Corbel

In architecture a corbel is in medieval architecture a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight,[1] a type of bracket.[2] A corbel is a solid piece of material in the wall, whereas a console is a piece applied to the structure. A piece of timber projecting in the same way was called a "tassel" or a "bragger" in England.[1] The technique of corbelling, where rows of corbels deeply keyed inside a wall support a projecting wall or parapet, has been used since Neolithic (New Stone Age) times.[3] It is common in medieval architecture and in the Scottish baronial style as well as in the vocabulary of classical architecture, such as the modillions of a Corinthian cornice, Hindu temple architecture and in ancient Chinese architecture.

A console is more specifically an "S"-shaped scroll bracket in the classical tradition, with the upper or inner part larger than the lower (as in the first illustration) or outer. Keystones are also often in the form of consoles.[4] Whereas "corbel" is rarely used outside architecture, "console" is widely used for furniture, as in console table, and other decorative arts where the motif appears.

The word "corbel" comes from Old French and derives from the Latin corbellus, a diminutive of corvus ("raven"), which refers to the beak-like appearance.[1][5] Similarly, the French refer to a bracket-corbel, usually a load-bearing internal feature, as a corbeau ("crow").

Architecture-corbels
Elaborately decorated classical-style stone console corbels supporting balconies on a building in Indianapolis
Sasamon Burgos Arquivolta 4
Spanish Late Gothic corbel

Decorated corbels

Norman (Romanesque) corbels often have a plain appearance,[1] although they may be elaborately carved with stylised heads of humans, animals or imaginary "beasts", and sometimes with other motifs (Kilpeck church in Herefordshire is a notable example, with 85 of its original 91 richly carved corbels still surviving).[6]

Similarly, in the Early English period corbels were sometimes elaborately carved, as at Lincoln Cathedral, and sometimes more simply so.[1]

Corbels sometimes end with a point apparently growing into the wall, or forming a knot, and often are supported by angels and other figures. In the later periods the carved foliage and other ornaments used on corbels resemble those used in the capitals of columns.[1]

Throughout England, in half-timber work, wooden corbels ("tassels" or "braggers") abound, carrying window-sills or oriel windows in wood, which also are often carved.[1]

Classical architecture

The corbels carrying balconies in Italy and France were sometimes of great size and richly carved, and some of the finest examples of the Italian "Cinquecento" (16th century) style are found in them. Taking a cue from 16th-century practice, the Paris-trained designers of 19th-century Beaux-Arts architecture were encouraged to show imagination in varying corbels.

Corbel tables

Colegiata de Cervatos - Canecillos sobre la portada
Romanesque corbel table featuring erotic scenes at Colegiata de Cervatos, near Santander, Spain

A corbel table is a projecting moulded string course supported by a range of corbels. Sometimes these corbels carry a small arcade under the string course, the arches of which are pointed and trefoiled. As a rule the corbel table carries the gutter, but in Lombard work the arcaded corbel table was utilized as a decoration to subdivide the storeys and break up the wall surface. In Italy sometimes over the corbels will form a moulding, and above a plain piece of projecting wall forming a parapet.[1]

The corbels carrying the arches of the corbel tables in Italy and France were often elaborately moulded, and sometimes in two or three courses projecting over one another; those carrying the machicolations of English and French castles had four courses.

In modern chimney construction, a corbel table is constructed on the inside of a flue in the form of a concrete ring beam supported by a range of corbels. The corbels can be either in-situ or pre-cast concrete. The corbel tables described here are built at approximately ten-metre intervals to ensure stability of the barrel of refractory bricks constructed thereon.

Corbelling

Ugarit Corbel
Corbelled arch at the Royal Palace of Ugarit, 2nd millennium BC
Broadway tower POTY 2016 banner
Corbelling to resemble machicolations on an 18th-century folly, Broadway Tower, England

Corbelling, where rows of corbels gradually build a wall out from the vertical, has long been used as a simple kind of vaulting, for example in many Neolithic chambered cairns, where walls are gradually corbelled in until the opening can be spanned by a slab.

