Copper(II) carbonate or cupric carbonate is a chemical compound with formula CuCO
3. At ambient temperatures, it is an ionic solid (a salt) consisting of copper(II) cations Cu2+
and carbonate anions CO2−
This compound is rarely encountered because it is difficult to prepare and readily reacts with water moisture from the air. The terms "copper carbonate", "copper(II) carbonate", and "cupric carbonate" almost always refer (even in chemistry texts) to a basic copper carbonate (or copper(II) carbonate hydroxide), such as Cu
3 (which occurs naturally as the mineral malachite) or Cu
3)2 (azurite). For this reason, the qualifier neutral may be used instead of "basic" to refer specifically to CuCO
Cupric carbonate, neutral copper carbonate
3D model (JSmol)
|reacts with water at normal conditions|
|Pa-C2s (7) |
a = 6.092 Å, b = 4.493 Å, c = 7.030 Å
α = 90°, β = 101,34°°, γ = 90°
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Reactions that may be expected to yield CuCO
3, such as mixing solutions of copper(II) sulfate CuSO
4 and sodium carbonate Na
3 in ambient conditions, yield instead a basic carbonate and CO
2, due to the great affinity of the Cu2+
ion for the hydroxide anion HO−
Thermal decomposition of the basic carbonate at atmospheric pressure yields copper(II) oxide CuO rather than the carbonate.
In 1960, C. W. F. T. Pistorius claimed synthesis by heating basic copper carbonate at 180 °C in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide CO
2 (450 atm) and water (50 atm) for 36 hours. The bulk of the products was well-crystallized malachite Cu
3(OH)2, but a small yield of a rhombohedral substance was also obtained, claimed to be CuCO
3. However, this synthesis was apparently not reproduced.
Reliable synthesis of true copper(II) carbonate was reported for the first time in 1973 by Hartmut Ehrhardt and others. The compound was obtained as a gray powder, by heating basic copper carbonate in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide (produced by the decomposition of silver oxalate Ag
4) at 500 °C and 2 GPa (20,000 atm). The compound was determined to have a monoclinic structure.
The stability of dry CuCO
3 depends critically on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). It is stable for months in dry air, but decomposes slowly into CuO and CO
2 if pCO2 is less than 0.11 atm.
In the presence of water or moist air at 25 °C, CuCO
3 is stable only for pCO2 above 4.57 atmospheres and pH between about 4 and 8. Below that partial pressure, it reacts with water to form a basic carbonate (azurite, Cu
In highly basic solutions, the complex anion Cu(CO
3)22− is formed instead.
Azurite is a soft, deep-blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. During the early 19th century, it was also known as chessylite, after the type locality at Chessy-les-Mines near Lyon, France. The mineral, a carbonate with the chemical formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2, has been known since ancient times, and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Natural History under the Greek name kuanos (κυανός: "deep blue," root of English cyan) and the Latin name caeruleum. Since antiquity, azurite's exceptionally deep and clear blue has been associated with low-humidity desert and winter skies. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association, since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (لاژورد), an area known for its deposits of another deep-blue stone, lapis lazuli ("stone of azure").Basic copper carbonate
Basic copper carbonate is a chemical compound, more properly called copper(II) carbonate hydroxide. It is an ionic compound (a salt) consisting of the ions copper(II) Cu2+, carbonate CO2−3, and hydroxide OH−.
The name most commonly refers to the compound with formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. It is a green crystalline solid that occurs in nature as the mineral malachite. It has been used since antiquity as a pigment, and it is still used as such in artist paints, sometimes called verditer, green bice, or mountain green.
Sometimes the name is used for Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2, a blue crystalline solid also known as the mineral azurite. It too has been used as pigment, sometimes under the name mountain blue or blue verditer.
Both malachite and azurite can be found in the verdigris patina that is found on weathered brass, bronze, and copper. The composition of the patina can vary, in a maritime environment depending on the environment a basic chloride may be present, in an urban environment basic sulfates may be present.This compound is often improperly called (even in chemistry articles) copper carbonate, cupric carbonate, and similar names. The true (neutral) copper(II) carbonate CuCO3 is not known to occur naturally. It is decomposed by water or moisture from the air, and was synthesized only in 1973 by high temperature and very high pressures.Bremer Bank (German bank)
The Bremer Bank was a fully owned subsidiary of the Dresdner Bank with branches in Bremen's districts Mitte (city center next to the Bremen Cathedral), Neustadt, Utbremen, and Vegesack. The branches in Bremerhaven were labeled as Dresdner Bank.
