Convertible

A convertible or cabriolet (/ˌkæbrioʊˈleɪ/) is a passenger car that can be driven with or without a roof in place. The methods of retracting and storing the roof vary between models. A convertible allows an open-air driving experience, with the ability to provide a roof when required. Potential drawbacks of convertibles are reduced structural rigidity (requiring significant engineering and modification to counteract the effects of removing a car's roof)[1] and cargo space.[2]

The majority of convertible roofs are a folding construction made from cloth. Other types of convertible roofs include retractable hardtops (often constructed from metal or plastic) and detachable hardtops (where a metal or plastic roof is manually removed and often stored in the trunk).

MG MGB open roadster 1969
1969 MGB

Terminology

Other terms for convertibles include cabriolet, cabrio, drop top, open two-seater, open top, rag top, soft top, spider, and spyder. Consistency is rare about the current use of cabriolet in preference to convertible.[3] The term cabriolet originated from "a light, two-wheeled, one-horse carriage with a folding top, capable of seating two persons", however the term is also used to describe other convertibles these days.[4]

In the United Kingdom, the historical term for two-door convertibles is drophead coupés, and four-door convertibles were called all-weather tourers.[5]

History

Daimler Grafton Phaeton 1897 - rear
1897 Daimler Grafton Phaeton
HelenGeorgia1929Ford1975Gas
1929 Ford Model A cabriolet

Most of the early automobiles were open-air vehicles without any roof or sides.[6][7][8][9] As car engines became more powerful by the end of the 19th century, folding textile or leather roofs (as had been used on victoria or landau carriages) began to appear on cars.[10][11] Examples of early cars with roofs include the phaeton (a two-seat car with a temporary roof), the brougham or a coupé de ville (having an enclosed passenger compartment at the rear, while the driver sat in front either in the open) or the landaulet (where the driver has a fixed roof and the passenger compartment has a folding roof). Less expensive cars, such as the runabouts, sporting roadsters or sturdy touring cars, remained either completely open air or were fitted with a rudimentary folding top and detachable side curtains.

In the 1920s, when steel bodies began to be mass-produced, closed cars became available to the average buyer and fully open cars began their disappearance from the mainstream market.[12] By the mid 1930s, the remaining small number of convertibles sold were high priced luxury models.[11]

In 1939, Plymouth introduced the first mechanically operated convertible roof.[13]

Demand for convertibles increased as a result of American soldiers in France and the United Kingdom during World War 2 experiencing the small roadster cars which were not available in the United States at the time.[12] These roadsters included the MG Midget and Triumph Roadster. United States automakers manufactured a broad range of models during the 1950s and 1960s – from economical compact-sized models such as the Rambler American[14] and the Studebaker Lark, to the more expensive models such as the Packard Caribbean, Oldsmobile 98, and Imperial by Chrysler.

During the 1970s, popularity of convertibles was severely reduced by the increased travel speeds on roads (resulting in more wind and noise for occupants) and proposed vehicle crash safety standards in the United States.[12][15] Automobile air conditioning systems and sunroofs were also becoming popular, reducing the demand for convertibles.

In 1989, Mazda released the first generation Mazda MX-5 (called "Miata" in North America), which has become the best selling convertible with over 1 million cars sold.[16]

Also in 1989, Toyota released the Toyota Soarer Aerocabin, which uses an electrically operated retractable hardtop roof.[17] Only 500 were produced,[18] however the retractable hardtop design has become increasingly popular in the 21st century.

Currently, models dedicated to the convertible body style include the Mazda MX-5, Porsche Boxster, Audi TT and Opel Cascada. Many other models also include a convertible body style in the model range.

Roof types

Textile

1967 Ambassador DPL conv top-down-winter-FL palm
1967 AMC Ambassador convertible with its fabric top folded

A "soft top" is made form a flexible textile material. Common materials for soft tops are:

  • Early convertibles used cotton canvas woven so tightly it is waterproof. However, automakers had problems in securing raw materials to fulfill orders after World War II, including canvas in various shades for convertible tops and limiting their manufacture.[19]
  • A cloth-based material has become more common in recent years.[20]

Other materials are also used in the convertible top. By 1955, the most popular materials were latex and butyl rubber fabrics that each accounted for around 35% of the convertible top weight, with others included vinyl (12%), jute (8%), and rayon and acrylic fibers (Orlon), amounting to about 1% each in the compositions.[21] Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) material was used for many convertible tops. The material consists of two layers: a top layer made of PVC, which has a specific structure depending on the vehicle model, and a lower layer made of fabric (usually cotton).

