Convince, also known as Bongo or Flenke is a religion from eastern Jamaica. It has roots in Kumina and Jamaican Maroon religion.[1]

OriginPost-Abolition era
Separated fromNative Baptism


According to research by J.W. Pullis the religion originated in the Portland Parish in Jamaica in the mid or late 1800s.[1] It is believed to have a Central African origin in its beliefs and practices.[2] Very little is known about the exact origins of the religion because of little research done on it. It can be deduced that the name of the religion comes from Christian teachings about "conviction" and the term "convince" began being used as a term for Myal spirit possession in the Native Baptist Church. Around 1861 many church members split into different camps with the more African oriented splitting off to form the Convince practice.[3]

Beliefs and practices

Convince belief rests on the idea that humans and spirits are part of one universe where they interact and influence each others behavior. Many spirits are deceased members of the cult. No spirit is totally good or totally evil. The spirit's will becomes friendly if it is worshiped, unfriendly if it is neglected, and evil if it is summoned to do evil.[4]

Religious practices are decentralized and have no authoritative hierarchy. The only structure of the religion is the collection of "bongo men" that form ceremonies when all agree to converge. Bongo men act as mediums who commune with ancestral spirits.[1] It is a non-textual religion that highlights ritual possession, ritual dancing and healing services.[5] Its ceremonies usually involve the guidance of bongo-men to become possessed by the spirits of the dead.[2] Unlike Kumina it's practices are more centered on indiviual benefit rather than community benefit and some Chrisitan hymns are incorporated.[6]

See Also


  1. ^ a b c J.W. Pullis (1999). Religion, Diaspora and Cultural Identity: A Reader in the Anglophone Caribbean. Routledge.
  2. ^ a b Anthony B Pinn (2009). African American Religious Cultures. Greenwood.
  3. ^ Taylor, Patrick; Case, Frederick (2013). The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions: Volume 1: A - L; Volume 2: M - Z.
  4. ^ Afro-Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to Their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions. Temple University Press. 2010.
  5. ^ Encyclopedia of African Religion, Volume 1. SAGE. 2009.
  6. ^ Maureen Warner Lewis (2003). Central Africa in the Caribbean: Transcending Time, Transforming Cultures. University of the West Indies Press.
1975 Major League Baseball season

The 1975 Major League Baseball season saw Frank Robinson become the first black manager in the Major Leagues. He managed the Cleveland Indians.

At the All-Star Break, there were discussions of Bowie Kuhn's reappointment. Charlie Finley, New York owner George Steinbrenner and Baltimore owner Jerry Hoffberger were part of a group that wanted him gone. Finley was trying to convince the new owner of the Texas Rangers Brad Corbett that MLB needed a more dynamic commissioner. During the vote, Baltimore and New York decided to vote in favour of the commissioner's reappointment. In addition, there were discussions of expansion for 1977, with Seattle and Washington, D.C. as the proposed cities for expansion.


Angada (Sanskrit: अङ्गद, IAST: aṅgada, lit. donor of limbs/bracelet) is a vanara who helped Rama find his wife Sita and fight her abductor, Ravana, in Ramayana. He was son of Vali and Tara and nephew of Sugriva.

Angada and Tara are instrumental in reconciling Rama and his brother, Lakshmana, with Sugriva after Sugriva fails to fulfill his promise to help Rama find and rescue his wife. Together they are able to convince Sugriva to honor his pledge to Rama instead of spending his time carousing and drinking. Sugriva then arranges for Hanuman to help Rama and organises the monkey army that will battle Ravana's demonic host. Angada lead the first search party to find Sita Rama's wife but unfortunately failed towards and same. But, Rama consoled him and kept him in his company to fight the upcoming war.

In the Ramayana war that took place, Angada killed many great warriors from Lanka, including, Ravana's son, Narantaka, and Mahaparshva, chief general of Ravana's army.

After the war was over, Angad was made the chief of Rama's Army back in Ayodhya.