In medieval architecture the technique was used to support upper storeys or a parapet projecting forward from the wall plane, often to form machicolation (openings between corbels could be used to drop things onto attackers). This later became a decorative feature, without the openings. Corbelling supporting upper stories and particularly supporting projecting corner turrets subsequently became a characteristic of the Scottish baronial style.

Medieval timber-framed buildings often employ jettying, where upper stories are cantilevered out on projecting wooden beams in a similar manner to corbelling.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Corbel" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0). Oxford University Press, 2009
  3. ^ See for example, Maes Howe, a particularly fine Neolithic chambered cairn in Scotland.
  4. ^ Summerson, John, The Classical Language of Architecture, p. 124, 1980 edition, Thames and Hudson World of Art series, ISBN 0500201773
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary gives a similar etymology but from Latin corvellum or corvellus
  6. ^ CRSBI website: St Mary and St David, Kilpeck, Herefordshire Archived 2012-07-30 at Archive.today

References

External links

Arch bridge

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct (a long bridge) may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are typically used today.

Arrietty

Arrietty, titled The Borrower Arrietty (Japanese: 借りぐらしのアリエッティ, Hepburn: Kari-gurashi no Arietti) in Japan and The Secret World of Arrietty in North America, is a 2010 Japanese animated fantasy film directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi as his feature film debut as a director, animated by Studio Ghibli for the Nippon Television Network, Dentsu, Hakuhodo DY Media Partners, Walt Disney Japan, Mitsubishi, Toho and Wild Bunch, and distributed by Toho. The novel was adapted as a screenplay by Hayao Miyazaki and Keiko Niwa, based on The Borrowers by Mary Norton, an English author of children's books, about a family of tiny people who live secretly in the walls and floors of a typical household, borrowing items from humans to survive. The film stars the voices of Mirai Shida, Ryunosuke Kamiki, Shinobu Otake, Keiko Takeshita, Tatsuya Fujiwara, Tomokazu Miura, and Kirin Kiki, and tells the story of a young Borrower (Shida) befriending a human boy (Kamiki), while trying to avoid being detected by the other humans.

Ghibli announced the film in late 2009 with Yonebayashi making his directorial debut. Miyazaki supervised the production as a developing planner. The voice actors were approached in April 2010, and Cécile Corbel wrote the film's score as well as its theme song.This film marks the cinematic debut of Hiromasa Yonebayashi, as well as the British dub marking the cinematic debut of Tom Holland.

The film was released in Japan on July 17, 2010, Arrietty received very positive reviews, praising the animation and music. It became the highest grossing Japanese film at the Japanese box office for the year 2010, and grossed over $145 million worldwide. The film also won the Animation of the Year award at the 34th Japan Academy Prize award ceremony. Two English-language versions of the film were produced, a British dub distributed and released by StudioCanal in the United Kingdom on July 29, 2011 and an American dub released by Walt Disney Pictures in North America on February 17, 2012.

Bracket (architecture)

A bracket is an architectural element: a structural or decorative member. It can be made of wood, stone, plaster, metal, or other media. It projects from a wall, usually to carry weight and sometimes to "...strengthen an angle". A corbel and console are types of brackets.In mechanical engineering a bracket is any intermediate component for fixing one part to another, usually larger, part. What makes a bracket a bracket is that it is intermediate between the two and fixes the one to the other. Brackets vary widely in shape, but a prototypical bracket is the L-shaped metal piece that attaches a shelf (the smaller component) to a wall (the larger component): its vertical arm is fixed to one (usually large) element, and its horizontal arm protrudes outwards and holds another (usually small) element. This shelf bracket is effectively the same as the architectural bracket: a vertical arm mounted on the wall, and a horizontal arm projecting outwards for another element to be attached on top of it or below it. To enable the outstretched arm to support a greater weight, a bracket will often have a third arm running diagonally between the horizontal and vertical arms, or the bracket may be a solid triangle. By extension almost any object that performs this function of attaching one part to another (usually larger) component is also called a bracket, even though it may not be obviously L-shaped. Common examples that are often not really L-shaped at all but attach a smaller component to a larger and are still called brackets are the components that attach a bicycle lamp to a bicycle, and the rings that attach pipes to walls.