The collapsible textile roof section over an articulated folding frame may include linings such as a sound-deadening layer and/or an interior cosmetic lining, to hide the frame.

The folded convertible top is called the stack.

Detachable hardtop

P138063225dartstratfordtonyf4011001024x768
A 1959 Daimler SP250 with detachable hardtop

Rigid removable hardtops, many of which store in a car's trunk, have been around at least since the 1950s.[22][23] These normally provide superior weatherproofing, soundproofing, and durability compared to fabric-based tops, some with integrated rear-window defrosters and windscreens.

Examples include the Ford Thunderbird (1st-generation and 11th-generation), Mercedes SL (2nd-generation and 3rd-generation), Porsche Boxster, Jeep Wrangler, and Mazda MX-5.

Ford Thunderbird Bj 1957 5000 ccm 250 PS 190 kmh heck
Detachable hardtop with "porthole" side windows on a 1957 Ford Thunderbird

During the 1950s and 1960s, detachable hardtops were offered for various convertible sports cars and roadsters, including the 1955–1957 Ford Thunderbird and Chevrolet Corvette, as well as the 1963–1971 Mercedes-Benz W113 series of two-seaters. Because the convertible top mechanism is itself expensive, the hardtop was customarily offered as an additional, extra-cost option. On early Thunderbirds (and Corvettes through 1967), buyers could choose between a detachable hardtop and a folding canvas top at no additional cost, but paid extra for both.

The metal-framed "Carson top" was a popular addition for the 1930s Ford convertibles or roadsters because it turned these models into an almost instant hardtop.[24] The design mimicked a convertible top, but lacking the bulky folding mechanisms enabled the removable hardtop to have a much lower and more rakish profile.[25]

Improvements in canvas tops have rendered the detachable hardtop less common in recent years, in part because the top cannot be stored in the vehicle when not in use, requiring a garage or other storage facility. Some open cars continue to offer it as an option. For example, Mazda MX-5s has an accessory hardtop, which is compulsory for some auto racing series.

Retractable hardtop

VOLVO C70(in transforming)
A Volvo C70 with retractable hardtop

A retractable hardtop — also known as "coupé convertible" or "coupé cabriolet" — is a car with an automatically operated, self-storing hardtop (as opposed to the textile-based roof used by traditional convertibles).

The benefits of improved climate control and security are traded off against increased mechanical complexity, cost, weight and often reduced luggage capacity.

Other design features

MG TD - Flickr - exfordy (4)
MG TD open two-seater with tonneau cover over passenger seat and luggage space

Tonneau cover

Folding textile convertible tops often fail to completely hide their internal mechanism or can expose their vulnerable underside to sun exposure and fading. A tonneau cover provides a solution.

Rear window

Rear windows are often part of the roof assembly. Traditionally, the rear window in a soft-top was made from plastic, however more recently some convertibles have used glass for the rear window.[26]

Windblocker

A windblocker or wind deflector minimizes noise and rushing air reaching the occupants.[27] According to the engineer responsible for the 2008 Chrysler Sebring, its windblocker reduces wind noise by approximately 11 to 12 dB.[28]

Several convertibles are available with a heating duct to the neck area of the seat, which is often called an "Air Scarf". Examples of cars with an Air Scarf are the Mercedes-Benz SLK-Class, Mercedes-Benz SL-Class and Audi A5/S5.

Safety

Modern safety features specifically for convertibles include:

Variations

Convertibles have offered numerous iterations that fall between the first mechanically simple but attention-demanding fabric tops to highly complex modern retractable hardtops:

Roadster: A roadster (also called spider or spyder) is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. Initially an American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles.

Cabrio coach: A cabrio coach (also called semi-convertible) has a retractable textile roof, similar to a traditional convertible. The difference is that a convertible often has the B-pillar, C-pillar and other bodywork removed, however the cabrio-coach retains all bodywork to the top of the door frames and just replaces the roof skin with a retractable fabric panel.

An advantage of a cabrio coach is that retaining more of the car's original structure means that structural rigidity is higher (or the vehicle weight is lower) than traditional cabriolets.[30] An example of the cabrio coach is the 2003-10 C3 Pluriel,[30] which has a roof with five possible configurations.[31][32]

Fixed-profile: In contrast to convertibles where the entire bodywork above the beltline (doors, roof, side pillars, side bodywork) is replaced with a folding or retractable roof, the fixed profile convertible retain portions of fixed bodywork including the doors, side pillars, and side elements of the roof — while a center fabric portion slides back and accordions at the rear. As an example, Citroën's 1948 Citroën 2CV featured rigid bodysides and two doors on each side, along with a sunroof that rolled back on itself and extended to the rear bumper in place of a separate trunk lid. Other fixed-profile convertibles include the 1957 Vespa 400, 1950 Nash Rambler Landau Convertible Coupe, the Nissan Figaro (1991), the Jaguar XJ-SC (1983) and the 1957 Fiat 500 and its 2007 Fiat 500 successor. The 1984 Heuliez-designed Citroen Visa Decapotable used elements of a fixed-profile convertible.

