Convolosaurus (meaning "flocking lizard" after the concentration of juvenile fossils found) is a genus of basal ornithopod dinosaur from the Twin Mountains Formation from Proctor Lake in Comanche County, Texas. The type and only species is Convolosaurus marri.
|Composite skeleton in Perot Museum of Nature and Science|
Andrzejewski, Winkler & Jacobs, 2019
Andrzejewski, Winkler & Jacobs, 2019
In May 1985, James "Rusty" Branch at the Proctor Lake in Comanche County, Texas, discovered a dinosaur fossil site which was among the richest from the Lower Cretaceous of North America. The Shuler Museum of Paleontology, part of the Southern Methodist University at Dallas, excavated a large number of specimens on the southeastern bank of the lake, in the Camp Quarry and the North Quarry. The discovery was in 1988 reported in the scientific literature. Remains found were combined into three mounted skeletons displayed at respectively the Proctor Lake US Army Corps of Engineers Office at Proctor (based on specimen SMU 70456), the Perot Museum of Nature and Science, (a composite of specimens SMU 74087, SMU 74093 and SMU 74104), and the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History (based on specimen SMU 74663). The taxon, new to science, was informally indicated as the "Proctor Lake hypsilophodontid". Later it was understood that the Hypsilophodontidae are an invalid paraphyletic grouping.
In 2019, the type species Convolosaurus marri was named and described by Kate A. Andrzejewski, Dale A. Winkler and Louis Leo Jacobs. The generic name is derived from the Latin convolare, "to flock", a reference to the dense concentration of fossils. The specific name honours Dr. Ray H. Marr who has propagated the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology at the SMU.
The holotype, SMU 72834, was found in a layer of the Twin Mountains Formation dating from the Aptian. It consists of a partial skeleton with skull. It preserved the cranium with the lower jaws, the vertebral column up to the twenty-third tail vertebra, the shoulder girdle, the left arm, the right humerus, the pelvis, both thighbones, both shinbones and the left calfbone. It represents a subadult individual. A large amount of fossils have been referred to the species. In 2019 these amounted to 488 specimens, representing at least twenty-nine individuals, ranging from small juveniles to subadults. Almost the entire skeleton is now known.
The holotype individual had an estimated length of between two-and-a-half and three metres. It was not yet fully grown; the adult size was considered to be unknown. Thighbones found vary between 51 and 315 millimetres in length.
The describing authors established a number of distinguishing traits. One of these is an autapomorphy, a unique derived character. The premaxilla bears four teeth, which have a vertical trough on the outside.
Additionally, a unique combination of traits is present that in themselves are not unique. Some of these traits are basal or symplesiomorphies. The premaxilla bears teeth. The entire upper rim of the eye socket is covered by two supraorbitals.
Other traits are derived characters, indicating a position higher in the evolutionary tree. The roots of the maxillary teeth are curved. The neck vertebrae are opisthocoelous, convex at the front and concave at the rear. With the sacral vertebrae the neural spines have twice the height of the vertebral body. The rear end of the ischium is expanded into a "foot". Between the fronts of the condyles of the thighbone only a shallow groove is present. The prepubic process of the pubic bone is transversely flattened.
While initially considered a member of the Hypsilophodontidae, Convolosaurus was in 2019 placed in the Ornithopoda in a basal position, above Hypsilophodon and below Thescelosaurus in the evolutionary tree. Previous analyses had found Thescelosaurus to be more basal than Hypsilophodon but this was now reversed as the possession by Convolosaurus of two supraorbitals, shared with Thescelosaurus, indicated that Hypsilophodon had lost this trait independently.
