Cordell Hull

Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) was an American politician from Tennessee best known as the longest-serving U.S. Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during most of World War II. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations".[1]

Born in Olympus, Tennessee, he pursued a legal career after graduating from the Cumberland School of Law. He won election to the Tennessee House of Representatives and served in Cuba during the Spanish–American War. He represented Tennessee in the United States House of Representatives from 1907 to 1921 and from 1923 to 1931. As a member of the House Ways and Means Committee, Hull helped pass the Revenue Act of 1913 and the Revenue Act of 1916, which implemented the federal income tax and the federal estate tax. He served as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1921 to 1924 and was a presidential candidate at the 1928 Democratic National Convention.

Hull won election to the Senate in 1930, but resigned from the Senate in 1933 to become Secretary of State. Roosevelt and Hull pursued the Good Neighbor policy, which sought to avoid U.S. intervention in Latin American affairs. In the aftermath of Mexican agrarian reforms, he developed the Hull Doctrine as a way to compensate foreign investors in the aftermath of nationalization. In November 1941, he presented the Hull note to Japan, demanding Japanese withdrawal from French Indochina and China. In 1943, Hull and his staff drafted the document that became the United Nations Charter. Hull resigned as Secretary of State due to poor health in 1944.

Hull served eleven terms in the United States House of Representatives (1907–1921 and 1923–1931) and authored the federal income tax laws of 1913 and 1916 and the inheritance tax of 1916. After an electoral defeat in 1920, Hull served as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. He was returned to the House in 1922 and was then elected to the Senate in 1930, but resigned upon being named Secretary of State in 1933. Hull recorded thirty years of combined service in the House and the Senate.

In 1933, Hull was appointed Secretary of State by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; he served 11 years until he retired from public office. Hull became the underlying force and architect in the creation of the United Nations, drafting, along with his staff, the United Nations Charter in mid-1943. He resigned as Secretary of State on November 30, 1944 because of failing health.

In 1945, Cordell Hull was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "co-initiating the United Nations".

Hull died after suffering several strokes and heart attacks in 1955 in Washington, D.C., and is buried in the vault of the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington National Cathedral, which is an Episcopal church.

There is now a Cordell Hull Museum located near his birthplace in Byrdstown, Tennessee, which houses his papers and other memorabilia.

Cordell Hull
Hull-Cordell-LOC
47th United States Secretary of State
In office
March 4, 1933 – November 30, 1944
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
DeputyWilliam Phillips
Sumner Welles
Edward Stettinius Jr.
Preceded byHenry L. Stimson
Succeeded byEdward Stettinius Jr.
United States Senator
from Tennessee
In office
March 4, 1931 – March 3, 1933
Preceded byWilliam Emerson Brock
Succeeded byNathan L. Bachman
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 4th district
In office
March 4, 1923 – March 3, 1931
Preceded byWynne F. Clouse
Succeeded byJohn R. Mitchell
In office
March 4, 1907 – March 3, 1921
Preceded byMounce Gore Butler
Succeeded byWynne F. Clouse
Chair of the Democratic National Committee
In office
November 2, 1921 – July 22, 1924
Preceded byGeorge White
Succeeded byClem L. Shaver
Personal details
BornOctober 2, 1871
Olympus, Tennessee, U.S.
DiedJuly 23, 1955 (aged 83)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Witz Whitney
(m. 1917; died 1954)
EducationNational Normal University
Cumberland University (LLB)
AwardsNobel Peace Prize
Signature
Cordell Hull's signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/serviceTennessee Volunteer Infantry
RankCaptain
Battles/warsSpanish–American War

Early life and education

Cordell-hull-birthplace-cabin
Cordell Hull's boyhood home in Olympus, Tennessee
Davis-hull-house-tn1
The Davis-Hull House in Carthage, Tennessee. The house was built by merchant Calvin Davis in 1889, and purchased by William Hull (the father of Cordell Hull) in 1906.

Cordell Hull was born in a log cabin in Olympus, Tennessee, which is now part of Pickett County, Tennessee, but was then part of Overton County He was the third of the five sons of William Paschal Hull (1840–1923) and Mary Elizabeth Hull (née Riley) (1841–1903). His brothers were named Orestes (1868), Sanadius (1870), Wyoming (1875), and Roy (1881).

Hull's father reportedly tracked down and killed a man because of a blood feud.[2] His mother was a descendant of Isaac Riley who was granted 200 acres (0.81 km2) in Pickett County near Byrdstown for Revolutionary War service (this land is still in the family), as well as Samuel Wood who immigrated from Leicestershire, England on the ship Hopewell and fought in the Virginia Militia. Hull's mother's family (Riley-Wood) holds the DAR distinction of the most documented ancestors to have fought in the Revolutionary War. Hull devoted a section in his memoirs "Cabin on the Hill" to dispelling an old rumor that his mother was part Cherokee Indian, and subsequent documented family history has confirmed his ancestry.