Four-door: Most convertibles have two doors, however several four-door convertibles have been produced. Examples include the 1934 Buick Series 60 "Convertible Phaeton",[33] 1938-39 Buick Roadmaster, 1940–41 Buick Super, 1941-1947 Oldsmobile 98 1941-47, 1939 Cadillac Series 61, 1940-41 Cadillac Series 62 and 1961-67 Lincoln Continental.[34] Current production four-door convertibles include the Jeep Wrangler Unlimited.[35][36]

Peugeot presented a concept four-door retractable hardtop convertible, the Peugeot 407 Macarena in 2006.[37] Produced by French coachbuilding specialist Heuliez, the Macarena's top can be folded in 60 seconds,[37] with a steel reinforcing beam behind the front seats incorporating LCD screens for the rear passengers into the crossmember.[37]

Off-road: Several off-road vehicles have been produced with removable soft tops.[38] Examples include the Jeep Wrangler, Suzuki Vitara, Suzuki Jimny,[39] Ford Bronco, Land Rover Defender, Mercedes-Benz G-Class[40] and early models of the Toyota Land Cruiser and Land Rover Defender. Typically, the soft tops attach to the roll cage or to the installation points on the vehicle's body.

Landaulet: A landaulet (also known as landaulette) is where the rear passengers are covered by a convertible top.[41][42][43] Often the driver is separated from the rear passengers with a partition,[42] as per a limousine.

In the second half of the 20th century, landaulets were used by public figures (such as heads of state) in formal processions. They are now rarely used, for fear of terrorist attack.

Gallery

Open car and roadster

Late model Ford Model T

Ford Model T circa 1925, with minimal weather protection

Bentley 4,5 Litre Sporting Four Seater 1929

Bentley 4½ Litre 1929 with luxury snap-on and thumbscrew sidescreens

1934 ford model 40 750 De Luxe Phaeton

Ford Phaeton 1934 open four-door touring car

1953.mg.td.arp

MG TD circa 1953, with manual soft top and manually detachable sidescreens with clear plastic windows and Perspex rear window

Lancia D23 Spyder 1953

Lancia D23 Spyder 1953

1955 Porsche 550 Spyder interior

1955 Porsche 550 Spyder

Convertibles

1950-nash-001

fixed-profile Nash Rambler Convertible "Landau" Coupe circa 1950

Jaguar XK8 Cabriolet rear 20070520

Jaguar XK circa 2008, with heatable glass rear window and fully automatic cloth top with integral top-concealing rigid tonneau

1966 Mercedes-Benz 230SL convertible (10560521576)

Mercedes SL 1964, available with a detachable hardtop

1962 Lincoln Continental convertible (6262975751)

Lincoln Continental circa 1962, four-door with integral automatically operating, self-storing tonneau

Ma 1963 E-type

Jaguar E-type 1963, with vinyl foldable tonneau installed and snap-secured

1971eldofront

Cadillac Eldorado 1972, with detachable, two-part, fully rigid "parade boot" tonneau cover

2cv pinkdylan frome

Citroen 2CV circa 1975, with roll-back roof and rigid doors

1986 RR Corniche II rear

Rolls Royce Corniche circa 1986, a high-end prestige marque with a manually installed tonneau cover

Allante

Cadillac Allanté circa 1993, with detachable, rigid plastic tonneau cover, built in Italy by Pininfarina, completed bodies were flown to the U.S. 56 at a time in specially equipped Boeing 747 with final assembly at Hamtramck, Michigan[44]

Volkswagen New Beetle Cabriolet Red IAA 2003

Volkswagen New Beetle circa 2003, with raised textile (cloth) convertible top featuring interior headliner, an acoustic insulation layer, and heatable glass rear window

Porsche Boxster hr silver

Porsche Boxster circa 2004, with detachable clear plastic windblocker and a Z-fold top, automatically raiseable in 12 seconds[45] and optional 51 lb (23 kg) detachable aluminum hardtop (not shown)

Citroen C3 Pluriel rear 20071104

Citroën C3 Pluriel circa 2007, a multiconfigurable convertible with roll-back textile roof and removable rigid sidebars[31]