Aquilarhinus (meaning "eagle snout" after the unusual beak morphology) is a genus of hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaur from the Aguja Formation from Texas in the United States. The type and only species is Aquilarhinus palimentus. Due to its unusual dentary, it has been inferred to have had shovel-like beak morphology, different from the beaks of other hadrosaurs. It was originally classified as a Kritosaurus sp. before being reclassified as a new genus in 2019.Aralosaurini
Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).Canardia
Canardia is an extinct genus of aralosaurin lambeosaurine dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Marnes d’Auzas Formation (late Maastrichtian stage) of Toulouse, Haute-Garonne Department, southern France. The type species Canardia garonnensis was first described and named by Albert Prieto-Márquez, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Rodrigo Gaete and Àngel Galobart in 2013.Choyrodon
Choyrodon is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Albian-age Khuren Dukh Formation of Mongolia. The type and only species is Choyrodon barsboldi. The generic name is derived from the city of Choyr, and -odon, from Greek for tooth; the specific name barsboldi honours paleontologist Rinchen Barsbold. The material consists of a holotype partial skull and cervical ribs, with two other partial skulls both with associated postcranial material. It was found to be the sister taxon of Eolambia.Elasmaria
Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.Huxleysaurus
Huxleysaurus (meaning "Huxley's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur.Iguanodontia
Iguanodontia (the iguanodonts) is a clade of herbivorous dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. Some members include Camptosaurus, Dryosaurus, Iguanodon, Tenontosaurus, and the hadrosaurids or "duck-billed dinosaurs". Iguanodontians were one of the first groups of dinosaurs to be found. They are among the best known of the dinosaurs, and were among the most diverse and widespread herbivorous dinosaur groups of the Cretaceous period.Jaxartosaurus
Jaxartosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur similar to Corythosaurus which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils were found in Kazakhstan.Jeyawati
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Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.Lambeosaurinae
Lambeosaurinae is a group of crested hadrosaurid dinosaurs.Lapampasaurus
Lapampasaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid known from the Late Cretaceous Allen Formation (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian stage) of La Pampa Province, Argentina. It contains a single species, Lapampasaurus cholinoi.The generic name refers to the Argentine province of La Pampa. The specific name honours the late collector José Cholino. The material includes cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae, the forelimb girdle, and the partial hindlimb.Osmakasaurus
Osmakasaurus is a genus of herbivorous iguanodontian dinosaur. It is a basal iguanodontian which lived during the lower Cretaceous period (Valanginian age) in what is now Buffalo Gap of South Dakota, United States. It is known from the Chilson Member of the Lakota Formation. This genus was named by Andrew T. McDonald in 2011 and the type species is Osmakasaurus depressus. O. depressus was previously referred to as Camptosaurus depressus, and was first described in 1909 by Charles W. Gilmore.Pareisactus
Pareisactus (from the Greek "pareisaktos", meaning "intruder", referring to being represented as a single element among hundreds of hadrosaurid bones) is a genus of rhabdodontid ornithopod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Conquès Member of the Tremp Formation in the Southern Pyrenees of Spain. The type and only species is P. evrostos, known only from a single scapula.Plesiohadros
Plesiohadros is an extinct genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It is known from a partial skeleton including the skull collected at Alag Teg locality, from the Campanian Djadochta Formation of southern Mongolia. The type species is Plesiohadros djadokhtaensis.Sahaliyania
Sahaliyania (from "black" in Manchu, a reference to the Amur/Heilongjiang River) is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur (crested duckbilled dinosaur) from the Late Cretaceous of Heilongjiang, China.Tsintaosaurini
Tsintaosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs native to Eurasia. It currently contains only Tsintaosaurus (from China) and Pararhabdodon (from Spain ).Koutalisaurus, also known from late Cretaceous Spain and formerly referred to Pararhabdodon
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The Twin Mountains Formation, also known as the Twin Mountain Formation, is a sedimentary rock formation, within the Trinity Group, found in Texas of the United States of America. It is a terrestrial formation of Aptian age (Lower Cretaceous), and is notable for its dinosaur fossils. Dinosaurs from this formation include the large theropod Acrocanthosaurus, the sauropod Sauroposeidon, as well as the ornithopods Tenontosaurus and Convolosaurus. It is the lowermost unit of the lower Cretaceous, lying unconformably on Carboniferous strata. It is overlain by the Glen Rose Formation. It is the lateral equivalent of the lower part of the Antlers Formation.Xuwulong
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