Hull attended college from 1889 until 1890. He gave his first speech at the age of 16. At the age of 19, Hull became the elected chairman of the Clay County Democratic Party. Hull studied at National Normal University (later merged with Wilmington College, Ohio) from 1889 until 1890, In 1891, he graduated from Cumberland School of Law at Cumberland University and was admitted to the bar.

Early career

Hull served in the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1893 to 1897. During the Spanish–American War, he served in Cuba as a captain in the Fourth Regiment of the Tennessee Volunteer Infantry.

From 1903 to 1907, Hull served as a local judge; later he was elected to the United States House of Representatives where he served 11 terms (1907–1921 and 1923–1931) totaling 22 years. As a member of the powerful Ways and Means committee, he fought for low tariffs and claimed authorship of the federal income tax laws of 1913 and 1916 and the inheritance tax of 1916. After his defeat in the congressional election of 1920, he served as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. He was one of several candidates for president at the 1928 Democratic National Convention, which ultimately chose Al Smith as nominee. Hull was influential in advising Albert Gore, Sr., then a state legislator, to run for the U.S. Congress in 1938.

Secretary of State

1938 Davis Cup draw
Cordell Hull, flanked by, from left, Russell B. Kingman and Joseph Ward on his right, and, on his left, Homcombe Ward and Richard Dudley Sears, presided as representative of the U.S. over the drawing of the matchups of 1938 Davis Cup tie against Japan (with unknown Japanese representative) in Washington, D.C. on February 3, 1938.

Hull was elected to the Senate in 1930. In 1933, Roosevelt named him Secretary of State. Roosevelt appointed him to lead the American delegation to the London Economic Conference in 1933, but it collapsed when Roosevelt publicly rejected the main plans. In 1943, Hull served as United States delegate to the Moscow Conference. At all times his main objective was to enlarge foreign trade and lower tariffs. The more important issue of the American role in the World War II was handled by Roosevelt who worked through Sumner Welles, the #2 official at the State Department. Hull did not attend the summit meetings Roosevelt had with Churchill and Stalin.[3] In 1943 Hull finally destroyed Welles' career by threatening to expose his homosexuality,[4]

FreeTradeAgreement1935
Signing of the United States-Canada Trade Agreement. (Seated, L-R) by Cordell Hull, William L. M. King and Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, on November 16, 1935.

In a speech in 1937, Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia of New York said that brown-shirted Nazis ought to be featured as the "climax" of a chamber of horrors in the upcoming World's Fair. The Nazi government organ, the Angriff, called the Mayor a "Jewish Ruffian" saying he had been bribed by Jewish and Communistic agents and was a criminal disguised as an officeholder.[5] In the ensuing exchanges, Hull sent a letter of regret to Berlin for intemperate comments on both sides, while also explaining the principle of freedom of speech. As the response of Nazi propaganda organs rose in pitch, to include characterizing American women as "prostitutes", Hull sent a letter of protest to Berlin, which elicited an "explanation" but no apology.[6]

In 1938, Hull engaged in a famous dialog with Mexican Foreign Minister Eduardo Hay concerning the failure of Mexico to compensate Americans who lost farmlands during the Agrarian reforms of the late 1920s. He insisted that compensation must be "prompt, adequate and effective". Though the Mexican Constitution guaranteed compensation for expropriation or nationalization, nothing had yet been paid. While Hay admitted Mexico's responsibility, he replied that there is "no rule universally accepted in theory nor carried out in practice which makes obligatory the payment of immediate compensation..." The so-called "Hull formula" has been adopted in many treaties concerning international investment, but is still controversial, especially in Latin American countries, which historically have subscribed to the Calvo Doctrine, which among other things, suggests that compensation is to be decided by the host country and that as long as there is equality between nationals and foreigners and no discrimination, there cannot be any claim in international law. The tension between the Hull formula and the Calvo Doctrine is still of importance today in the law of international investment.

Hull, Nomura and Kurusu on 7 December 1941
Japanese Ambassador Admiral Kichisaburō Nomura (left) and Special Envoy Saburō Kurusu (right) meet Hull on 17 November 1941, two weeks before the attack on Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941).