Auckland Star

The Auckland Star was an evening daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, from 24 March 1870 to 16 August 1991. Survived by its Sunday edition, the Sunday Star, part of its name endures in The Sunday Star-Times, created in the 1994 merger of the Dominion Sunday Times and the Sunday Star.Originally published as the Evening Star from 24 March 1870 to 7 March 1879, the paper continued as the Auckland Evening Star between 8 March 1879 and 12 April 1887, and from then on as the Auckland Star.One of the paper's notable investigative journalists was Pat Booth, who was responsible for notable coverage of the Crewe murders and the eventual exoneration of Arthur Allan Thomas and the Mr Asia case.In 1987, the owners of the Star launched a morning newspaper to more directly compete with The New Zealand Herald. The Auckland Sun was affected by the 1987 stock market crash and folded a year later.Peter Bromhead was the editorial cartoonist from 1973 to 1989, and Guy Body also created editorial cartoons.When the newspaper ran editorials in 1991 opposing the work of a gay youth group (Auckland Lesbian and Gay Youth), the paper in turn became subject to strong protests from gay activists. After failing to convince the paper's editor, Frank Haden, to retract his editorials, the activists started a campaign that included discouraging advertisers from booking ads in the paper – a strategy which the activists credit with causing the paper to fold later in the year.

Civil law (common law)

Civil law is a branch of the law. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales, the law of Pakistan and the law of the United States, the term refers to non-criminal law. The law relating to civil wrongs and quasi-contracts is part of the civil law, as is law of property (other than property-related crimes, such as theft or vandalism). Civil law may, like criminal law, be divided into substantive law and procedural law. The rights and duties of persons (natural persons and legal persons) amongst themselves is the primary concern of civil law. It is often suggested that civil proceedings are taken for the purpose of obtaining compensation for injury, and may thus be distinguished from criminal proceedings, whose purpose is to inflict punishment. However, exemplary damages or punitive damages may be awarded in civil proceedings. It was also formerly possible for common informers to sue for a penalty in civil proceedings.Because some courts have both civil and criminal jurisdiction, civil proceedings cannot be defined as those taken in civil courts. In the United States, the expression "civil courts" is used as a shorthand for "trial courts in civil cases".In England, the burden of proof in civil proceedings is, in general—with a number of exceptions such as committal proceedings for civil contempt—proof on a balance of probabilities. In civil cases in the law of the Maldives, the burden of proof requires the plaintiff to convince the court of the plaintiff's entitlement to the relief sought. This means that the plaintiff must prove each element of the claim, or cause of action in order to recover.

Draft Bloomberg movement

The Draft Bloomberg movement is a political draft movement in the United States that launched in 2007

as an effort to convince New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to run for President of the United States as an independent candidate in the 2008 election. The movement ended for that election cycle on February 28, 2008, when Bloomberg formally announced that he would not run for president.The movement relaunched in late 2010 as an effort to persuade Bloomberg to make a presidential bid and/or lead in the formation of a viable third party in 2012.

Event Viewer

Event Viewer is a component of Microsoft's Windows NT line of operating systems that lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine. In Windows Vista, Microsoft overhauled the event system.Due to the Event Viewer's routine reporting of minor start-up and processing errors (which do not in fact harm or damage the computer), the software is frequently used by technical support scammers to convince users unfamiliar with Event Viewer that their computer contains critical errors requiring immediate technical support. An example is the "Administrative Events" field under "Custom Views" which can have over a thousand errors or warnings logged over a month's time.


Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation in which a person seeks to sow seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or in members of a targeted group, making them question their own memory, perception, and sanity. Using persistent denial, misdirection, contradiction, and lying, gaslighting involves attempts to destabilize the victim and delegitimize the victim's belief.Instances may range from the denial by an abuser that previous abusive incidents ever occurred to the staging of bizarre events by the abuser with the intention of disorienting the victim. The term originated from the 1938 Patrick Hamilton play Gaslight and its 1940 and 1944 film adaptations, in which the gas-fueled lights in a character's home are dimmed when he turns the attic lights brighter while he searches the attic at night. He convinces his wife that she is imagining the change. The term has been used in clinical and research literature, as well as in political commentary.

