The Cook Partisan Voting Index, often abbreviated as CPVI or simply PVI, is a measurement of how strongly a United States congressional district or state leans toward the Democratic or Republican Party, compared to the nation as a whole. The index is updated after each election cycle. The Cook Political Report introduced the PVI in August 1997 to better gauge the competitiveness of each district using the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections as a baseline. The index is based on analysis by the Center for Voting and Democracy (now FairVote) for its July 1997 Monopoly Politics report.
PVIs are calculated by comparing a congressional district's average Democratic or Republican Party share of the two-party presidential vote in the past two presidential elections to the national average share for those elections. For example, the national average for 2004 and 2008 was 51.2% Democratic to 48.8% Republican. In Alaska's at-large congressional district, the Republican candidate won 63% and 61% of the two-party share in the 2004 and 2008 presidential elections, respectively. Comparing the average of these two district results (62%) against the average national share (48.8%), this district voted 13.2 percentage points more Republican than the country as a whole, or R+13.
Prior to its April 2009 update, the PVI formula compared district-level results for the past two presidential elections to nationwide results for only the most recent election. Since then, local elections are compared to synchronic national elections.
The Cook PVI is displayed as a letter, a plus sign, and a number. The letter (either a D for Democratic or an R for Republican) reflects the major party toward which the district (or state) leans. The number reflects the strength of that partisan preference in rounded percentage points. A district or state without a partisan tilt is designated as "EVEN".
This table is sourced from the Cook Political Report's 2016 analysis for districts of the 116th United States Congress, calculated according to the results of the 2012 and the 2016 U.S. presidential elections. The party representations are based on the winners of the 2018 U.S. House elections. In the House, there are 235 districts that lean Republican and 192 districts that lean Democratic.
The district-by-district list has been collapsed to save space. To show the full list, please click the word "show" in the table below.
The District of Columbia's at-large congressional district is ranked on the Cook PVI, as it participates in presidential elections. It is represented by a non-voting delegate. Its rank is D+43. Territorial districts are not ranked on the Cook PVI, as they do not participate in presidential elections.
|Michigan||D+1||Democratic||Democratic||7D, 6R, 1I|
|New Jersey||D+7||Democratic||Democratic||11D, 1R|
|New York||D+12||Democratic||Democratic||21D, 6R|
|North Carolina||R+3||Democratic||Republican||10R, 3D|
|South Carolina||R+8||Republican||Republican||5R, 2D|
*An independent senator caucuses with the Democrats.
The most Democratic congressional district in the country is New York's 15th, located in the Bronx, with a PVI of D+44. The most Republican district is Texas's 13th at R+33. As for states as a whole, Wyoming is the most Republican at R+25, and Hawaii is the most Democratic at D+18.
The most Democratic district relative to its state is Tennessee's 9th, being D+28 in an R+14 state (a 42-point difference). The most Republican relative to its state is Illinois's 15th, being R+21 in a D+7 state (a 28-point difference). Of the 428 Congressional districts that are in states with more than one district, 104 lean to one party while their state leans to the other.
As of January 2019, the most Democratic-leaning congressional district that is represented by a Republican is New York's 24th; with a PVI of D+3, the district is represented by John Katko, who is the only Republican to represent a Democratic-leaning House district. As of January 2019, the most Republican-leaning congressional district that is represented by a Democrat is Utah's 4th; with a PVI of R+13, the district is represented by Democrat Ben McAdams. Following the 2018 elections, there were 36 Republican-leaning House districts represented by Democrats.
In the Senate, the most Republican-leaning state to have a Democratic senator is West Virginia, represented by Joe Manchin. The least Democratic-leaning state to have two Democratic senators is New Hampshire, represented by Jeanne Shaheen and Maggie Hassan. The most Democratic-leaning state to have a Republican senator is Maine – with Susan Collins. The least Republican-leaning state to have two Republican senators is Florida, represented by Marco Rubio and Rick Scott.