Cordell Hull pursued the "Good Neighbor Policy" with Latin American nations, which has been credited with preventing Nazi subterfuge in that region. Hull and Roosevelt also maintained relations with Vichy France, which Hull credits with allowing General Henri Giraud's forces to join allied forces in the North African campaign against Germany.[7]

Hull handled formal statements with foreign governments. He sent the Hull note to Japan prior to the attack, which was formally titled "Outline of proposed Basis for Agreement Between The United States and Japan." Hull received the news that the Pearl Harbor attack had started while outside his office the Japanese ambassador Kichisaburō Nomura and Japan's special envoy Saburō Kurusu were waiting to see Hull with a fourteen-part message from the Japanese government officially notifying of a breakdown in negotiations. The U.S. had broken the code and Hull knew the contents. He blasted the diplomats: "In all my fifty years of public service, I have never seen such a document that was more crowded with infamous falsehood and distortion."[8]

Hull chaired the Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policy, created in February 1942.


When the Free French Forces of Charles de Gaulle occupied the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon south of Newfoundland in December 1941, Hull lodged a very strong protest and even went as far as referring to the Gaullist naval forces as "the so-called Free French". His request to have the Vichy governor reinstated was met with strong criticism in the American press. The islands remained under the Free French movement until the end of World War II.

Washington, D.C. Representatives of 26 United Nations at Flag day ceremonies in the White House to reaffirm their pact
The 26 United Nations Flags from Dr. Francisco Castillo Najera, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Manuel Quezon, and the U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull in July 1942.

SS St. Louis incident

In 1939, Hull advised President Roosevelt to reject the SS St. Louis, a German ocean liner carrying 936 Jews seeking asylum from Germany. Hull's decision sent the Jews back to Europe on the eve of the Nazi Holocaust. Some historians estimate that 254 of the passengers were ultimately murdered by the Nazis.

. . . there were two conversations on the subject between (Secretary of the Treasury) Morgenthau and Secretary of State Cordell Hull. In the first, 3:17 PM on 5 June 1939, Hull made it clear to Morgenthau that the passengers could not legally be issued U.S. tourist visas as they had no return addresses. Furthermore, Hull made it clear to Morgenthau that the issue at hand was between the Cuban government and the passengers. The U.S., in effect, had no role. In the second conversation at 3:54 PM on June 6, 1939, Morgenthau said they did not know where the ship was and he inquired whether it was "proper to have the Coast Guard look for it". Hull responded by saying that he didn't see any reason why it could not. Hull then informed him that he did not think that Morgenthau would want the search for the ship to get into the newspapers. Morgenthau said "Oh no. No, no. They would just—oh, they might send a plane to do patrol work. There would be nothing in the papers." Hull responded "Oh, that would be all right."[9]

Hull-Dawming
Hull and Chinese Ambassador Wei Daoming at the State Department exchanging ratifications of the treaty abolishing extraterritorial rights of the United States in China.

In September 1940, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt maneuvered with another State Department official to bypass Hull's refusal to allow Jewish refugees aboard a Portuguese ship, the SS Quanza, to receive visas to enter the U.S. Through Mrs. Roosevelt's efforts, the Jewish refugees disembarked on September 11, 1940, in Virginia.[10] In a similar incident, American Jews sought to raise money to prevent the mass murder of Romanian Jews. However "In wartime, in order to send money out of the United States, two government agencies had to sign a simple release- the Treasury Department under Henry Morgenthau and the State Department under Secretary Cordell Hull. Morgenthau signed immediately. The State Department delayed, delayed, and delayed, as more Jews were dying in the Transnistria camps."[11]

In 1940 Jewish representatives in the USA lodged an official complaint against the discriminatory policies the State Department was using against the Jews. The results were fatal: the Secretary of State [Cordell Hull] gave strict orders to every USA consulate worldwide forbidding the issuing of visas to Jews ... At the same time a Jewish congressman petitioned the President [FDR], requesting his permission to allow twenty thousand Jewish children from Europe to enter the USA. The President totally ignored this petition as well as its sender.[12]

United Nations establishment

Hull was the underlying force and architect in the creation of the United Nations, as recognized by the 1945 Nobel Prize for Peace, an honor for which Franklin D. Roosevelt nominated him. During World War II, Hull and Roosevelt had worked toward the development of a world organization to prevent a third World War. Hull and his staff drafted the "Charter of the United Nations" in mid-1943.

Later years

Cordell Hull tomb - Joseph of Arimathea Chapel - National Cathedral - DC
Gravesite of Cordell Hull at the St. Joseph of Arimathea Chapel, in Washington National Cathedral Church.

Hull resigned on November 30, 1944 because of failing health as the longest-serving Secretary of State, having served 11 years, nine months in that post. Roosevelt described Hull upon his departure as "the one person in all the world who has done his most to make this great plan for peace (the United Nations) an effective fact". The Norwegian Nobel Committee honored Hull with the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 in recognition of his efforts for peace and understanding in the Western Hemisphere, his trade agreements, and his work to establish the United Nations.