Glenn E. Smiley

Glenn Smiley (April 19, 1910 – September 14, 1993) was a white civil rights consultant and leader. He closely studied the doctrine of Mahatma Gandhi and became convinced that racism and segregation were most likely to be overcome without the use of violence, and began studying and teaching peaceful tactics. As an employee of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), he visited Martin Luther King, Jr. in Montgomery, Alabama in 1956 during the Montgomery bus boycott where Smiley advised King and his associates on nonviolent tactics, and was able to convince King that nonviolence was a feasible solution to racial tension. Smiley, together with Bayard Rustin and others, helped convince King and his associates that complete nonviolence and nonviolent direct action were the most effective methods and tools to use during protest. After the Civil Rights Movement, Smiley continued to employ nonviolence and worked for several organizations promoting peace in South American countries. Just three years before his 1993 death, Smiley opened the King Center in Los Angeles.

Guan Jing

Guan Jing (died 199), courtesy name Shiqi, was an official serving under the warlord Gongsun Zan during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. In 198, during Yuan Shao's invasion in the Battle of Yijing, Gongsun Zan wished to ride out and cut off Yuan Shao's rear, but Guan Jing recommended against this action, and for Gongsun Zan to stay within the city of Yijing. In 199, Yuan Shao tricked and ambushed Gongsun Zan as the latter rode out, expecting to meet reinforcements from Gongsun Zan's son Gongsun Xu and Zhang Yan. After this defeat, Gongsun Zan committed suicide by self-immolation. Guan Jing expressed regret that he could not convince Gongsun Zan to stay in the end, and rode into the army of Yuan Shao and died.

Jamaican Maroon religion

The traditional Jamaican Maroon religion otherwise known as Kumfu was developed by a mixing of West and Central African religious practices in Maroon communities. While the traditional religion of the Maroons was absorbed by Christianity due to conversions in Maroon communities, many old practices continued on. Some have speculated that Jamaican Maroon religion helped the development of Kumina and Convince. The religious Kromanti dance is still practiced today but not always with the full religious connotation as in the past.

Narrative film

Narrative film, fictional film or fiction film is a film that tells a fictional or fictionalized story, event or narrative. In this style of film, believable narratives and characters help convince the audience that the unfolding fiction is real. Lighting and camera movement, among other cinematic elements, have become increasingly important in these films. Great detail goes into the screenplays of narratives, as these films rarely deviate from the predetermined behaviours and lines of the classical style of screenplay writing to maintain a sense of realism. Actors must deliver dialogue and action in a believable way, so as to persuade the audience that the film is real life.

Persuasive writing

Persuasive writing intends to convince readers to believe in an idea or opinion. It's a form of non-fiction writing the writer uses to develop logical arguments, making use of carefully chosen words and phrases

Persuasive writing intends to convince readers to believe in an idea and to do an action. Many writings such as critics, reviews, reaction papers, editorials, proposals, advertisements, and brochures use different ways of persuasion to influence readers. Persuasive writing can also be used in indoctrination.

Pigskin Parade

Pigskin Parade is a 1936 American musical comedy film which tells the story of husband-and-wife college football coaches who convince a backwoods player to play for their team so they can go to the big game. It was written by William M. Conselman, Mary Kelly, Nat Perrin, Arthur Sheekman, Harry Tugend and Jack Yellen, and was directed by David Butler.

The cast includes Stuart Erwin (in an Oscar-nominated performance), Jack Haley, Patsy Kelly, Arline Judge, Dixie Dunbar, Johnny Downs, Betty Grable, Tony Martin and Judy Garland in her film debut. The film was distributed by 20th Century Fox.

Political movement

In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group that operates together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope. Political movements develop, coordinate, promulgate, revise, amend, interpret, and produce materials that are intended to address the goals of the base of the movement. A social movement in the area of politics can be organized around a single issue or set of issues, or around a set of shared concerns of a social group. In a political party, a political organization seeks to influence, or control, government policy, usually by nominating their candidates and seating candidates in politics and governmental offices. Additionally, parties participate in electoral campaigns and educational outreach or protest actions aiming to convince citizens or governments to take action on the issues and concerns which are the focus of the movement. Parties often espouse an ideology, expressed in a party program, bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a [coalition] among disparate interests.