Four of the (index-based) Republican-leaning states have Democratic governors, while three Democratic-leaning states have Republican governors. The most Republican-leaning state with a Democratic governor is Kansas, with Laura Kelly, and the most Democratic-leaning state to have a Republican governor is Vermont, with Phil Scott.
Florida's 22nd congressional district is a district located in south Florida. The residents of the 22nd district are represented in the United States House of Representatives by Democrat Ron Klein. The district has a Cook Partisan Voting Index score of D+1.
This district was formed following the 1990 Census. Republican E. Clay Shaw was the first representative of the district and served six terms until he lost to Democrat Ron Klein in 2006. In 2010, Ron Klein was defeated by his challenger Allen West.2017 United States House of Representatives elections
There were six special elections to the United States House of Representatives in 2017 during the 115th United States Congress.
All of the elections were won by the party previously holding the seat. Therefore, there were no net changes in party.
Although Democrats did not gain any seats, their margins were narrower than the districts' Cook Partisan Voting Index.
Elections are sorted by date and district.2019 United States gubernatorial elections
United States gubernatorial elections will be held on November 5, 2019 in Kentucky, Mississippi, and on November 16, 2019 in Louisiana. Depending on state law, special elections may also take place if other gubernatorial seats are vacated. These elections form part of the 2019 United States elections. The last regular gubernatorial elections for all three states were in 2015.Adair County, Iowa
Adair County is a county in the U.S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,682. Its county seat is Greenfield.The county was part of Iowa's 5th congressional district, which had a score of R+9 (strongly Republican) in the Cook Partisan Voting Index.Florida's 1st congressional district
Florida's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Florida, covering the state's western Panhandle. It includes all of Escambia, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Walton counties and portions of Holmes county. The district is anchored in Pensacola and also includes the large military bedroom communities and tourist destinations of Navarre and Fort Walton Beach and stretches along the Emerald Coast. The district, as ranked by the Cook Partisan Voting Index, is the most Republican district in Florida and the 15th most in the United States.
The district is currently represented by Republican Matt Gaetz.Indiana's congressional districts
Indiana has nine congressional districts. They were last redrawn after the 2010 census and took effect in 2013, following the 2012 elections. For a history of who has served in each district, see United States congressional delegations from Indiana#United States House of Representatives.Minnesota's 5th congressional district
Minnesota's 5th congressional district is a geographically small urban and suburban congressional district in Minnesota. It covers eastern Hennepin County, including the entire city of Minneapolis, along with parts of Anoka and Ramsey counties. Besides Minneapolis, major cities in the district include St. Louis Park, Richfield, Crystal, Robbinsdale, Golden Valley, New Hope, and Fridley.
It was created in 1883 and was named the "Bloody Fifth" on account of the first election. The contest between Knute Nelson and Charles F. Kindred involved graft, intimidation, and election fraud at every turn. The Republican convention on July 12 in Detroit Lakes was compared to the historic Battle of the Boyne in Ireland. One hundred and fifty delegates fought over eighty seats. After a scuffle in the main conference center, the Kindred and Nelson campaigns nominated each of their candidates.The district is strongly Democratic with a Cook Partisan Voting Index (CPVI) of D+26—by far the most Democratic district in the state. The 5th is also the most Democratic district in the Upper Midwest. The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) has held the seat without interruption since 1963, and the Republicans have not tallied more than 40 percent of the vote in almost half a century.
The district is represented by Ilhan Omar, the first Somali American to ever serve in the U.S. House of Representatives, and the first black woman to represent Minnesota in that chamber. Omar, also Muslim American, succeeded future Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison, the first Muslim American to serve in Congress.New Hampshire's 1st congressional district
New Hampshire's 1st congressional district covers the southeastern part of New Hampshire. The district consists of three general areas: Greater Manchester, the Seacoast and the Lakes Region.
It is represented in the United States House of Representatives by Democrat Chris Pappas.