Personal life

At the age of 45, in 1917, he married a widow Rose Frances (Witz) Whitney Hull (1875–1954), of an Austrian Jewish family of Staunton, Virginia; the couple had no children. Mrs. Hull died at age 79, in Washington, D.C., in 1954.

Death and legacy

He died on July 23, 1955, at age 83, at his home in Washington, D.C., after a lifelong struggle with familial remitting-relapsing sarcoidosis (often confused with tuberculosis). He is buried in the vault of the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington National Cathedral.

Cumberland School of Law Moot Court Room Cordell Hull
Cumberland School of Law's Cordell Hull Moot Court Room—portrait at head of room

Hull's memory is preserved by Cordell Hull Dam on the Cumberland River near Carthage, Tennessee. The dam impounds Cordell Hull Lake, covering approximately 12,000 acres (49 km2).

His law school, Cumberland School of Law, continues to honor him with a Cordell Hull Speaker's Forum and the pictured Moot Court Room.

CordellHullStamp1964
Cordell Hull commemorative stamp issued in 1964

Cordell Hull Birthplace State Park, near Byrdstown, Tennessee, was established in 1997 to preserve Hull's birthplace and various personal effects Hull had donated to the citizens of Pickett County, including his Nobel Peace Prize.

A segment of Kentucky highway routes 90, 63, and 163, from Interstate 65 at Mammoth Cave National Park south to the Tennessee State Line, is named "Cordell Hull Highway".

The Shoreline School District in Shoreline, Washington, formerly had a Cordell Hull Middle School; it was renamed in the mid-1990s to Meridian Park Elementary, after a renovation.

The Cordell Hull Building, on Capital Hill in Nashville, Tennessee, is a secure 10 story building that contains the offices of the Tennessee Legislature.

The Eisenhower Executive Office Building (formerly the Old Executive Office Building) in Washington, DC, next to the White House, contains the ornately decorated "Cordell Hull Room" on the second floor, which is used for meetings. The room was Cordell Hull's office when he served as U.S. Secretary of State.

Fictional appearance or mention

Notes

  1. ^ Hulen, Bertram D. (1946-10-25). "Charter Becomes 'Law of Nations', 29 Ratifying It". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  2. ^ Gunther, John (1950). Roosevelt in Retrospect. Harper & Brothers. p. 132.
  3. ^ Charles E. Bohlen, Witness to History 1929–1969 (1973)
  4. ^ Joseph Lelyveld (2017). His Final Battle: The Last Months of Franklin Roosevelt. p. 69.
  5. ^ "Hull gives Reich Official 'Apology'" (PDF). The New York Times. March 5, 1937. pp. 1, 8. Retrieved May 5, 2014. The Angriff carries a headline, 'Jewish ruffian La Guardia's new Insolence'...
  6. ^ Michael Zalampas (1989). Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich in American Magazines, 1923–1939. Popular Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0879724627.
  7. ^ Cordell Hull, Memoirs
  8. ^ Mark Stoler; Molly Michelmore (2018). The United States in World War II: A Documentary History. pp. 27–31.
  9. ^ "What was the Coast Guard's role in the SS St. Louis affair, often referred to as 'The Voyage of the Damned'?". United States Coast Guard. October 10, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  10. ^ Buckley, Cara (July 8, 2007). "Fleeing Hitler and Meeting a Reluctant Miss Liberty". The New York Times.
  11. ^ Gruber, Inside of Time p. 159 (2003).
  12. ^ The Australian Jewish News, 6 May 1994, p. 9.
  13. ^ Annie Casting Information, Music Theatre International website Archived October 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Granny from Wedding Crashers on YouTube

References

Primary

Secondary

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Mounce G. Butler
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 4th congressional district

March 4, 1907 – March 4, 1921
Succeeded by
Wynne F. Clouse
Preceded by
Wynne F. Clouse
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 4th congressional district

March 4, 1923 – March 4, 1931
Succeeded by
John R. Mitchell
Party political offices
Preceded by
George White
Chair of the Democratic National Committee
November 2, 1921 – July 22, 1924
Succeeded by
Clem L. Shaver
Preceded by
Lawrence D. Tyson
Democratic nominee for
U.S. Senator from Tennessee (Class 2)

1930
Succeeded by
Nathan L. Bachman
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
William E. Brock
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Tennessee
March 4, 1931 – March 4, 1933
Served alongside: Kenneth D. McKellar
Succeeded by
Nathan L. Bachman
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry L. Stimson
U.S. Secretary of State
Served under: Franklin D. Roosevelt

March 4, 1933 – November 30, 1944
Succeeded by
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
International Committee
of the Red Cross
Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize
1945
Succeeded by
Emily Greene Balch, John Mott
1928 Democratic National Convention

The 1928 Democratic National Convention was held at Sam Houston Hall in Houston, Texas, June 26–28, 1928. The convention resulted in the nomination of Governor Alfred E. Smith of New York for President and Senator Joseph T. Robinson of Arkansas for Vice President.

