Corallina officinalis

Corallina officinalis is a calcareous red seaweed which grows in the lower and mid-littoral zones on rocky shores.

It is primarily found growing around the rims of tide pools, but can be found in shallow crevices anywhere on the rocky shore that are regularly refreshed with sea water. It predominantly grows on the lower shore, especially where fucoid algae are absent, but is also found further up shore on exposed coasts.

It forms calcium carbonate deposits within its cells which serve to strengthen the thallus. These white deposits cause the seaweed to appear pink in colour, with white patches where the calcium carbonate is particularly concentrated, such as at the growing tips. The calcium carbonate makes it unpalatable to most rocky shore grazers.

Corallina officinalis
Corallina officinalis Florenski
Scientific classification
(unranked): Archaeplastida
Division: Rhodophyta
Class: Florideophyceae
Order: Corallinales
Family: Corallinaceae
Genus: Corallina
Species:
C. officinalis
Binomial name
Corallina officinalis

Description

Corallina officinalis Helgoland
Corallina officinalis L., herbarium sheet. Collected in Heligoland, Germany

The thallus of C. officinalus is firmly attached generally to rock and grows in tufts to a length of 120mm. It has articulated pinnate branching with successive opposite lateral branches.[2] Each frond consists of cylindrical calcified stipes which show segments each a little longer than broad, rising from a crustose base like a string of beads becoming larger and more wedge-shaped higher up the stipe.[3][4]In colour the fronds are pinkish, it may bleach to white when exposed to sunlight.[5]

Reproduction

The sexes exist on separate plants and appear as small chalky nodules.[5]

Ecology

Corallina grows on rocks in rock pools[6] and occasionally on shells or other algae, at mid-littoral to 33m deep, it provides a habitat for many small animals which feed on the microorganisms dwelling in its dense tufts.[4]

Distribution

C. officinalis is common, to be found on solid rock around Great Britain, Ireland and Isle of Man.[5] Also recorded from the North Atlantic coast, from northern Norway to Morocco, and intermittently from Greenland to Argentina. Corallina is also found in USA, Argentina[4] and elsewhere including some parts of Japan, China, Australia and New Zealand. In New Zealand this species is found on the intertidal zone of the coasts of the Kermadec Islands, the North, South, Chatham and Stewart Islands as well as the Antipodes and Auckland Islands.[7]

References

  1. ^ World Register of Marine Species
  2. ^ Newton, L. 1931. A Handbook of the British Seaweeds. British Museum (Nat. Hist.) London
  3. ^ Dickinson, C.I. 1963. British Seaweeds The Kew Series. Eyre & Spottiswoode.
  4. ^ a b c Irvine, L.M. & Chamberlain, Y.M. 1994. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Vol. 1 Rhodophyta. Part 2B. Corallinales, Hildenbrandiales. HMSO.ISBN 0 11 310016 7
  5. ^ a b c Bunker, F.StP.D., Maggs, C.A., Brodie, J.A. and Bunker, A.R. 2017 Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. Second Edition. Wild Nature Press, Plymouth, UK.ISBN 9780995567337
  6. ^ Lewis, J.R. 1964. The Ecology of Rocky Shores. The English Universities Press Ltd, London
  7. ^ Nelson, W. A. (2013). New Zealand seaweeds : an illustrated guide. Wellington, New Zealand: Te Papa Press. p. 150. ISBN 9780987668813. OCLC 841897290.

External links

Aire Point to Carrick Du SSSI

Aire Point to Carrick Du SSSI is a Site of Special Scientific Interest on the Penwith Peninsula, Cornwall, England. It is 5.98 square kilometres in extent, stretching from grid reference SW360279 to grid reference SW513410. The site is designated both for its biological and its geological interest.The site includes a Nature Conservation Review site and eight Geological Conservation Review sites. The whole of the site is included in the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and is within the Penwith Heritage Coast. Part of the site is within the West Penwith Environmentally Sensitive Area and some of the coast is owned and managed by the National Trust. The South West Coast Path, which follows the coast of south-west England from Somerset to Dorset passes through the SSSI.