Politically, the 1st district is one of the most competitive congressional districts in the country, with a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+2. As of 2019, the district has changed hands in six of the last seven elections, with an incumbent losing re-election in five instances.New York's 15th congressional district
New York's 15th congressional district is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives located in New York City, State of New York. The district has been represented by Democrat José E. Serrano since 2013.
The 15th district is located entirely within the Bronx, namely the southern portion of the West Bronx as well as the South Bronx. Hispanics make up the majority of the district's population, followed by blacks. Whites, Asians and others comprise a small minority. Yankee Stadium and the Bronx Zoo are both located within the district.
From 2003 to 2013 it was composed of Upper Manhattan, Rikers Island and a largely non-residential section of northwestern Queens on the shore of the East River mostly occupied by a Consolidated Edison facility and a New York Power Authority power plant. The district included the neighborhoods of Harlem, Inwood, Marble Hill, Spanish Harlem, Washington Heights, Morningside Heights, and portions of the Upper West Side that included Apollo Theater, Columbia University, and Grant's Tomb.
Scoring a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+43 in 2014 rendered the district the most Democratic in the nation. U.S. Senator John Kerry won 90% of the vote in the 15th congressional district in 2004. In 2012, this was the district scoring the highest percentage of local votes to President Barack Obama: 96.7%. Likewise in 2016 whereby Hillary Clinton received locally a total of 93.8% of the vote.Ohio's 11th congressional district
Ohio's 11th congressional district is represented by Representative Marcia Fudge, a Democrat, having been elected after the death of Stephanie Tubbs Jones. This district includes most of the majority-black precincts between Cleveland and Akron.
Ohio has had at least 11 congressional districts since the 1820 Census. The district's current configuration dates from the 1990 Census, when most of the old 21st District was combined with portions of the old 20th District to form the new 11th District. Much of Akron was added to the district when the congressional map was redrawn after the 2010 Census, when Ohio lost two seats in the House of Representatives.
With a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+32, it is the most Democratic district in Ohio and the 19th most Democratic district in the nation.
It was one of several districts challenged in a 2018 lawsuit seeking to overturn Ohio's congressional map due to alleged unconstitutional gerrymandering. The lawsuit describes the 11th as "a detached shoulder blade with a robotic arm" extending from Cleveland to Akron.Oregon's 3rd congressional district
Oregon's 3rd congressional district covers most of Multnomah County, including Gresham, Troutdale, and most of Portland (parts of Northwest and Southwest Portland lie in the 1st and 5th districts). It also includes the northeastern part of Clackamas County. Generally, most of Portland east of the Willamette River is in the 3rd District.
The district has been represented by Democrat Earl Blumenauer since a 1996 special election. It is the second-most Democratic district in the Pacific Northwest, with a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+24; only Washington's 7th congressional district is more Democratic.Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district
Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district is located in the east central part of the state and encompasses all of Carbon County, Columbia County, Lebanon County, Montour County, and Schuylkill County, as well as parts of Berks County, Luzerne County, and Northumberland County. Much of the district includes Pennsylvania's Coal Region. Republican Dan Meuser represents the district, serving since 2019.
Before 2019, the district was located in the southern part of the state and was a very safe seat for Republicans. According to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, in 2010 the 9th was the most Republican district in Pennsylvania (and the Industrial Midwest), then with a score of R +17. Redistricting slightly increased the number of Democrats in the district, with the addition of majority-Democratic Fayette County as well as some of the Democratic portions of Washington, Greene, Cambria and Westmoreland Counties. In 2014, the long-time Republican incumbent, former businessman Bill Shuster, won 52.8% of the vote in a three-way Republican primary race over retired Coast Guard search and rescue pilot Art Halvorson (34.5%) and livestock farmer Travis Schooley (12.7%). In the 2012 general election, he beat his Democratic opponent, nurse Karen Ramsburg, taking 62% of the vote.