The base of customers and staff was added to the Commerzbank when the Commerzbank AG bought the Dresdner Bank.Since 2010, according to a writ by the acquiring company, the brand Dresdner Bank is only used in Dresden and the brand Bremer Bank is not used at all anymore. However, a trademark protection exists until November 30, 2019. The painting of founder Heinrich Maier was removed and is owned by the Commerzbank. In its place (see photo) is now a door leading to the lower level of the Manufactum.
The name Bremer Bank is now used for the landmarked building at the Domshof. The Commerzbank AG was represented there with a branch until mid-2015.
Due to reasons of landmark tradition the copper lettering 'Bremer Bank' remained on the gable of the building. Above the entrance used to be green luminous advertising reading 'Bremer Bank' which was replaced according to landmark requirements by a copper sign now reading 'Commerzbank' including the logo also in brown copper. The color of the copper writings through weathering in time will turn into a green basic copper(II)-carbonate color which will match the building's roof.Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.
Copper is one of the few metals that can occur in nature in a directly usable metallic form (native metals). This led to very early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC.In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later corrupted to сuprum (Latin), whence coper (Old English) and copper, first used around 1530.Commonly encountered compounds are copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite, malachite, and turquoise, and have been used widely and historically as pigments.
Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris (or patina). Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents, fungicides, and wood preservatives.
Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, muscle, and bone. The adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.Copper(II) acetate
Copper(II) acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(OAc)2 where AcO− is acetate (CH3CO−2). The hydrated derivative, which contains one molecule of water for each Cu atom, is available commercially. Anhydrous Cu(OAc)2 is a dark green crystalline solid, whereas Cu2(OAc)4(H2O)2 is more bluish-green. Since ancient times, copper acetates of some form have been used as fungicides and green pigments. Today, copper acetates are used as reagents for the synthesis of various inorganic and organic compounds. Copper acetate, like all copper compounds, emits a blue-green glow in a flame. The mineral hoganite is a naturally occurring form of copper(II) acetate.Copper(II) chloride
Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. This is a light brown solid, which slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.
Both the anhydrous and the dihydrate forms occur naturally as the very rare minerals tolbachite and eriochalcite, respectively.Copper(II) hydroxide
Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper with the chemical formula of Cu(OH)2. It is a pale greenish blue or bluish green solid. Some forms of copper(II) hydroxide are sold as "stabilized" copper hydroxide, although they likely consist of a mixture of copper(II) carbonate and hydroxide. Copper hydroxide is a weak base.Copper(II) oxide
Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CuO. A black solid, it is one of the two stable oxides of copper, the other being Cu2O or cuprous oxide. As a mineral, it is known as tenorite. It is a product of copper mining and the precursor to many other copper-containing products and chemical compounds.Copper carbonate
Copper carbonate may refer to :
Copper (II) compounds and mineralsCopper(II) carbonate proper, CuCO3 (neutral copper carbonate): a rarely seen moisture-sensitive compound.
Basic copper carbonate (the "copper carbonate" of commerce), actually a copper carbonate hydroxide; which may be either
Cu2CO3(OH)2: the green mineral malachite, and the pigment "verditer" or "mountain green"
Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2: the blue mineral azurite, and the pigment "blue verditer" or "mountain blue"
Lapis armenus, a precious stone, a basic copper carbonate from Armenia
Marklite, a hydrated copper carbonate mineralCopper (I) compoundsCopper(I) carbonate, Cu2CO3Green
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of roughly 495–570 nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by a combination of yellow and blue, or yellow and cyan; in the RGB color model, used on television and computer screens, it is one of the additive primary colors, along with red and blue, which are mixed in different combinations to create all other colors. By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants photosynthesize and convert sunlight into chemical energy. Many creatures have adapted to their green environments by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage. Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald, which is colored green by its chromium content.