Fiat 500C 1.2 8V Lounge – Heckansicht, 16. April 2011, Düsseldorf

A Fiat 500 (2007) fixed-profile convertible

Rolls Royce Phantom V State Landaulette 1966

1966 Rolls-Royce Phantom V landaulet

Mercedes-Benz Typ 300 d Landaulet 2

Mercedes-Benz 300d landaulet in operation

Retractable hardtop

Mazda MX-5 hardtop

Mazda Miata Power Retractable Hard Top (PRHT) circa 2007, with 77 lb (35 kg) polycarbonate hardtop and identical cargo capacity to the soft-top version[46]

Cadillac XLR 2006

Cadillac XLR circa 2007, with fully retracted aluminum (i.e., lightweight) hardtop concealed by self-storing tonneau cover, the hardtop manufactured by a supplier joint venture of Mercedes-Benz and Porsche[47]

Daihatsu.copen.arp.750pix

Daihatsu Copen circa 2001 with retracted hardtop, qualifying for the ultra-compact Japanese kei class

Paris 2006 - Ford Focus CC

Ford Focus CC circa 2006 with its roof retracted, its final assembly performed by Pininfarina

Chevrolet SSR

Chevrolet SSR circa 2004, a retractable hardtop convertible pickup truck, its top engineered by American Specialty Cars

Volkswagen Eos Front-view

Volkswagen Eos circa 2007, the five-segment top features an independently sliding sunroof, made by OASys

See also

References

  1. ^ Garrett, Jerry (8 October 2006). "2007 Volkswagen Eos: In Praise of a Convertible Goddess". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2011.To neutralize the loss of torsional rigidity inherent in any convertible, VW engineers took the basket-handle roll bar of the VW Cabrio, inverted it and placed it under the rear seat pedestal. A beefed-up windshield frame of hot-stamped ultra-high-strength steel is connected directly to the floorpan’s reinforced frame rails. Steel tubing provides more stiffness behind the doors for an extra layer of safety. Partly as a consequence, rear seat passengers have about 10 inches less shoulder room than in the smaller Rabbit.
  2. ^ "What You Should Know Before Buying a Convertible". Edmunds. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  3. ^ "Convertible and Cabriolet what's the difference?". Convertible Car Magazine. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  4. ^ "Cabriolet". Dictionary.com. Random House. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  5. ^ Beattie, Ian (1977). The Complete Book of Automobile Body Design. Haynes Publishing Group. pp. 36, 42–43. ISBN 0-85429-217-9. These names are retained only for period cars.
  6. ^ "Beginnings of the automobile: the predecessor companies (1886-1920)". www.daimler.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  7. ^ "British Motor Manufacturers (1894-1960), Arnold". www.britishmm.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.
  8. ^ "Early American Automobiles Pre 1900". www.earlyamericanautomobiles.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  9. ^ "Hurtu". www.gracesguide.co.uk. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  10. ^ "The Evolution of the Convertible- slide 2". www.popularmechanics.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  11. ^ a b "A brief history of the convertible". www.autofocus.ca. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  12. ^ a b c "The up-and-down history of the convertible". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  13. ^ "The Evolution of the Convertible- slide 5". www.popularmechanics.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  14. ^ "All new (AMC advertisement)". Life. 50 (22). 2 June 1962. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  15. ^ "The Evolution of the Convertible- slide 8". www.popularmechanics.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Mazda builds 1 millionth MX-5". www.autoblog.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  17. ^ "A Soarer Aerocabin Found In LA". www.speedhunters.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  18. ^ "This One Of 500 Toyota Soarer Aerocabin Can Be Yours". www.carscoops.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  19. ^ "The Last Roadster". Cars and Parts. 43: 42. 2000. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  20. ^ Stroll, Daniel (2009). "Muscle Car Interior Restoration Guide". CarTech. p. 120. ISBN 9781932494983. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  21. ^ Jacobs, Milton (1957). Fabrics and Fibers for Passenger Cars: Automobile Manufacturers' Views, 1955 Compared with 1950, Issue 152 of Marketing research report. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Research Division. pp. 8, 40–41. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  22. ^ "A History of Hardtops". www.hemmings.com. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  23. ^ "356 Porsche Removable Hardtops". www.derwhites356literature.com. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  24. ^ Howley, Tim (April 2006). "A History of Hardtops". Hemmings Classic Car. Hemmings Motor News. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  25. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (19 September 2007). "Pisano/Ogden Buick: Profile of a Custom Car". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  26. ^ "Convertible Buying Guide". www.consumerreports.org. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  27. ^ "Convertible buying info: Top-down driving". www.edmunds.com. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  28. ^ Chrysler Group (30 March 2007). "2008 Chrysler Sebring Convertible's Solid Structure and Systems Deliver Smooth Driving, Tight Handling and a Quiet Ride" (Press release). prnewswire.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  29. ^ "Volvo C70 - safety, the next generation". Autoblog.com.
  30. ^ a b "The Semi-Convertible or Cabrio Coach: It's About Being Chic and Strong at the Same Time". www.autoevolution.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  31. ^ a b "Citroen C3 Pluriel (2003–) Review". Archived from the original on 5 November 2007.
  32. ^ "Citroen C3 Pluriel". honestjohn.co. 28 May 2003. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  33. ^ File:1934 Buick Series 60 Convertible Phaeton.JPG
  34. ^ Cars of the Sizzling '60s, by the auto editors of Consumer Guide (Publications International, Ltd., Lincolnwood, IL, 1997), pages 68 to 69, and 307.
  35. ^ "Jeep history in the 2000s". www.jeep.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  36. ^ "2017 Jeep Wrangler". www.edmunds.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  37. ^ a b c "¡Hey, Macarena! Heuliez Creates an Open-Top Peugeot 407". Edmunds. 28 January 2006. Archived from the original on 19 December 2006.
  38. ^ "Evolution Of The Convertible SUV". www.autowise.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  39. ^ "Suzuki Jimny 2005 - 2012". www.autoevolution.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  40. ^ "2018 Mercedes-Maybach G650 Landaulet". www.caranddriver.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  41. ^ Georgano, Nick (2001). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Routledge. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-57958-367-5.
  42. ^ a b Clough, Albert L. (1913). A dictionary of automobile terms. The Horseless Age Company. p. 185. LCCN 13003001. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  43. ^ The Merriam-Webster new book of word histories. Springfield, MA US: Merriam-Webster. January 1991. pp. 358–359. ISBN 978-0-87779-603-9. LCCN 91029965. Retrieved 2 June 2012. The motor landaulet was essentially an enclosed sedan or coupe with a folding top at the extreme rear quarter, over the rear seat.
  44. ^ Schuon, Marshall (19 April 1987). "The few, the rich, Pininfarina". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  45. ^ "2007 Porsche Boxster news, pictures, and information". Conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  46. ^ Vaughn, Mark (10 September 2006). "2007 Mazda MX-5 Miata Power Retractable Hardtop". Autoweek. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  47. ^ Keebler, Jack (August 2002). "2004 Cadillac XLR". Motor Trend. Retrieved 6 March 2011.