Brasseuse

Brasseuse is a commune in the Oise department in northern France

Create by Monseigneur Corbel during sécession.

He was part of the revolution and created alcohol better known as the " BELLE BRASSEUSE "

Candara

Candara is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Gary Munch and commissioned by Microsoft. It is part of the ClearType Font Collection, a suite of fonts from various designers released with Windows Vista, all starting with the letter C to reflect that they were designed to work well with Microsoft's ClearType text rendering system. The others are Calibri, Cambria, Consolas, Corbel and Constantia.

Constantia (typeface)

Constantia is a serif typeface designed by John Hudson and commissioned by Microsoft. It is a transitional serif design, influenced by Eric Gill's Perpetua design. Development of the typeface began in 2003 and it was released in 2006.

Constantia is part of the ClearType Font Collection, a suite of fonts from various designers released with Windows Vista. All start with the letter C to reflect that they were designed to work well with Microsoft's ClearType text rendering system, a text rendering engine designed to make text clearer to read on LCD monitors. The other fonts in the suite are Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas and Corbel.

Corbel, Savoie

Corbel is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. It borders the department of Isère.

Corbel (typeface)

Corbel is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Jeremy Tankard for Microsoft and released in 2005. It is part of the ClearType Font Collection, a suite of fonts from various designers released with Windows Vista. All start with the letter C to reflect that they were designed to work well with Microsoft's ClearType text rendering system, a text rendering engine designed to make text clearer to read on LCD monitors. The other fonts in the same group are Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas and Constantia.

Corbel arch

A corbel arch (or corbeled / corbelled arch) is an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge. A corbel vault uses this technique to support the superstructure of a building's roof.

A corbel arch is constructed by offsetting successive courses of stone (or brick) at the springline of the walls so that they project towards the archway's center from each supporting side, until the courses meet at the apex of the archway (often, the last gap is bridged with a flat stone). For a corbeled vault covering the technique is extended in three dimensions along the lengths of two opposing walls.

Although an improvement in load-bearing efficiency over the post and lintel design, corbeled arches are not entirely self-supporting structures, and the corbeled arch is sometimes termed a "false arch" for this reason. Unlike "true" arches, not all of the structure's tensile stresses caused by the weight of the superstructure are transformed into compressive stresses. Corbel arches and vaults require significantly thickened walls and an abutment of other stone or fill to counteract the effects of gravity, which otherwise would tend to collapse each side of the archway inwards.

Corvus (heraldry)

The genus Corvus the true crows, and ravens are indistinguishable in use and appearance in heraldry, and are depicted with hairy feathers and close by default.

A crow speaking will have its mouth agape or open as if it were speaking. Crows may also be called corbies, as in the canting arms of Corbet, c. 1312.

The Cornish chough is also depicted in heraldry, but is only distinguishable if proper, meaning depicted as black with red beak and feet. For canting purposes, the Cornish chough is sometimes called a beckit.County Dublin in Ireland, Lisbon, the capital of Portugal as well as the city of Moss in Norway have crows in their coats-of-arms.

The Hungarian family Hunyadi also used the raven in their coats of arms. Matthias Corvinus of Hungary named his famous library (Bibliotheca Corviniana) after the bird. It might have inspired the uniform and name of his mercenary army (Black Army of Hungary), and his illegitimate son, János Corvinus also wore the bird's name.

The Corbet (Corbel, Corby, Corbe) family from the Channel Islands are also names having been corrupted over time from the Latin word corvus.

Cécile Corbel

Cécile Corbel (born 28 March 1980, Pont-Croix, Finistère, France) is a French and Breton singer, harpist, and composer. She has released five albums of original music and worked for Studio Ghibli as a composer for its 2010 film, The Borrower Arrietty. Corbel sings in many languages including French, Italian, Breton, and English and has done songs in German, Spanish, Irish, Turkish, and Japanese. Her lifelong partner is songwriter Simon Caby, who is also her co-composer.