The convention was the first held by either party in the South since the Civil War. It was also the first to nominate a Roman Catholic for President, Al Smith. The Texas delegation, led by Governor Dan Moody, was vehemently opposed to Smith. Therefore, when Smith was nominated, they rallied against his anti-prohibition sentiment by fighting for a "dry", prohibitionist platform. Ultimately, the convention pledged "honest enforcement of the Constitution".

Smith became the first Democrat since Reconstruction to lose more than one southern state in the general election, due to his "wet" stance, his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, and his Catholicism.

1940 Democratic National Convention

The 1940 Democratic National Convention was held at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois from July 15 to July 18, 1940. The convention resulted in the nomination of President Franklin D. Roosevelt for an unprecedented third term. Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace from Iowa was nominated for Vice President.

Despite the unprecedented bid for a third term, Roosevelt was nominated on the first ballot. Roosevelt's most formidable challengers were his former campaign manager James Farley and his Vice President, John Nance Garner. Both had sought the nomination for the presidency and soundly lost to Roosevelt who would be "drafted" at the convention. Henry Wallace was Roosevelt's preferred choice for the Vice-Presidency. His candidacy was opposed vehemently by some delegates, particularly the conservative wing of the party which had been unenthusiastic about Wallace's liberal positions. Nonetheless, Wallace was ultimately nominated with the votes of 59% of the delegates.

Cordell Hull Birthplace State Park

Cordell Hull Birthplace State Park is a state park in Pickett County, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. Cordell Hull (1871–1955) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Franklin Roosevelt and played a pivotal role in the creation of the United Nations in the mid-1940s.

Cordell Hull Bridge

The Cordell Hull Bridge is a bridge over the Cumberland River in the U.S. state of Tennessee that connects the towns of Carthage and South Carthage.

Cordell Hull Institute

Cordell Hull Institute is an independent Washington, D.C. based think tank.

Founded in 1998 by Harald Malmgren and former Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger, the institute is named for former Secretary of State Cordell Hull.

Cordell Hull Lake

Cordell Hull Lake is a lake in the Cumberland River in north-central Tennessee, about forty miles east of Nashville, in the vicinity of Carthage. It covers approximately 12,000 acres (49 km2).

Cordell Hull Dam, on the Cumberland River, was built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers between May 1963 and November 1973 for navigation, hydroelectric power generation and recreation. The dam is a concrete and earthen gravity structure, 87 feet high (above streambed), with a generator capacity of 100 megawatts. It impounds 259,100 acre feet (0.3196 km3) at normal maximum pool, with a maximum flood storage of 310,900 acre feet (0.3835 km3).

Both are named for Cordell Hull, former United States Secretary of State.

Cordell Hull State Office Building

The Cordell Hull State Office Building is a historic building in Nashville, Tennessee.

Cordell Reagon

Cordell Hull Reagon (February 22, 1943 – November 12, 1996) was an American singer and activist. He was the founding member of The Freedom Singers of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and a leader of the Albany Movement during the Civil Rights Movement.

Customs war

A Customs war, also known as a toll war or tariff war, is a type of economic conflict between two or more states. In order to pressure one of the states, the other raises taxes or tariffs for some of the products of that state. As a reprisal, the latter state may also increase the tariffs.

One example of a modern tariff war occurred in the 1920s and 1930s between the Weimar Republic and Poland, in the German–Polish customs war. The Weimar Republic, led by Gustav Stresemann wanted to force Poland, by creating an economic crisis by increasing the tolls for coal and steel products developed there, to give up its territory. As a reprisal, the Poles increased toll rates for many German products. This led to fast development of the port of Gdynia, which was the only way Poland could export its goods to Western Europe without having to transport them through Germany.

In September 1922 the Fordney–McCumber Tariff (named after Joseph Fordney, chair of the House Ways and Means Committee, and Porter McCumber, chair of the Senate Finance Committee) was signed by U.S. President Warren G. Harding. In the end, the tariff law raised the average American ad valorem tariff rate to 38 percent.