Further reading

  • Adler, Dennis (2011). Convertibles. First Gear series. Minneapolis, MN: Motorbooks. ISBN 9780760340202.
  • Hirsch, Jay; Weith, Warren (1979). The Last American Convertibles. New York: Collier Books; London: Collier Macmillan. ISBN 002080010X.
  • Holmes, Mark (2007). Ultimate Convertibles: Roofless Beauty. London: Kandour. ISBN 978-1-905741-62-5.
  • Langworth, Richard M (1988). The Great American Convertible. New York: Beekman House. ISBN 0517655810.
  • Wieder, Robert; Hall, George (1977). The Great American Convertible: An Affectionate Guide. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0385131232.
Allianz

Allianz SE ( AL-ee-ənts; German pronunciation: [aliˈants] (listen)) is a German multinational financial services company headquartered in Munich, Germany. Its core businesses are insurance and asset management. As of 2014, it is the world's largest insurance company, the largest financial services group and the largest company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine, as well as the largest financial services company when measured by 2013 revenue. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.Its asset management division, which consists of PIMCO, Allianz Global Investors and Allianz Real Estate, has €1,960 billion of assets under management (AuM), of which €1,448 billion are third-party assets (as at 2017-12-31).Allianz sold Dresdner Bank to Commerzbank in November 2008. As a result of this transaction, Allianz gained a 14% controlling stake in the new Commerzbank.

BMW 3 Series

The BMW 3 Series is a compact executive car manufactured by the German automaker BMW since May 1975. It is the successor to the 02 Series and has been produced in seven different generations.

The first generation of the 3 Series was only available as a 2-door sedan (saloon), however the model range has since expanded to include a 4-door sedan, 2-door convertible, 2-door coupé, 5-door station wagon, 5-door hatchback ("Gran Turismo") and 3-door hatchback body styles. Since 2013, the coupé and convertible models have been marketed as the 4 Series, therefore the 3 Series range no longer includes these body styles.

The 3 Series is BMW's best-selling model, accounting for around 30% of the BMW brand's annual total sales (excluding motorbikes). The BMW 3 Series has won numerous awards throughout its history.