In 2010, he won 73% of the vote, and in 2008 won 64%. Shuster was first elected to the district in 2001, effectively inheriting the seat from his father, Bud Shuster, who had held the seat since 1973. Shuster announced in January 2018 that he would retire from Congress at the end of his term, and did not run for re-election in 2018.The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania redrew this district's boundaries in February 2018 after ruling the previous map unconstitutional, also re-assigning the number to a district in east central Pennsylvania–essentially, the successor to the old 11th district–for the 2018 elections and representation thereafter. Meanwhile, the bulk of the old ninth became the new 13th district, and is as Republican as its predecessor.Political party strength in U.S. states
Political party strength in U.S. states refers to the level of representation of the various political parties of the U.S. in each statewide elective office providing legislators to the state and to the U.S. Congress and electing the executives at the state (U.S. state governor) and national (U.S. President) level.Politics of Indiana
Indiana has long been considered to be a Republican stronghold and is rated R+7 on the Cook Partisan Voting Index. The current governor of Indiana is Republican Eric Holcomb, and Republicans hold supermajorities in both chambers of the Indiana General Assembly. It has only supported a Democrat for president five times since 1900—in 1912, 1932, 1936, 1964 and 2008. Nonetheless, half of Indiana's governors in the 20th century were Democrats. However, Gary, Indiana has had a Democrat as mayor for the last 74 years.Texas's 13th congressional district
Texas District 13 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional District of the U.S. state of Texas that includes most of the Texas Panhandle, parts of Texoma and northeastern parts of North Texas. It winds across the Panhandle into the South Plains, then runs east across the Red River Valley. Covering over 40,000 square miles (100,000 km2), it is the second-largest district geographically in Texas and larger in area than thirteen entire states. The principal cities in the district are Amarillo and Wichita Falls. The current Representative is Republican Mac Thornberry, who is not running for re-election in 2020.According to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, it is the most Republican district in the country (R+33).This district, however, has not always been strongly Republican. As late as 1976, Jimmy Carter won 33 of the 44 counties in this district, getting 60-70% in many of them.
In 2012, this was President Barack Obama's lowest percentage of the vote in a congressional district. He received 18.5% of the vote. In 2016, this was also Hillary Clinton's lowest percentage of the vote in a congressional district. She received an even lower percentage than President Obama in 2012, receiving only 16.9% of the vote compared to Donald Trump's 79.9%.The Cook Political Report
The Cook Political Report is an independent, non-partisan online newsletter that analyzes elections and campaigns for the United States House of Representatives, the United States Senate, Governor's offices and the American Presidency. It was founded by political analyst Charlie Cook in 1984. Coverage of Senate and Gubernatorial races is headed up by Senior Editor Jennifer Duffy and coverage of House races is led by David Wasserman. Amy Walter serves as national editor.
Reports include Charlie Cook's two weekly columns for National Journal magazine, and NationalJournal Daily. In addition, changes are generally made each week to the House, Senate, and Governors At-A-Glance charts, which list every candidate running in each state and district in the country, in addition to other candidates who are rumored to be considering a run. The House Summary lists the current makeup of the House of Representatives, as well as all announced retirements, potential retirements, and candidates possibly running for higher office. All House and Senate contests are rated, regardless of competitiveness on a seven-point scale; Solid Democrat, Likely Democrat, Lean Democrat, Toss-Up, Lean Republican, Likely Republican, and Solid Republican.
The Cook Political Report employs what it calls the Cook Partisan Voting Index (the PVI), which lists each congressional district in the country according to propensity for voting Democratic or Republican. Every four years following a presidential election, the PVI is updated to reflect how Democratic or Republican a district is, based on how that district voted in the presidential election compared with the rest of the country.
Previously a hard copy publication, the Cook Political Report moved to an all online format in 2004.Utah's 1st congressional district
Utah's 1st congressional district serves the northern area of Utah, including the cities of Ogden, Logan, Park City, Layton, Clearfield, and the northern half of the Great Salt Lake.
The current member of the United States House of Representatives from the district is Republican Rob Bishop.