Bone grafting

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone in order to repair bone fractures that are extremely complex, pose a significant health risk to the patient, or fail to heal properly. Some kind of small or acute fractures can be cured but the risk is greater for large fractures like compound fractures.

Bone generally has the ability to regenerate completely but requires a very small fracture space or some sort of scaffold to do so. Bone grafts may be autologous (bone harvested from the patient’s own body, often from the iliac crest), allograft (cadaveric bone usually obtained from a bone bank), or synthetic (often made of hydroxyapatite or other naturally occurring and biocompatible substances) with similar mechanical properties to bone. Most bone grafts are expected to be reabsorbed and replaced as the natural bone heals over a few months’ time.

The principles involved in successful bone grafts include osteoconduction (guiding the reparative growth of the natural bone), osteoinduction (encouraging undifferentiated cells to become active osteoblasts), and osteogenesis (living bone cells in the graft material contribute to bone remodeling). Osteogenesis only occurs with autograft tissue and allograft cellular bone matrices.

Bromide peroxidase

Bromide peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.18, bromoperoxidase, haloperoxidase (ambiguous), eosinophil peroxidase) is an enzyme with systematic name bromide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction

RH + HBr + H2O2 RBr + 2 H2O

Bromo peroxidases of red and brown marine algae (Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta) contain vanadate (vanadium bromoperoxidase). Otherwise vanadium is unusual cofactor in biology. By virtue of this family of enzymes, a variety of brominated natural products have been isolated from marine sources.

Related chloroperoxidase enzymes effect chlorination. In the nomenclature of haloperoxidase, bromoperoxidases classically are unable to oxidize chloride at all. For example, eosinophil peroxidase appears to prefer bromide over chloride, yet is not considered a bromoperoxidase because it is able to use chloride.

Muricidae (was Murex) spp. snails have a bromoperoxidase used to produce Tyrian purple dye. The enzyme is very specific to bromide and physically stable, but has not been characterized as to its active site metal. As of 2019, no specific gene has been assigned to such an enzyme in the snail genome. Such an activity is probably provided by symbiotic Bacillus bacteria instead. The identified enzyme belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily; a structure for a similar bromoperoxidase is available as PDB: 3FOB​. It runs on a catalytic triad of Ser 99, Asp 229 and His 258 and does not require metal cofactors.

C. officinalis

C. officinalis may refer to:

Calendula officinalis, a garden plant species

Cinchona officinalis, a tree species native to the Amazon Rainforest

Cochlearia officinalis, a flowering plant species

Corallina officinalis, a calcareous red seaweed species

Cyathula officinalis, a plant species native to the China

Coral reef

A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of colonies of coral polyps held together by calcium carbonate. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, whose polyps cluster in groups.

Coral belongs to the class Anthozoa in the animal phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones and jellyfish. Unlike sea anemones, corals secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons that support and protect the coral. Most reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated water.

Often called "rainforests of the sea", shallow coral reefs form some of Earth's most diverse ecosystems. They occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean area, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for at least 25% of all marine species, including fish, mollusks, worms, crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, tunicates and other cnidarians. Coral reefs flourish in ocean waters that provide few nutrients. They are most commonly found at shallow depths in tropical waters, but deep water and cold water coral reefs exist on smaller scales in other areas.

Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services for tourism, fisheries and shoreline protection. The annual global economic value of coral reefs is estimated between US$30–375 billion and 9.9 trillion USD. Coral reefs are fragile, partly because they are sensitive to water conditions. They are under threat from excess nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), rising temperatures, oceanic acidification, overfishing (e.g., from blast fishing, cyanide fishing, spearfishing on scuba), sunscreen use, and harmful land-use practices, including runoff and seeps (e.g., from injection wells and cesspools).