The M version of the 3 series, M3, debuted with the E30 M3 in 1986.

BMW 3 Series (E90)

The BMW E90/E91/E92/E93 is the fifth generation of the BMW 3 Series, which was produced from 2004 to 2013. The body styles of the range are:

4-door sedan/saloon (E90 Model Code)

5-door wagon/estate (E91 Model Code, marketed as "Touring")

2-door coupé (E92 Model Code)

2-door convertible (E93 Model Code)Due to the separate model codes for each body style, the term 'E9x' is sometimes used to describe this generation of the 3 Series.

The 335i models were the first time a 3 Series was sold with a turbocharged petrol engine. The E9x family also saw the introduction of run-flat tyres to the 3 Series range. Consequently, cars with run-flats are not equipped with a spare tyre.

The E90/E92/E93 M3 is the only generation of M3 to be powered by a V8 engine. Released in 2007, it uses the BMW S65 naturally aspirated V8 engine and was produced in sedan, coupe and convertible body styles.

Following the introduction of the F30/F31 3 Series in 2012, the E90/E91 sedans and wagons began to be phased out. However, the E92/E93 coupes and convertibles remained in production until 2013, when they were replaced by the F32/F33 4 Series models.

BMW M3

The BMW M3 is a high-performance version of the BMW 3 Series, developed by BMW's in-house motorsport division, BMW M GmbH. M3 models have been produced for every generation of 3 Series since the E30 M3 was introduced in 1986.

The initial model was available in a coupé body style, with a convertible body styles added soon after. Prior to 2015, the only M3 sedan was produced during the E36 and E90 generation. However, since 2015 the M3 has been solely produced in the sedan body style, due to the coupé and convertible models no longer being part of the 3 Series range. The coupe and convertible models are part of the BMW 4 Series range and therefore called the BMW M4.

Upgrades over the standard 3 Series automobiles include engines, handling, brakes, aerodynamics, lightweight materials and various interior upgrades.

Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: konvertibilna marka, Cyrillic: конвертибилна марка); sign: KM; code: BAM) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is divided into 100 pfenigs or fenings (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: pfenig/fening; Cyrillic: пфениг/фенинг), and locally abbreviated KM.

Cabrio coach

A cabrio coach or semi-convertible is a type of car that has a retractable textile roof, similar to a convertible/cabriolet. The difference is that where a convertible often has the B-pillar, C-pillar and other bodywork removed, the cabrio-coach retains all bodywork to the top of the door frames and just replaces the roof skin with a retractable fabric panel.

An advantage of a cabrio-coach is that retaining more of the car's original structure means that structural rigidity is higher (or the vehicle weight is lower) than traditional cabriolets.If a vehicle's roof includes metal panels as well as the soft-top, it may be considered to be a fixed-roof vehicle with a sunroof, instead of being a cabrio-coach.

Car body style

Automobiles' body styles are highly variable. Some body styles remain in production, while others become less common or obsolete. They may or may not correlate to a car's price, size or intended market classification. The same car model might be available in multiple body styles comprising a model range. Some distinctions, as with four-wheel drive vs. SUV models or minivan vs. MPV models, the distinction between body style and classification can be particularly narrow.

While body styles have historical and technical definitions, in common usage such definitions are broad and may be ambiguous. For example, one person may call a 4-passenger sport coupé a "sports car", while another may define a sports car strictly as a two-place vehicle.

Chevrolet Camaro

The Chevrolet Camaro is a mid-size American automobile manufactured by Chevrolet, classified as a pony car and some versions also as a muscle car. It went on sale on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year and was designed as a competing model to the Ford Mustang. The car shared its platform and major components with the Pontiac Firebird, also introduced for 1967.

Four distinct generations of the Camaro were developed before production ended in 2002. The nameplate was revived on a concept car that evolved into the fifth-generation Camaro; production started on March 16, 2009. Over 5 million Camaros have been sold.

Chevrolet Corvette (C7)

The Chevrolet Corvette (C7) is the seventh generation of the Corvette sports car manufactured by American automobile manufacturer Chevrolet. It was introduced for the 2014 model year as the first to bear the Corvette Stingray name since the 1968 third generation model. The first C7 Corvettes were delivered in the third quarter of 2013.

Chrysler Sebring

The Chrysler Sebring ( SEE-bring) is a line of mid-size luxury automobiles that was sold from 1995 through 2010 by Chrysler. Three generations of convertibles, two generations of sedans, and two generations of coupes were produced. Although the coupe shared the same name and some styling cues, it was mechanically unrelated to the other Sebring models.