President George W. Bush received 73% of the vote in this district in 2004. Scoring a Cook Partisan Voting Index (CPVI) of R+26 in 2004, the 1st Congressional District narrowly beat three other Congressional Districts which scored R+25 to become the most Republican district in the nation.Virginia's 8th congressional district
Virginia's 8th congressional district is a United States congressional district in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It comprises all of Arlington County, portions of Fairfax County and all of the independent cities of Alexandria and Falls Church.
The residents of the 8th district are currently represented by Democratic Congressman Don Beyer, elected in November 2014. With a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+21, it is the most Democratic district in Virginia, and one of the most Democratic white-majority districts in the South.
Being next to Washington D.C., the district is heavily dependent upon Federal government employment – for instance it has the highest Pentagon spending of any congressional district in the United States.
|New Hampshire 1||R+2||Democratic|
|New Hampshire 2||D+2||Democratic|
|New Jersey 1||D+13||Democratic|
|New Jersey 2||R+1||Democratic|
|New Jersey 3||R+2||Democratic|
|New Jersey 4||R+8||Republican|
|New Jersey 5||R+3||Democratic|
|New Jersey 6||D+9||Democratic|
|New Jersey 7||R+3||Democratic|
|New Jersey 8||D+27||Democratic|
|New Jersey 9||D+16||Democratic|
|New Jersey 10||D+36||Democratic|
|New Jersey 11||R+3||Democratic|
|New Jersey 12||D+16||Democratic|
|New Mexico 1||D+7||Democratic|
|New Mexico 2||R+6||Democratic|
|New Mexico 3||D+8||Democratic|
|New York 1||R+5||Republican|
|New York 2||R+3||Republican|
|New York 3||D+1||Democratic|
|New York 4||D+4||Democratic|
|New York 5||D+37||Democratic|
|New York 6||D+16||Democratic|
|New York 7||D+38||Democratic|
|New York 8||D+36||Democratic|
|New York 9||D+34||Democratic|
|New York 10||D+26||Democratic|
|New York 11||R+3||Democratic|
|New York 12||D+31||Democratic|
|New York 13||D+43||Democratic|
|New York 14||D+29||Democratic|
|New York 15||D+44||Democratic|
|New York 16||D+24||Democratic|
|New York 17||D+7||Democratic|
|New York 18||R+1||Democratic|
|New York 19||R+2||Democratic|
|New York 20||D+7||Democratic|
|New York 21||R+4||Republican|
|New York 22||R+6||Democratic|
|New York 23||R+6||Republican|
|New York 24||D+3||Republican|
|New York 25||D+8||Democratic|
|New York 26||D+11||Democratic|
|New York 27||R+11||Republican|
|North Carolina 1||D+17||Democratic|
|North Carolina 2||R+7||Republican|
|North Carolina 3||R+12||Republican|
|North Carolina 4||D+17||Democratic|
|North Carolina 5||R+10||Republican|
|North Carolina 6||R+9||Republican|
|North Carolina 7||R+9||Republican|
|North Carolina 8||R+8||Republican|
|North Carolina 9||R+8||Republican|
|North Carolina 10||R+12||Republican|
|North Carolina 11||R+14||Republican|
|North Carolina 12||D+18||Democratic|
|North Carolina 13||R+6||Republican|
|North Dakota at-large||R+16||Republican|
|Rhode Island 1||D+14||Democratic|
|Rhode Island 2||D+6||Democratic|
|South Carolina 1||R+10||Democratic|
|South Carolina 2||R+12||Republican|
|South Carolina 3||R+19||Republican|
|South Carolina 4||R+15||Republican|
|South Carolina 5||R+9||Republican|
|South Carolina 6||D+19||Democratic|
|South Carolina 7||R+9||Republican|
|South Dakota at-large||R+14||Republican|
|West Virginia 1||R+19||Republican|
|West Virginia 2||R+17||Republican|
|West Virginia 3||R+23||Republican|