armstrong and Teala Loring. The film is based on Cornell Woolrich's short story, "Cocaine."Fear in the Night (1947 film)
Fear in the Night is a 1947 film noir crime film directed by Maxwell Shane starring Paul Kelly and DeForest Kelley (in his film debut). It is based on the Cornell Woolrich story "And So to Death" (retitled '"Nightmare" in 1943). Woolrich is credited under pen name William Irish. The film was remade by the same director in 1956 with the title Nightmare this time starring Edward G. Robinson playing the cop and Kevin McCarthy.I Wouldn't Be in Your Shoes
I Wouldn't Be in Your Shoes is a 1948 American film noir directed by William Nigh, starring Don Castle and Elyse Knox. It was based on a novel of the same name by Cornell Woolrich.Martha (1974 film)
Martha is a 1974 drama film made for German television directed by Rainer Werner Fassbinder. It features Margit Carstensen in the title role with Karlheinz Böhm as her abusive husband. It is one of the earliest of Fassbinder's films to be influenced by the American work of Douglas Sirk. The plot was loosely based on a short story "For the Rest of Her Life" by Cornell Woolrich.Night Has a Thousand Eyes
See also The Night Has a Thousand Eyes (disambiguation).Night Has a Thousand Eyes is a 1948 film noir, starring Edward G. Robinson and directed by John Farrow. The screenplay was written by Barré Lyndon and Jonathan Latimer. The film is based on the novel of the same name by Cornell Woolrich, originally published under the pseudonym "George Hopley".Nightmare (1956 film)
Nightmare is a 1956 American film noir crime film directed by Maxwell Shane starring Edward G. Robinson, Kevin McCarthy and Connie Russell.The story is based on a novel by William Irish (aka Cornell Woolrich). The book also became a 1947 film, Fear in the Night, made by the same writer-director . Nightmare had been the original title of Fear in the Night.No Man of Her Own
No Man of Her Own is a 1950 American film noir drama directed by Mitchell Leisen and featuring Barbara Stanwyck, John Lund, Phyllis Thaxter, Jane Cowl and Lyle Bettger.It was the second film Stanwyck made with director Mitchell Leisen and it was based on the Cornell Woolrich novel I Married a Dead Man. Woolrich is credited as William Irish in the film's opening credits.Obsession (1954 film)
Obsession is a 1954 French language motion picture crime drama directed by Jean Delannoy who co-wrote screenplay with Antoine Blondin, Roland Laudenbach and Gian Luigi Rondi, based on story "Silent as the Grave" by Cornell Woolrich written under the pseudonym of William Irish. The film stars Michèle Morgan and Raf Vallone.
It tells the story of a couple forming a circus trapeze act, and their involvement in a murder case.Original Sin (2001 film)
Original Sin is a 2001 erotic thriller film starring Antonio Banderas and Angelina Jolie. It is based on the novel Waltz into Darkness by Cornell Woolrich, and is a remake of the 1969 François Truffaut film Mississippi Mermaid. The movie was produced by actress Michelle Pfeiffer's production company, Via Rosa Productions.Phantom Lady (film)
Phantom Lady is a 1944 crime drama film noir directed by Robert Siodmak starring Franchot Tone, Ella Raines and Alan Curtis. The film was Siodmak's first Hollywood noir and the first film produced by Joan Harrison, Universal Pictures' earliest female executive, who was associated with Alfred Hitchcock. The film was based on the novel of the same name written by Cornell Woolrich but published under the pseudonym William Irish.Phantom Lady (novel)
Phantom Lady is a 1942 crime novel written by American author Cornell Woolrich under the pseudonym "William Irish". It is the first novel Woolrich published under the William Irish pseudonym.Rear Window (1998 film)
Rear Window is a 1998 American made-for-television crime-drama thriller film directed by Jeff Bleckner. The teleplay by Larry Gross and Eric Overmyer is an updated adaptation of the classic 1954 film of the same name directed by Alfred Hitchcock which was based on the short story "It Had to Be Murder" by Cornell Woolrich. It was broadcast in the US by ABC on November 22, 1998. This stars Christopher Reeve (in one of his final screen appearances), Daryl Hannah, and Robert Forster.The Earring
The Earring (Spanish:El Pendiente) is a 1951 Argentine thriller film directed by León Klimovsky and starring Mirtha Legrand. It is a film noir based on a story by Cornell Woolrich. The film's art direction was by Germán Gelpi and Mario Vanarelli.The Leopard Man
The Leopard Man is a 1943 horror film directed by Jacques Tourneur based on the book Black Alibi by Cornell Woolrich. It is one of the first American films to attempt an even remotely realistic portrayal of a serial killer (although that term was yet to be used).The Mark of the Whistler
The Mark of the Whistler is a 1944 American mystery film noir based on the radio drama The Whistler. Directed by William Castle, the production features Richard Dix, Porter Hall and Janis Carter. It is the second of Columbia Pictures' eight "Whistler" films produced in the 1940s, all but the last starring Dix.Union City (film)
Union City is a 1980 American crime mystery film directed by Marcus Reichert and starring Dennis Lipscomb, Deborah Harry, and Everett McGill. It was based on the short story "Union City: The Corpse Next Door" by Cornell Woolrich and released by The Tuxedo Company and Columbia Pictures on May 17, 1980.