Corallina

Corallina is a genus of red seaweeds with hard, abrasive calcareous skeletons in the family Corallinaceae. They are stiff, branched plants with articulations.

Coralline algae

Coralline algae are red algae in the order Corallinales. They are characterized by a thallus that is hard because of calcareous deposits contained within the cell walls. The colors of these algae are most typically pink, or some other shade of red, but some species can be purple, yellow, blue, white, or gray-green. Coralline algae play an important role in the ecology of coral reefs. Sea urchins, parrot fish, and limpets and chitons (both mollusks) feed on coralline algae. In the temperate Mediterranean sea, coralline algae are the main builders of a typical algal reef, the Coralligène ("coralligenous"). Many are typically encrusting and rock-like, found in marine waters all over the world. Only one species lives in freshwater. Unattached specimens (maerl, rhodoliths) may form relatively smooth compact balls to warty or fruticose thalli.

A close look at almost any intertidal rocky shore or coral reef will reveal an abundance of pink to pinkish-grey patches, distributed throughout the rock surfaces. These patches of pink "paint" are actually living crustose coralline red algae. The red algae belong to the division Rhodophyta, within which the coralline algae form the order Corallinales. There are over 1600 described species of nongeniculate coralline algae.The corallines are presently grouped into two families on the basis of their reproductive structures.

Corallinophycidae

The Corallinophycidae is a grouping of three calcifying red algal lineages recovered by molecular analysis.

Janua pagenstecheri

Janua pagenstecheri is a species of marine polychaete. It is widely distributed around the British Isles and across north-western Europe, and has been described as "probably the commonest spirorbid in the world".Janua pagenstecheri lives attached to substrates such as seaweeds including Corallina officinalis, rocks, stones, shells, and the carapaces of crabs. J. pagenstecheri inhabits a shell made of calcium carbonate in the form of a dextral spiral, with the tube up to 2 mm in diameter. The animal exists in two colour morphs: one bright yellow, which occurs in shallow water, and one much paler, which occurs in deeper water. It differs from Spirorbis spirorbis in that S. spirorbis retains its eggs in the tube, while J. pagenstecheri incubates them a few at a time in its operculum, and grows a new cap for the operculum after releasing the embryos.The species was described by Armand de Quatrefages in 1865, and named after Heinrich Alexander Pagenstecher, professor of zoology at the University of Heidelberg and the first director of the Hamburg natural history museum.

Kina (animal)

Evechinus chloroticus, better known as kina (from the Māori name), is a sea urchin endemic to New Zealand. This echinoderm belongs to the family Echinometridae and it can reach a maximum diameter of 16–17 cm (Barker 2007).

Kina have been a traditional component of Māori diet since pre-European times and has been fished commercially since 1986 in small quantities under the quota management system in restricted areas along the coast of New Zealand (Barker 2007, James et al.2007). Attempts to export E. chloroticus to Asian markets have been unsuccessful, so it may not be an economically attractive species for aquaculture development (James 2003, James 2010).

Evechinus chloroticus is distributed throughout New Zealand and in some northern and southern offshore islands (Dix 1970a, Barker 2007).

List of British Isles rockpool life

The rockpools of the British Isles are a feature of rocky shores and have a particular life of their own. Conditions within them are different from the open sea, as they are exposed to increased sunlight, as well as predation from land-based animals and accidental damage from tourism. Some, such as those in Wembury Marine Centre, are formally protected.

List of coralline algae species in the British Isles

This is a list of coralline algae species in the British Isles.

