Coptic Catholic Church

The Coptic Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic particular church in full communion with the Catholic Church. The Coptic Catholic Church uses the Alexandrian Rite. Uniquely among Eastern Catholic Churches, it uses the Coptic language (derived from Ancient Egyptian, hence the name) in its liturgy, whereas the Ethiopian Catholic Church and Eritrean Catholic Church use the Alexandrian Rite in the Ge'ez language.

The current Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria is Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak, who replaced Antonios Naguib in 2013. The offices of the Patriarchate are located in Cairo. The patriarchal Cathedral of Our Lady of Egypt is in Nasr City, a suburb of Cairo.


Coptic Catholic Church
Cathedral of Our Lady of Egypt
ClassificationEastern Catholic
PolityEpiscopal
StructurePatriarchate
PopeFrancis
PrimatePatriarch Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak
AssociationsCongregation for the Oriental Churches
RegionEgypt, with communities in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America
LanguageAlexandrian Rite
HeadquartersCathedral of Our Lady of Egypt, Cairo, Egypt
Congregations166 (2016)
Members174,902 (2016)[1]
Ministers243[2]

History

Beginnings

In the 17th century, missionaries, primarily Franciscans, started to come to the Copts. In 1630, a Cairo mission of the Capuchin Order was founded. The Jesuits came in 1675.[3] In 1713, the Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria again submitted to Rome but, as in 1442, the union was not of long duration.[4]

In 1741, Coptic bishop Anba Athanasius of Jerusalem became a Catholic.[4] In 1781, he was appointed by Pope Benedict XIV as vicar apostolic of the less than 2,000 Egyptian Coptic Catholics.[3] Eventually, Athanasius returned to the Coptic Orthodox Church and others served as Catholic vicar apostolic.[3]

Patriarchate

Under the assumption that the Ottoman viceroy wanted a Catholic patriarch for the Coptic Catholics in 1824, the Pope established the Patriarchate of Alexandria[3] from the Apostolic Vicariate of Syria, Egypt, Arabia and Cyprus[5] but it was basically titular.[3] The Ottomans in 1829 allowed the Coptic Catholics to build their own churches.[3]

The number of Catholics of this Rite increased to the point that Leo XIII in 1895 restored the Catholic patriarchate.[4] He initially named Bishop Cyril Makarios as Patriarchal Vicar. Makarios then presided over a synod, which led to the introduction of some Latin practices. In 1899, Leo appointed Makarios as Patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, taking the name Cyril II. He resigned in 1908 at the request of the Pope over a controversy. The patriarchate seat remained vacant until an election in 1947[3] and was administered by Apostolic Administrator.[5]

Hierarchy

The Coptic Catholic Church sui juris comprises a single ecclesiastical province, covering Egypt only. The Patriarch is the sole Metropolitan Archbishop, retaining the ancient title Alexandria but his actual see is in Egypt's modern capital Cairo.

He has seven suffragan bishops, throughout Egypt, comprising the only Coptic Catholic ecclesiastical province : the eparchies of Alexandria (Patriarch's original home see), Assiut, Guizeh (Gizah), Ismayliah, Luqsor (Luxor), Minya and Sohag.

Religious orders

The Coptic Catholic Church does not have Coptic monasteries. Instead the Church has religious congregations such as the three communities for women: the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, the Coptic Sisters of Jesus and Mary (both based in Egypt) and the Egyptian Province of the Little Sisters of Jesus. There is also a community of male Franciscans.[3]

Educational and health services

Most candidates for the priesthood are trained at St. Leo's Patriarchal Seminary, in suburban Cairo. More than 100 Coptic Catholic parishes administer primary schools, and some have secondary schools as well. The church maintains a hospital, a number of medical dispensaries and clinics, and several orphanages.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Roberson, Ronald G. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2016" (PDF). Eastern Catholic Churches Statistics. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  2. ^ Roberson, Ronald G. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2010" (PDF). Eastern Catholic Churches Statistics. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Roberson, Ronald G. "The Coptic Catholic Church". Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  4. ^ a b c PD-icon.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Eastern Churches". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. ^ a b "Patriarchal See of Alexandria". Catholic Dioceses in the World. GCatholic.org. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  6. ^ "Pontifical Mission - The Coptic Catholic Church". www.cnewa.org. Retrieved 2017-01-20.

Sources and external links

Alexandrian Rite

The Alexandrian Rite is the liturgical rite used by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, as well as by the three corresponding Eastern Catholic Churches.

The Alexandrian rite's Divine Liturgy contains elements from the liturgies of Saints Mark the Evangelist (who is traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria), Basil the Great, Cyril the Great, and Gregory Nazianzus. The Liturgy of Saint Cyril is a Coptic language translation from Greek of the Liturgy of Saint Mark.

The Alexandrian Rite is sub-grouped into two rites: the Coptic Rite and the Ge'ez Rite. The Coptic Rite is native to Egypt and traditionally uses the Coptic language with a few phrases in Greek. It is used in the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Coptic Catholic Church. Arabic and a number of other modern languages (including English) are also used. The Ge'ez Rite is native to Ethiopia and Eritrea and uses the Ge'ez language. It is used in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo churches, and the Ethiopian and Eritrean Catholic churches.