The Sebring line was introduced in 1995 with the Chrysler Sebring coupe. It was the replacement for the Chrysler LeBaron coupe. In 1996 the convertible was introduced, replacing its LeBaron counterpart as well. For 2001, both body styles were redesigned and a sedan version was offered, replacing the Chrysler Cirrus. The coupe was discontinued after 2005 with no replacement model planned.

The redesigned sedan was introduced for 2007, and a convertible the following year. New options included all-wheel drive on sedans and a hardtop for the convertible. All Sebring models were replaced by the Chrysler 200 for the 2011 model year.

Convertible bond

In finance, a convertible bond or convertible note or convertible debt (or a convertible debenture if it has a maturity of greater than 10 years) is a type of bond that the holder can convert into a specified number of shares of common stock in the issuing company or cash of equal value. It is a hybrid security with debt- and equity-like features. It originated in the mid-19th century, and was used by early speculators such as Jacob Little and Daniel Drew to counter market cornering.Convertible bonds are most often issued by companies with a low credit rating and high growth potential. Convertible bonds are also considered debt security because the companies agree to give fixed or floating interest rate as they do in common bonds for the funds of investor. To compensate for having additional value through the option to convert the bond to stock, a convertible bond typically has a coupon rate lower than that of similar, non-convertible debt. The investor receives the potential upside of conversion into equity while protecting downside with cash flow from the coupon payments and the return of principal upon maturity. These properties lead naturally to the idea of convertible arbitrage, where a long position in the convertible bond is balanced by a short position in the underlying equity.

From the issuer's perspective, the key benefit of raising money by selling convertible bonds is a reduced cash interest payment. The advantage for companies of issuing convertible bonds is that, if the bonds are converted to stocks, companies' debt vanishes. However, in exchange for the benefit of reduced interest payments, the value of shareholder's equity is reduced due to the stock dilution expected when bondholders convert their bonds into new shares.

Convertible notes are also a frequent vehicle for seed investing in startup companies, as a form of debt that converts to equity in a future investing round. It is a hybrid investment vehicle, which carries the (limited) protection of debt at the start, but shares in the upside as equity if the startup is successful, while avoiding the necessity of valuing the company at too early a stage.

Crossover (automobile)

A crossover SUV— also called crossover or CUV— is a type of sports utility vehicle (SUV) that uses a unibody construction. Crossovers are often based on a platform shared with a passenger car; as a result they typically have better comfort and fuel economy, but less off-road capability (many crossovers are sold without all-wheel drive) than truck-based SUVs.There are various inconsistencies about whether vehicles are considered crossovers or SUVs; therefore the term SUV is often used as a catch-all for both crossovers and SUVs.

Early crossovers include the 1979 AMC Eagle and 1994 Toyota RAV4.

In the United States as of 2006 more than 50% of the overall SUV market were crossover models. Crossovers have also become increasingly popular in Europe since the early 2010s.

Cuban convertible peso

The convertible peso (sometimes given as CUC$ and informally called a cuc or a chavito) is one of two official currencies in Cuba, the other being the Cuban peso. It has been in limited use since 1994, when its value was pegged 1:1 to the United States dollar.

On 8 November 2004, the U.S. dollar ceased to be accepted in Cuban retail outlets and left the convertible peso as the only currency in circulation in many Cuban businesses. Officially exchangeable only within the country, its value was increased to US$1.08 in April 2005, but reverted to US$1.00 on 15 March 2011. The convertible peso is, by the pegged rate, the twelfth-highest-valued currency unit in the world and the highest-valued "peso" unit.

On 22 October 2013, it was announced that the currency is to be scrapped, with it being gradually unified with the lower-value Cuban peso, though as of September 2018, that unification has not been achieved, nor has any target date been officially announced.

Debenture

In corporate finance, a debenture is a medium- to long-term debt instrument used by large companies to borrow money, at a fixed rate of interest. The legal term "debenture" originally referred to a document that either creates a debt or acknowledges it, but in some countries the term is now used interchangeably with bond, loan stock or note. A debenture is thus like a certificate of loan or a loan bond evidencing the fact that the company is liable to pay a specified amount with interest and although the money raised by the debentures becomes a part of the company's capital structure, it does not become share capital. Senior debentures get paid before subordinate debentures, and there are varying rates of risk and payoff for these categories.

Debentures are generally freely transferable by the debenture holder. Debenture holders have no rights to vote in the company's general meetings of shareholders, but they may have separate meetings or votes e.g. on changes to the rights attached to the debentures. The interest paid to them is a charge against profit in the company's financial statements.