Boreolithon van-heuckii

Choreonema thuretii

Corallina elongata

Corallina officinalis

Haliptilon squamatum

Jania rubens

Lithophyllum crouaniorum

Lithophyllum dentatum

Lithophyllum duckerae

Lithophyllum fasciculum

Lithophyllum hibernicum

Lithophyllum incrustans

Lithophyllum nitorum

Lithophyllum orbiculatum

Titanoderma corallinae

Titanoderma laminariae

Titanoderma pustulatum

Hydrolithon boreale

Hydrolithon cruciatum

Hydrolithon farinosum

Hydrolithon samoënse

Hydrolithon sargassi

Pneophyllum confervicola

Pneophyllum coronatum

Pneophyllum fragile

Pneophyllum limitatum

Pneophyllum lobescens

Pneophyllum myriocarpum

Exilicrusta parva

Lithophytum bornetii

Lithophytum elatum

Lithophytum laeve

Lithothamnion corallioides

Lithothamnion glaciale

Lithothamnion lemoineae

Lithothamnion sonderi

Melobesia membranacea

Mesophyllum lichenoides

Phymatolithon brunneum

Phymatolithon calcareum

Phymatolithon laevigatum

Phymatolithon lamii

Phymatolithon lenormandii

Phymatolithon purpureum

List of red seaweeds of South Africa

This is a list of red seaweeds (Domain: Eukaryota, Division: Rhodophyta) recorded from the oceans bordering South Africa.

This list comprises locally used common names, scientific names with author citation and recorded ranges. Ranges specified may not be the entire known range for the species, but should include the known range within the waters surrounding the Republic of South Africa.

List ordering and taxonomy complies where possible with the current usage in Algaebase, and may differ from the cited source, as listed citations are primarily for range or existence of records for the region.

Sub-taxa within any given taxon are arranged alphabetically as a general rule.

Details of each species may be available through the relevant internal links. Synonyms may be listed where useful.

Red algae, or Rhodophyta ( roh-DOF-it-ə, ROH-də-FY-tə; from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhodon), meaning 'rose', and φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant'), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and mostly consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. There are no terrestrial species, which is assumed to be traced back to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity.

The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stroma) thylakoids, and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments, which give them their red color. Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and reproduce sexually. The red algal life history is typically an alternation of generations that may have three generations rather than two.

Chloroplasts evolved following an endosymbiotic event between an ancestral, photosynthetic cyanobacterium and an early eukarytoic phagotroph. This event (termed primary endosymbiosis) resulted in the origin of the red and green algae, and the glaucophytes, which make up the oldest evolutionary lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes. A secondary endosymbiosis event involving an ancestral red alga and a heterotrophic eukaryote resulted in the evolution and diversification of several other photosynthetic lineages such as Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, Stramenopiles (or Heterokontophyta), Alveolata, Centrohelids, Katablepharids, and Telonemi. In addition to multicellular brown algae, it is estimated that more than half of all known species of microbial eukaryotes harbor red-algal-derived plastids.

List of seaweeds of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay

This is a list of seaweeds recorded from the oceans bordering The Cape Peninsula in South Africa from Melkbosstrand on the West Coast to Cape Hangklip on the South Coast.

This list comprises locally used common names, scientific names with author citation and recorded ranges. Ranges specified may not be the entire known range for the species, but should include the known range within the waters surrounding the Republic of South Africa.

List ordering and taxonomy complies where possible with the current usage in Algaebase, and may differ from the cited source, as listed citations are primarily for range or existence of records for the region.

Sub-taxa within any given taxon are arranged alphabetically as a general rule.

Details of each species may be available through the relevant internal links. Synonyms may be listed where useful.

Officinalis

Officinalis, or officinale, is a Medieval Latin epithet denoting substances or organisms – mainly plants – with uses in medicine and herbalism. It commonly occurs as a specific epithet - the second term of a two-part botanical name. Officinalis is used to modify masculine and feminine nouns, while officinale is used for neuter nouns.