During post-classical and early modern Europe, green was the color commonly associated with wealth, merchants, bankers and the gentry, while red was reserved for the nobility. For this reason, the costume of the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci and the benches in the British House of Commons are green while those in the House of Lords are red. It also has a long historical tradition as the color of Ireland and of Gaelic culture. It is the historic color of Islam, representing the lush vegetation of Paradise. It was the color of the banner of Muhammad, and is found in the flags of nearly all Islamic countries.In surveys made in American, European, and Islamic countries, green is the color most commonly associated with nature, life, health, youth, spring, hope, and envy. In the European Union and the United States, green is also sometimes associated with toxicity and poor health, but in China and most of Asia, its associations are very positive, as the symbol of fertility and happiness. Because of its association with nature, it is the color of the environmental movement. Political groups advocating environmental protection and social justice describe themselves as part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties. This has led to similar campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold green, or environmentally friendly, products. Green is also the traditional color of safety and permission; a green light means go ahead, a green card permits permanent residence in the United States.Iron(II) carbonate
iron(II) carbonate, or ferrous carbonate, is a chemical compound with formula FeCO3, that occurs naturally as the mineral siderite. At ordinary ambient temperatures, it is a green-brown ionic solid consisting of iron(II) cations Fe2+ and carbonate anions CO2−3.List of Medabots characters
This is a list of characters that appear in the Japanese anime series, Medabots.List of inorganic compounds
Although most compounds are referred to by their IUPAC systematic names (following IUPAC nomenclature), "traditional" names have also been kept where they are in wide use or of significant historical interests.Native copper
Native copper is an uncombined form of copper that occurs as a natural mineral. Copper is one of the few metallic elements to occur in native form, although it most commonly occurs in oxidized states and mixed with other elements. Native copper was an important ore of copper in historic times and was used by pre-historic peoples.
Native copper occurs rarely as isometric cubic and octahedral crystals, but more typically as irregular masses and fracture fillings. It has a reddish, orangish, and/or brownish color on fresh surfaces, but typically is weathered and coated with a green tarnish of copper(II) carbonate (also known as patina or verdigris). Its specific gravity is 8.9 and its hardness is 2.5–3.The mines of the Keweenaw native copper deposits of Upper Michigan were major copper producers in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and are the largest deposits of native copper in the world. Native Americans mined copper on a small scale at this and many other locations, and evidence exists of copper trading routes throughout North America among native peoples, proven by isotopic analysis. The first commercial mines in the Keweenaw Peninsula (which is nicknamed the "Copper Country" and "Copper Island") opened in the 1840s. Isle Royale in western Lake Superior was also a site of many tons of native copper. Some of it was extracted by native peoples, but only one of several commercial attempts at mining turned a profit there. An archived record of native copper originally found up river from Lake Superior, on the west branch of the Ontonagon River, via being dragged by a glacier is seen in the Ontonagon Boulder, Ontonagon Boulder now in the possession of the Department of Mineral Sciences, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Another major native copper deposit is in Coro Coro, Bolivia.
The name copper comes from the Greek kyprios, "of Cyprus", the location of copper mines since pre-historic times.Qualitative inorganic analysis
Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds. It is mainly focused on detecting ions in an aqueous solution, therefore materials in other forms may need to be brought to this state before using standard methods. The solution is then treated with various reagents to test for reactions characteristic of certain ions, which may cause color change, precipitation and other visible changes.Qualitative inorganic analysis is that branch or method of analytical chemistry which seeks to establish the elemental composition of inorganic compounds through various reagents.Solubility table
The table below provides information on the variation of solubility of different substances (mostly inorganic compounds) in water with temperature, at 1 atmosphere pressure. Units of solubility are given in grams per 100 millilitres of water (g/100 ml), unless shown otherwise. The substances are listed in alphabetical order.Verdigris
Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment obtained through the application of acetic acid to copper plates or the natural patina formed when copper, brass or bronze is weathered and exposed to air or seawater over time. It is usually a basic copper carbonate (Cu2CO3(OH)2), but near the sea will be a basic copper chloride (Cu2(OH)3Cl). If acetic acid is present at the time of weathering, it may consist of copper(II) acetate.