Datestone

A datestone is typically an embedded stone with the date of engraving and other information carved into it. They are not considered a very reliable source for dating a house, as instances of old houses being destroyed and rebuilt (with the old date stones intact) have been reported, or may in some cases be the date of a renovation or alteration.Specific locations have often been chosen for datestones, viz.

corbel

gable stone

Gatepost: a large upright piece of (usually) granite, usually set at the entrance to a driveway or a field.

keystone

lintel

Erwann Corbel

Erwann Corbel (born 20 April 1991 in Rennes) is a French former professional cyclist, who rode professionally between 2013 to 2014 and 2017 to 2018 for the Fortuneo–Oscaro (over two spells) and Vital Concept teams.

Francis Scott Key School

Francis Scott Key School is a public elementary school located in the Central South Philadelphia neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is a part of the School District of Philadelphia.

The historic school building was built in 1889, and is a three-story, eight bay, brick building on a limestone base in the Late Victorian-style. It features a decorative brick corbel, small pedimented dormer, and three great flaring capped chimneys. It was named for American lawyer, author, and amateur poet Francis Scott Key (1779-1843).

It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1986.Areas assigned to Key are assigned to Southwark School for grades 7-8. Students zoned to Southwark and to Key are also zoned to South Philadelphia High School.

French National Badminton Championships

The French National Badminton Championships is a tournament organized to crown the best badminton players in France.

The tournament started in 1950 and is held every year.

Leonard Stanley Priory

Leonard Stanley Priory was a priory in Gloucestershire, England. Over the years following the dissolution most of the buildings of the priory complex have been destroyed.Leonard Stanley lies 4 miles southwest of the town of Stroud in Gloucestershire. A priory dedicated to St Leonard was founded in or around 1131 by the Berkeley family and initially housed Austin cannons, a secular order of Augustinians. In 1146, the priory was appropriated by Gloucester Abbey and became a Benedictine cell until its dissolution in 1538. The priory church, being of Augustinian origins, housed both the conventual and parish churches under a single roof. The church is now known as St Swithuns and remains in use today as a parish church. On the western wall of the south transept corbel stones that supported the roof of the cloister are visible. Close to the southwest of the church, a chapel of earlier construction still stands which in use as a farm building. Nearby to the west lies a pond that may have been a fishpond used by the priory.

Modillion

A modillion is an ornate bracket, a corbel, underneath a cornice and supporting it, more elaborate than dentils (literally translated as small teeth). All of these words are commonly used as verbs in a historic tense to describe neatly any particular structure, such as a parapet or eaves. They occur classically under a Corinthian or a Composite cornice, but may support any type of eaves cornice. Modillions may be carved or plain.

Profil (band)

Profil was a band that represented France in Eurovision Song Contest 1980 with the entry Hè Hé M'sieurs dames (11th place, 45 pts). The band members were: Martine Havet, Martine Bauer, Francis Rignault, Jean-Claude Corbel and Jean-Pierre Izbinski.

Turret

In architecture, a turret (from Italian: torretta, little tower; Latin: turris, tower) is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle. Turrets were used to provide a projecting defensive position allowing covering fire to the adjacent wall in the days of military fortification. As their military use faded, turrets were used for decorative purposes, as in the Scottish baronial style.

A turret can have a circular top with crenelations as seen in the picture at right, a pointed roof, or other kind of apex. It might contain a staircase if it projects higher than the building; however, a turret is not necessarily higher than the rest of the building; in this case, it is typically part of a room, that can be simply walked into – see the turret of Chateau de Chaumont on the collection of turrets, which also illustrates a turret on a modern skyscraper.

A building may have both towers and turrets; turrets might be smaller or higher but turrets instead project from the edge of a building rather than continue to the ground. The size of a turret is therefore limited, since it puts additional stresses on the structure of the building. Turrets were traditionally supported by a corbel.

In modern times, a gun turret is a weapon mount that houses the crew or mechanism of a projectile-firing weapon, allowing the weapon to be aimed and fired in some degree of azimuth and elevation. It can be found on warships, combat vehicles, military aircraft, and land fortifications, and usually offers some degree of armour or protection.

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