Antonios Naguib

Antonios I Naguib (in Arabic أنطونيوس الأول نجيب) (born 18 March 1935 in Samalut) is the Coptic Catholic Patriarch emeritus of Alexandria, and a Cardinal.

Asyut

Asyut (Egyptian Arabic: أسيوط‎ Asyūṭ pronounced [ʔɑsˈjuːtˤ], Coptic: ⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲧ Siowt) is the capital of the modern Asyut Governorate in Egypt, which has one of the largest Coptic Catholic bishopric churches in the country; the ancient city of the same name, which is situated nearby. The modern city is located at 27°11′00″N 31°10′00″E, while the ancient city is located at 27°10′00″N 31°08′00″E.

Catholic Church in Egypt

The Catholic Church in Egypt is considerably small as compared to the rest of the Christian population in Egypt, which is a significant minority among (mainly Sunni) Muslims. The Catholic population in Egypt is said to have begun during the British control of Egypt. However, many returned to Europe after the 1952 Revolution in Egypt, which also caused the overthrow and exile of King Farouk of Egypt. Catholics in Egypt belong to seven distinct ritual Particular Churches sui iuris, the largest being the Coptic Catholic Church, led by its Patriarch of Alexandria.

The majority of the Christians in Egypt are members of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. The number of Catholics (less than 200,000) in Egypt makes up much less than 1% of the total Egyptian population, which is roughly 75 million people. Many of Egypt's Latin Catholics are of Italian or Maltese descent, while Egypt's Melkite Greek Catholics and Maronite Catholics are predominantly of Syro-Lebanese descent.

Christianity in Minya Governorate

Christianity is the religion of large part of the population in Minya Governorate in Egypt. The Copts made up 19.4% of the population in the year 1914 and even today they form the majority in some parts of the governorate, as Copts presently account approximately 40% of Minya Government region. There exists a Minya eparchy of the Coptic Catholic Church, which is part of the Roman Catholic Church. Antonios Naguib, the Patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, was born in Salamout in 1935.

The area also has a quite large Protestant population.

Church of Alexandria

The Church of Alexandria in Egypt is the Christian Church headed by the Patriarch of Alexandria. It is one of the original Apostolic Sees of Christianity, alongside Rome, Antioch, Constantinople and Jerusalem.

Tradition holds that the Church of Alexandria was founded by Saint Mark the Evangelist circa 49 AD and claims jurisdiction over all Christians on the African continent.

Today, three churches claim to be direct heirs of the original Church of Alexandria:

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox church

The Eastern Orthodox Church of Alexandria, also known as the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, part of the wider Eastern Orthodox Church

The Coptic Catholic Church, one of 22 Eastern Catholic churches who are in full communion with the Catholic Church led by the Pope, the Bishop of RomeFormerly, also the Latin Patriarchate of Alexandria did so.

Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Giza

The Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Giza is an Eastern Catholic diocese in Giza. It is one of the suffragan sees comprising the sole ecclesiastical province (covering all Egypt) of the Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria, the head of the Coptic Catholic Church, a Particular church sui iuris (Alexandrian Rite).

Its episcopal see is Saint-George cathedral in Giza, which is part of the national capital Cairo's metropolitan area.

Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Minya

The Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Minya is a suffragan eparchy (Eastern Catholic diocese) of the Coptic Catholic Church (Alexandrian Rite in Coptic language) in its sole ecclesiastical province, that of the Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria (whose see is in Cairo).

It has its episcopal see the cathedral of Christ King located in Minya, the capital of the Minya Governorate in Upper Egypt.

Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Sohag

The Eparchy of Sohag is an eparchy of the Coptic Catholic Church, centered in the ecclesiastical province of the Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria.

The Eparchy was erected on 13 September 1981.

Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria

The Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria is the Patriarchal and only Metropolitan see of the head of the Eastern sui iuris Coptic Catholic Church, a particular Church in the Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See, which follows the Alexandrian Rite in its own Coptic language. He is thus the superior of all Coptic dioceses, mostly in and around Egypt (where all its sees are), Copt(ic) being corruptions of the Greek word for Egypt(ian).

It has two cathedral archiepiscopal sees, both in Egypt: one dedicated to Our Lady of Egypt, in the national capital Cairo, the other dedicated to the Resurrection, in Ancient Alexandria.

Coptic Rite

Coptic Rite may refer to:

Liturgical rite of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, or many satellite Coptic churches in the Oriental Orthodox communion

Liturgical rite of the Coptic Catholic Church, one of the Eastern Catholic Churches in communion with the Holy See

The Alexandrian Rite, known as the Liturgy of Saint Mark, broadly the rite used by both churches above

Copts in Egypt

Copts in Egypt refers to Coptic people born in or residing in Egypt.

Coptic people are the largest ethno-religious minority in Egypt. The largest Coptic Christian group in Egypt is the Coptic Orthodox Church with a population of at least 7,200,000 and the second is the Coptic Catholic Church with a population of 161,000 Other estimates of the ethnic Coptic population within Egypt range between 15 to 18 million.