Trading partners complained immediately. Those injured by World War I said that, without access by their exports to the American market, they would not be able to make payments to America on war loans. But others saw that this tariff increase would have broader deleterious effects. Democratic Representative Cordell Hull said, "Our foreign markets depend both on the efficiency of our production and the tariffs of countries in which we would sell. Our own [high] tariffs are an important factor in each. They injure the former and invite the latter."

Five years after the passage of the tariff, American trading partners had raised their own tariffs by a significant degree. France raised its tariffs on automobiles from 45% to 100%, Spain raised tariffs on American goods by 40%, and Germany and Italy raised tariffs on wheat. This customs war is often cited as one of the main causes of the Great Depression.

The World Trade Organization was created to avoid customs wars, which are considered harmful to the world's economy.

Defeated, Tennessee

Defeated is an unincorporated community in Smith County, Tennessee, United States. It is located northeast of Carthage along Defeated Creek, a tributary of the Cumberland River (the lower part of the creek and the adjacent section of the river are both part of Cordell Hull Lake). State Route 85 passes through the community.

Defeated is named for the events that took place in the late 18th century along the banks of Defeated Creek. John Peyton, one of the earliest settlers and explorers of Smith County, and his surveying party were camped along the creek when they were attacked by a band of Cherokees led by Hanging Maw and driven out of the area.Defeated was the site of a post office from 1824 until 1929. The post office had the name Montrose from 1824 through 1880, when the name was changed to Defeated.Defeated is home to the Defeated Creek Marina, which lies along the Defeated Creek section of Cordell Hull Lake. The marina is home to a boat dock and ramp, rental cabins, and numerous recreational facilities.

European Advisory Commission

The formation of the European Advisory Commission (EAC) was agreed on at the Moscow Conference on 30 October 1943 between the foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, Anthony Eden, the United States, Cordell Hull, and the Soviet Union, Vyacheslav Molotov, and confirmed at the Tehran Conference in November. In anticipation of the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies this commission was to study the postwar political problems in Europe and make recommendation to the three governments, including the surrender of the European enemy states and the machinery of its fulfillment. After the EAC completed its task it was dissolved at the Potsdam Conference in August 1945.

Granville, Tennessee

Granville is an unincorporated community in Jackson County, Tennessee, United States. Granville was the birthplace of U.S. Senator Albert Gore, Sr., father of former Vice-President Al Gore.

Granville is surrounded by the Cordell Hull Lake on three sides. When the Cordell Hull Dam was constructed in the early 1970's, much of the town's farmland was destroyed, resulting in the town becoming a "ghost town."

A museum of local history, the Granville Museum, provides exhibits and interpretive displays on the community's past. The museum also sponsors festivals and other special events. The museum's resources document the lives of numerous families active in the years before and during World War I. Resources include census records and the Sutton Store's ledgers.

The Granville community plays host to three major annual festivals. Heritage Day is held the Saturday before Memorial Day, and features attractions such as bluegrass, antique cars, and living history demonstrations. The first Saturday in October is Granville's scarecrow festival. This festival is regarded as the largest scarecrow festival in the state of Tennessee. A quilt show is held in conjunction with this festival. On the second Saturday of December, Granville hosts their Country Christmas festival. This festival features an antique toy show, and a Christmas parade. All three festivals involve the town, and its historic buildings.

The historic T.B. Sutton General Store plays host to bluegrass music every Saturday night year round.

Granville is home to two National Register of Historic Places sites. Carverdale Farms (#100002754) was added to the National Register on July 31, 2018. The farm is one of the oldest settlements in Jackson County and also one of the oldest continuously operating farms in Tennessee. First settled in 1830 by Joseph Williamson and family. Samuel Sampson Carver purchased property in 1890, operating a saw mill, blacksmith shop, and general store in addition to operating this farm. The farm was used for maneuver training during World War II. On October 24,1955 current owner and great grandson of Carver, Joe Moore was featured on the cover of Time magazine after being named 1955 Star Farmer of America.

Granville, Tennessee’s T.B. Sutton General Store (#100003902) was officially listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 7, 2019. Constructed in 1880, Sutton Store is the oldest remaining commercial institution in Granville. The store sat empty for approximately thirty years before Harold and Beverley Sutton (no relation to T.B. Sutton) purchased and restored the building. In 2007, they donated the building to Historic Granville Incorporated who continue to operate the building as a general store, restaurant, and music venue. Sutton Store has been recently recognized by Country Living and Taste of the South magazines as one of the must see general stores in America.

State Route 53 (Granville Highway) and State Route 96 (Clover Street) intersect in Granville.

List of Tennessee state parks

This is a list of state parks in the U.S. state of Tennessee.