The term "debenture" is more descriptive than definitive. An exact and all-encompassing definition for a debenture has proved elusive. The English commercial judge, Lord Lindley, notably remarked in one case: "Now, what the correct meaning of ‘debenture’ is I do not know. I do not find anywhere any precise definition of it. We know that there are various kinds of instruments commonly called debentures."

Ford Thunderbird

Ford Thunderbird (colloquially called the T-Bird) is a nameplate that was used by Ford from model years 1955 to 1997 and 2002 to 2005 over eleven model generations. Introduced as a two-seat convertible, the Thunderbird was produced in a number of body configurations through its production life, including four-seat hardtop coupe, four-seat convertible, five-seat convertible and hardtop, four-door pillared hardtop sedan, six-passenger hardtop coupe, and five passenger pillared coupe, with the final generation produced as a two-seat convertible.

The 1958 addition of a rear seat to the Thunderbird, while initially controversial, marked the creation of market segment eventually known as personal luxury vehicles. An American interpretation of the grand tourer, personal luxury cars were built with a higher emphasis on driving comfort and convenience features over handling and high-speed performance. From 1968 to 1998, Lincoln-Mercury marketed their own versions of the Thunderbird as the Mercury Cougar and the Continental Mark III, Mark IV, Mark V, Lincoln Mark VII, and Lincoln Mark VIII.

Laptop

A laptop computer (also shortened to just laptop; or called a notebook computer) is a small, portable personal computer (PC) with a "clamshell" form factor, typically having a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the clamshell and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid. The clamshell is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use. Its name comes from lap, as it was deemed to be placed on a person's lap when being used. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks (the former being bigger and heavier than the latter), as of 2014, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, for playing games, Internet surfing, for personal multimedia, and general home computer use.

Laptops combine all the input/output components and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, small speakers, a keyboard, hard disk drive, optical disc drive, pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad), a processor, and memory into a single unit. Most modern laptops feature integrated webcams and built-in microphones, while many also have touchscreens. Laptops can be powered either from an internal battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter. Hardware specifications, such as the processor speed and memory capacity, significantly vary between different types, makes, models and price points.

Design elements, form factor and construction can also vary significantly between models depending on intended use. Examples of specialized models of laptops include rugged notebooks for use in construction or military applications, as well as low production cost laptops such as those from the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) organization, which incorporate features like solar charging and semi-flexible components not found on most laptop computers. Portable computers, which later developed into modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications, such as in the military, for accountants, or for traveling sales representatives. As the portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes.

Nissan 240SX

The 240SX is a sports car that was introduced to the North American market by Nissan in 1988 for the following model year. It replaced the outgoing 200SX (S12) model. Most of the 240SX were equipped with the 2.4-liter inline 4 engine (KA24E from 1989–1990 and KA24DE from 1991–1999). The KA24E had a single overhead cam and KA24DE had dual overhead cams. Two distinct generations of the 240SX, the S13 (1989–1994) the S14 (1995-1999) were produced based on the Nissan S platform.

The 240SX is closely related to other S platform based vehicles, such as the Japanese-market Silvia and 180SX, and the European-market 200SX. Although their names are similar, the 240SX is unrelated to the 240Z or the 280ZX.

Although long out of production, it is still popular in drifting and among tuners. However, due to the popularity of the S-chassis in drifting competitions, prices for vehicles and parts have skyrocketed, this is sometimes known as "drift tax". The Nissan 240SX is featured in numerous video games including Midnight Club and Forza Motorsport.

Preferred stock

Preferred stock (also called preferred shares, preference shares or simply preferreds) is a form of stock which may have any combination of features not possessed by common stock including properties of both an equity and a debt instrument, and is generally considered a hybrid instrument. Preferred stocks are senior (i.e., higher ranking) to common stock, but subordinate to bonds in terms of claim (or rights to their share of the assets of the company) and may have priority over common stock (ordinary shares) in the payment of dividends and upon liquidation. Terms of the preferred stock are described in the issuing company's articles of association or articles of incorporation.

Like bonds, preferred stocks are rated by the major credit rating companies. The rating for preferred stocks is generally lower than for bonds because preferred dividends do not carry the same guarantees as interest payments from bonds and because preferred-stock holders' claims are junior to those of all creditors.

Track gauge conversion

Gauge conversion is the change of one railway track gauge to another. This may be required if loads are too heavy for the existing track gauge or if rail cars are of a broader gauge than the existing track gauge. Gauge conversion may become less important as time passes due to the development of variable gauge systems, also called Automatic Track Gauge Changeover Systems.

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