George Isaac (politician)

George Isaac (Egyptian Arabic: جورج إسحاق‎) is an Egyptian politician and activist. During the later part of Hosni Mubarak's presidency, he co-founded the grassroots Kefaya opposition movement.

Following the 2011 Egyptian Revolution that toppled Mubarak, Issac became a member of the Constitution Party and a critic of President Mohamed Morsi, elected in 2012. He is a member of the Coptic Catholic Church.

Ghattas

Ghattas (Arabic: غطاس‎‎), sometimes rendered as Gattas or Gattaz, is a name usually borne by Arab Christians from the Middle East. It is derived from the Arabic verb meaning "to submerge in water (or another liquid)", most often encountered as a name among Egyptian Copts and Lebanese Christians with the meaning of "baptism".It may refer to:

First name

Ghattas Hazim (born 1963), Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan of Baghdad, Kuwait and Dependencies, since 2014Surname

Basel Ghattas (born 1956), Israeli Arab politician

Dan Christian Ghattas, intersex activist and university lecturer

Ignatius Ghattas (1920–1992), bishop of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. Served as Eparch of Newton

Kim Ghattas (born 1977), journalist

Maged George Elias Ghattas, Egyptian politician, minister

Marie-Alphonsine Danil Ghattas (1843—1927), Palestinian Christian nun who was canonized

Rodrigo Gattas (born 1991), Palestinian Chilean football player

Stéphanos II Ghattas (1920–2009), cleric of the Coptic Catholic Church. Patriarch of Alexandria from 1986 to 2006

Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak

Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak (Coptic: ⲁⲃⲣⲁϩⲁⲙ ⲓⲥⲁⲁⲕ ⲥⲉⲇⲣⲁⲕ, Arabic: إبراهيم إسحاق سدراك‎; born 19 August 1955 in Beni-Chokeir, Egypt) is the current Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria.

Kyrillos Makarios

Kyrillos Makarios also written as Cyrillus Macaire (in Arabic كيرلس مقار ) (born 9 February 1867 - died 18 May 1921) was a leader of the Coptic Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris particular church of the Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Alexandria from 1899 to 1908 when he resigned.

Kyrillos Makarios was born in Scenaineh in 1867 and was ordained a priest in 1891. He was appointed as Apostolic Vicar of the Coptic Catholic Church on 15 March 1895 and was appointed as Titular Archbishop of Caesarea Philippi and ordained on the position on 17 April 1895. He headed a Coptic Catholic delegation in September 1895 to the Vatican to meet with Pope Leo XIII after the latter's encyclical dated 11 June 1895 to the Egyptian Catholic Church followers. The delegation requested the reinstatement of the seat of the Coptic Catholic Patriarchate. The papal decision followed quickly on 26 November 1895 reestablishing the patriarchal seat, assigning two eparchies, namely The Eparchy of Hermopolis (El Minia) to be headed by Bishop Maximus Sedfawi and Eparchy of Taybeh (Luxor) to be headed by Bishop Ignatius Barazi, and confirmed Kyrillos Makarios as Apostolic Vicar.

In 1898, he held the First Alexandria Council for the Catholic Copts heading as vicar. He served as Vicar until 19 June 1899 when he was appointed as Patriarch of Alexandria as the first patriarch of the reinstated Coptic Catholic Patriarchate and was officially ordained as Patriarch in July 1899 and was instrumental in organizing the dioceses and the churches. His successes however prompted a lot of opposition, upon which he tended his resignation from the seat and retreated to Beirut, Lebanon.

After his resignation, the Patriarchal seat remained vacant for almost 4 decades (from 1908 until 1947). During this period, Maximos Sedfaoui served as locum tenens of the Coptic Catholic Church (1908–1925) with Kyrillos Makarios remaining as Patriarch Emeritus (a titular position) until his death on 18 May 1921.

After the death of Sedfaoui, Markos Khouzam became locum tenens of the Coptic Catholic Church (1927–1947) until his ordainment as Patriarch of Alexandria Markos II Khouzam in 1947.

Patriarchate of Alexandria (disambiguation)

The term Patriarchate of Alexandria may refer to:

Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria, an Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate, created by the Ecumenical Council of Nicaea in 325

Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox Patriarchate, created after the splits that followed the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon

Latin Patriarchate of Alexandria, a Roman Catholic Patriarchate, of the Latin Rite, created as a titular see

Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria, an Eastern Catholic Patriarchate of the Coptic Catholic Church

Melkite Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria, titular Eastern Catholic Patriarchate of the Melkite Catholic Church

Stéphanos II Ghattas

Stéphanos II Ghattas (Arabic: إسطفانوس الثاني غطاس‎) (January 16, 1920 – January 20, 2009), was an eparch of the Coptic Catholic Church. From 1986 to 2006 he served as the Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria. He was also a Cardinal.

Stéphanos I Sidarouss

Stéphanos I Sidarouss (Arabic: إسطفانوس الأول سيداروس‎) (22 February 1904 – 23 August 1987) was a Cardinal and leader of the Coptic Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris particular church of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Alexandria from 1958 to 1986, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.

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