Red algae

Red algae, or Rhodophyta ( roh-DOF-it-ə, ROH-də-FY-tə; from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhodon), meaning 'rose', and φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant'), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and mostly consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. There are no terrestrial species, which is assumed to be traced back to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity.The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stroma) thylakoids, and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments, which give them their red color. Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and reproduce sexually. The red algal life history is typically an alternation of generations that may have three generations rather than two.Chloroplasts evolved following an endosymbiotic event between an ancestral, photosynthetic cyanobacterium and an early eukarytoic phagotroph. This event (termed primary endosymbiosis) resulted in the origin of the red and green algae, and the glaucophytes, which make up the oldest evolutionary lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes. A secondary endosymbiosis event involving an ancestral red alga and a heterotrophic eukaryote resulted in the evolution and diversification of several other photosynthetic lineages such as Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, Stramenopiles (or Heterokontophyta), Alveolata, Centrohelids, Katablepharids, and Telonemi. In addition to multicellular brown algae, it is estimated that more than half of all known species of microbial eukaryotes harbor red-algal-derived plastids.The coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and laver (nori/gim) are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisines and are used to make other products such as agar, carrageenans and other food additives.Red algae are divided into the Cyanidiophyceae, a class of unicellular and thermoacidophilic extremophiles found in sulphuric hot springs and other acidic environments, an adaptation partly made possible by horizontal gene transfers from prokaryotes, and two sister clades called SCRP (Stylonematophyceae, Compsopogonophyceae, Rhodellophyceae and Porphyridiophyceae) and BF (Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae), which are found in both marine and freshwater environments. The SCRP clade are microalgae, consisting of both unicellular forms and multicellular microscopic filaments and blades. The BF are macroalgae, seaweed that usually do not grow to more than about 50 cm in length, but a few species can reach lengths of 2 m. Most rhodophytes are marine with a worldwide distribution, and are often found at greater depths compared to other seaweeds. While this was formerly attributed to the presence of pigments (such as phycoerythrin) that would permit red algae to inhabit greater depths than other macroalgae by chromatic adaption, recent evidence calls this into question (e.g. the discovery of green algae at great depth in the Bahamas). Some marine species are found on sandy shores, while most others can be found attached to rocky substrata. Freshwater species account for 5% of red algal diversity, but they also have a worldwide distribution in various habitats; they generally prefer clean, high-flow streams with clear waters and rocky bottoms, but with some exceptions. A few freshwater species are found in black waters with sandy bottoms and even fewer are found in more lentic waters. Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals. In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts.

Saltern Cove

Saltern Cove is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. It is on the coast of Tor Bay, south of Paignton, Devon, England. It is one of the coves which make up the local area known as "Three Beaches".

Spirorbis corallinae

Spirorbis corallinae is a very small (1-2 mm) coiled polychaete that lives attached to seaweed in shallow saltwater.

It has a smooth, white or semi-translucent, sinistral (left-handed) coiled shell encasing an orange body about 1.5 mm in length.

The worm has a short abdominal region and a slightly broader thorax terminating in colourless tentacles, used to filter food from the water. One of the tentacles is slightly larger than the rest and shaped like a saucer, which is used as an operculum. This seals the opening of the shell and serves to protect the worm from predators and desiccation when out of water.

It lives primarily on the red algae Corallina officinalis, after which it takes its name, but is also known to live on Irish Moss (Chondrus crispus). The shell is often confused with the white growing tips of Corallina fronds.

The Spirorbis genus are cross fertilising hermaphrodites, who brood their young in a tube attached to the worm inside the shell. The larvae are released at an advanced stage of development and spend just a few hours as free-living organisms before attaching themselves to the nearest suitable surface, often the same seaweed as the parent.

Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as:

Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood.

Spiracles: obscure

Jaw: various

Penis: frequently hermaphrodites

Organs of Sense: tentacles (generally), eyes, no brain, no ears, no nostrils

Covering: calcareous or none, except spines

Supports: no feet, no fins. Crawls in moist places & are muteThe class Vermes, as Linnaeus conceived it, was a rather diverse and mismatched grouping of animals; basically it served as a wastebasket taxon for any invertebrate species that was not an arthropod. With the advent of the scientific understanding of evolution, it became clear that many of the animals in these groups were not in fact closely related, and so the class Vermes was dropped for several (at least 30) phyla.

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