Bicentennial Mall State Park (Historic Park)

Big Cypress Tree State Park (Natural Area)

Big Hill Pond State Park

Big Ridge State Park

Bledsoe Creek State Park

Booker T. Washington State Park

Burgess Falls State Park (Natural Area)

Cedars of Lebanon State Park

Chickasaw State Park

Cordell Hull Birthplace State Park (Historic Park)

Cove Lake State Park

Cumberland Mountain State Park

Cummins Falls State Park

David Crockett State Park

David Crockett Birthplace State Park (Historic Park)

Dunbar Cave State Park (Natural Area)

Edgar Evins State Park

Fall Creek Falls State Park

Fort Loudoun State Park (Historic Park)

Fort Pillow State Park (Historic Park)

Frozen Head State Park (Natural Area)

Harpeth River State Park

Henry Horton State Park

Harrison Bay State Park

Hiwassee/Ocoee Scenic River State Park

Indian Mountain State Park

Johnsonville State Historic Park (Historic Park)

Justin P. Wilson Cumberland Trail State Park

Long Hunter State Park

Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park

Montgomery Bell State Park

Mousetail Landing State Park

Nathan Bedford Forrest State Park

Natchez Trace State Park

Norris Dam State Park

Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park (Archaeological Park)

Panther Creek State Park

Paris Landing State Park

Pickett State Park

Pickwick Landing State Park

Pinson Mounds State Park (Archaeological Park)

Port Royal State Park (Historic Park)

Radnor Lake State Park (Natural Area)

Red Clay State Park (Historic Park)

Reelfoot Lake State Park

Roan Mountain State Park

Rock Island State Park

Rocky Fork State Park

Seven Islands State Birding Park

Sgt. Alvin C. York State Park (Historic Park)

South Cumberland State Park

Standing Stone State Park

Sycamore Shoals State Historic Area (Sycamore Shoals)

Tims Ford State Park

T.O. Fuller State Park

Warriors' Path State Park

Window Cliffs State Natural Area

Old Hickory Lake

Old Hickory Lake is a reservoir in north central Tennessee. It is formed by the Old Hickory Lock and Dam (36°17′48″N 86°39′20″W), located on the Cumberland River at mile 216.2 in Sumner and Davidson Counties, approximately 25 miles (40 km) upstream from Nashville. The city of Hendersonville is situated on the northern shoreline of the lake, and Old Hickory, a portion of Metropolitan Nashville-Davidson County, is located on the southern side of the lake, just upstream of the lock and dam. The lake extends 97.3 miles (156.6 km) upstream to Cordell Hull Lock and Dam (36°17′25″N 85°56′36″W), near Carthage, Tennessee. The dam and lake are named after President Andrew Jackson (nicknamed "Old Hickory"), who lived in the vicinity, at The Hermitage.

The lock, dam, powerhouse and lake are operated and supervised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' personnel under the direction of the District Engineer at Nashville. Construction started in January 1952, and dam closure was completed in June 1954.

Historic Rock Castle, former home of Daniel Smith, who is known for his contributions in settling Hendersonville, TN, is located along this lake.

Old Hickory Lake is a mainstream storage impoundment on the Cumberland River operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The reservoir contains 22,500 acres (91 km2) at an elevation of 445 feet (above sea level) and extends 97.3 river miles. Water level fluctuations are minimal with minimum pool elevation at 442 feet (135 m). Public facilities include eight marinas, two Corps-operated campgrounds, and 41 boat access sites, as well as the Old Hickory Lake Arboretum.

Olympus, Tennessee

Olympus was a community in Pickett County, Tennessee, that was once the site of a post office and was the birthplace of U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull.Olympus was first established as a post office in 1834, when the community was part of Overton County. The post office was discontinued and reestablished several times in the ensuing decades until it was finally discontinued for the last time in 1907.The Olympus post office was at different locations at different times. At least one of the sites is now inundated by Dale Hollow Lake.

Stanley Hornbeck

Stanley Kuhl Hornbeck (May 4, 1883 – December 10, 1966) was an American professor and diplomat. A Rhodes scholar and the author of eight books, he had a distinguished thirty-year career in government service. He was chief of the State Department Division of Far Eastern Affairs (1928–1937), a special adviser to Secretary of State Cordell Hull (1937–1944), and ambassador to the Netherlands (1944–1947).

Tennessee Department of Children's Services

The Tennessee Department of Children's Services is a state agency of Tennessee that operates services for children and youth. The agency has its headquarters on the 7th floor of the Cordell Hull Building in Nashville.

William Emerson Brock

William Emerson Brock (March 14, 1872 – August 5, 1950) was a Democratic United States Senator from Tennessee from 1929 to 1931.