Propaganda film

A propaganda film is a film that involves some form of propaganda. Propaganda films may be packaged in numerous ways, but are most often documentary-style productions or fictional screenplays, that are produced to convince the viewer of a specific political point or influence the opinions or behavior of the viewer, often by providing subjective content that may be deliberately misleading.Propaganda is the ability "to produce and spread fertile messages that, once sown, will germinate in large human cultures.” However, in the 20th century, a “new” propaganda emerged, which revolved around political organizations and their need to communicate messages that would “sway relevant groups of people in order to accommodate their agendas”. First developed by the Lumiere brothers in 1896, film provided a unique means of accessing large audiences at once. Film was the first universal mass medium in that it could simultaneously influence viewers as individuals and members of a crowd, which led to it quickly becoming a tool for governments and non-state organizations to project a desired ideological message. As Nancy Snow stated in her book, Information War: American Propaganda, Free Speech and Opinion Control Since 9-11, propaganda "begins where critical thinking ends."

QIP (complexity)

In computational complexity theory, the class QIP, which stands for Quantum Interactive Polynomial time, is the quantum computing analogue of the classical complexity class IP, which is the set of problems solvable by an interactive proof system with a polynomial-time verifier and one computationally unbounded prover. Informally, IP is the set of languages for which a computationally unbounded prover can convince a polynomial-time verifier to accept when the input is in the language (with high probability) and cannot convince the verifier to accept when the input is not in the language (again, with high probability). In other words, the prover and verifier may interact for polynomially many rounds, and if the input is in the language the verifier should accept with probability greater than 2/3, and if the input is not in the language, the verifier should be reject with probability greater than 2/3. In IP, the verifier is like a BPP machine. In QIP, the communication between the prover and verifier is quantum, and the verifier can perform quantum computation. In this case the verifier is like a BQP machine.

By restricting the number of messages used in the protocol to at most k, we get the complexity class QIP(k). QIP and QIP(k) were introduced by John Watrous, who along with Kitaev proved in a later paper that QIP = QIP(3), which shows that 3 messages are sufficient to simulate a polynomial-round quantum interactive protocol. Since QIP(3) is already QIP, this leaves 4 possibly different classes: QIP(0), which is BQP, QIP(1), which is QMA, QIP(2) and QIP.

Kitaev and Watrous also showed that QIP is contained in EXP, the class of problems solvable by a deterministic Turing machine in exponential time. QIP(2) was then shown to be contained in PSPACE, the set of problems solvable by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial space. Both results were subsumed by the 2009 result that QIP is contained in PSPACE, which also proves that QIP = IP = PSPACE, since PSPACE is easily shown to be in QIP using the result IP = PSPACE.

Queen of Jordan (30 Rock)

"Queen of Jordan" is the seventeenth episode of the fifth season of the American television comedy series 30 Rock, and the 97th overall episode of the series. It was written by Tracey Wigfield and directed by Ken Whittingham. The episode originally aired on the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) network in the United States on March 17, 2011. The episode follows a reality show format, and often parallels the events of the Real Housewives franchise. Guest stars in this episode include Sherri Shepherd, Susan Sarandon and Tituss Burgess.

This episode aired as an episode of Queen of Jordan, a fictional reality series that started sometime during the events of "Mrs. Donaghy". In this episode, Jack Donaghy (Alec Baldwin) convinces Liz to convince Angie to convince Tracy to come back from Africa. Meanwhile, Frank is found by his lost love. Throughout the episode, Jack gets into embarrassing situations and Jenna tries to be the focus of the reality show's cameras.

This episode of 30 Rock received generally positive reviews from television critics. According to Nielsen Media Research, "Queen of Jordan" was watched by 4.192 million households during its original broadcast, and received a 1.7 rating/5 share among viewers in the 18–49 demographic.

Tamworth Manifesto

The Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1834 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based.

In November 1834, King William IV removed the Whig Prime Minister Lord Melbourne and asked the Duke of Wellington to form a ministry. Wellington was reluctant and recommended that the King choose Peel.

Perhaps owing to Wellington's endorsement, Peel intended from the start, as the historian S. J. Lee tells, "to fully convince the country and electorate that there was a substantial difference between his brand of conservatism and that of his predecessor and 'old tory' Wellington."

With that in mind, on 18 December the Tamworth Manifesto was published by the press and read around the country. Like many other manifestos in nineteenth-century British politics it was formally an address to the electors of the leader's own constituency, but reproduced widely. In the event Tamworth saw no contest in January 1835: Peel and his brother were the only candidates – they were elected, i.e. "returned", unopposed.

Diverse roots

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