Brock was born in Davie County, North Carolina, where he attended public school and engaged in agricultural pursuits until 1894. He then moved to Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and became a clerk in a general store.

From 1896 until 1901 he worked as a tobacco salesman. In 1909 he moved to Chattanooga, Tennessee. In Chattanooga, Brock became involved in candy manufacturing, and also had involvements in insurance and banking interests. He became a trustee of the former University of Chattanooga, now the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Emory and Henry College, and also Martha Washington College.

On September 2, 1929, by the Governor of Tennessee, Henry Hollis Horton, appointed Brock to the vacancy in the U.S. Senate caused by the death of Lawrence D. Tyson; Horton had first offered the appointment to former Senator Luke Lea, who declined. On November 4, 1930, Brock was elected to the balance of this term. He did not run for the full six-year term that was on the ballot at the same time, and his service as a U.S. senator ended on March 3, 1931. He was succeeded by Cordell Hull.

After leaving the Senate, Brock returned to his Chattanooga candy manufacturing business and remained involved in its operation until his death in 1950. He was buried at Forest Hills Cemetery in Chattanooga.

Brock's grandson, William Emerson Brock III, was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives and a U.S. senator from Tennessee.

Wynne F. Clouse

Wynne F. Clouse (August 29, 1883 – February 19, 1944) was a U.S. Representative from Tennessee.

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Tennessee's delegation(s) to the 60th–72nd United States Congresses (ordered by seniority)
60th Senate: J. Frazier, Sr.R. Taylor House: W. BrownlowJ. GainesJ. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettN. HaleW. HoustonG. Gordon • C. Hull
61st Senate: J. Frazier Sr.R. Taylor House: W. BrownlowJ. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. HoustonG. Gordon • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. Austin
61st Senate: J. Frazier Sr.R. Taylor House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. HoustonG. Gordon • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. AustinZ. Massey
62nd Senate: R. TaylorL. Lea House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. HoustonG. Gordon • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. AustinS. Sells
62nd Senate: R. TaylorL. Lea House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. AustinS. SellsK. McKellar
62nd Senate: L. LeaN. Sanders House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. AustinS. SellsK. McKellar
62nd Senate: L. LeaW. Webb House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. AustinS. SellsK. McKellar
63rd Senate: L. LeaJ. Shields House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. AustinS. SellsK. McKellar
64th Senate: L. LeaJ. Shields House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. AustinS. SellsK. McKellar
65th Senate: J. ShieldsK. McKellar House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. GarrettW. Houston • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.R. AustinS. SellsH. Fisher
66th Senate: J. ShieldsK. McKellar House: J. MoonT. SimsL. PadgettF. Garrett • C. Hull • J. Byrns Sr.S. SellsH. FisherE. DavisW. Taylor
67th Senate: J. ShieldsK. McKellar House: L. PadgettF. GarrettJ. Byrns Sr.H. FisherE. DavisW. TaylorJ. BrownW. ClouseC. ReeceL. Scott
67th Senate: J. ShieldsK. McKellar House: F. GarrettJ. Byrns Sr.H. FisherE. DavisW. TaylorJ. BrownW. ClouseC. ReeceL. ScottC. Turner
68th Senate: J. ShieldsK. McKellar House: F. GarrettJ. Byrns Sr.H. FisherE. DavisW. TaylorC. ReeceG. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynoldsW. Salmon
69th Senate: K. McKellarL. Tyson House: F. GarrettJ. Byrns Sr.H. FisherE. DavisW. TaylorC. ReeceG. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynoldsE. Eslick
70th Senate: K. McKellarL. Tyson House: F. GarrettJ. Byrns Sr.H. FisherE. DavisW. TaylorC. ReeceG. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynoldsE. Eslick
71st Senate: K. McKellarL. Tyson House: J. Byrns Sr.H. FisherE. DavisW. TaylorC. ReeceG. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynoldsE. EslickJ. Cooper
71st Senate: K. McKellarW. Brock House: J. Byrns Sr.H. FisherE. DavisW. TaylorC. ReeceG. Browning • C. Hull • S. McReynoldsE. EslickJ. Cooper
72nd Senate: K. McKellar • C. Hull House: J. Byrns Sr.E. DavisW. TaylorG. BrowningS. McReynoldsE. EslickJ. CooperE. H. CrumpJ. MitchellO. Lovette
72nd Senate: K. McKellar • C. Hull House: J. Byrns Sr.E. DavisW. TaylorG. BrowningS. McReynoldsJ. CooperE. H. CrumpJ. MitchellO. LovetteW. Eslick

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