Convention of Peking

The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860. In China, they are regarded as among the unequal treaties. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China keeps the original copy of the Convention in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan. [1]

Convention of Peking
Signing of the Treaty of Peking
Signing of the treaty by Lord Elgin and Prince Gong
Traditional Chinese北京條約
Simplified Chinese北京条约
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinBěijīng Tiáoyūe
Hakka
RomanizationBet5gin1 Tiau2yok5
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingbak1 ging1 tiu4 joek3

Background

On 18 October 1860, at the culmination of the Second Opium War, the British and French troops entered the Forbidden City in Beijing. Following the decisive defeat of the Chinese, Prince Gong was compelled to sign two treaties on behalf of the Qing government with Lord Elgin and Baron Gros, who represented Britain and France respectively.[2] Although Russia had not been a belligerent, Prince Gong also signed a treaty with Nikolay Ignatyev.

The original plan was to burn down the Forbidden City as punishment for the mistreatment of Anglo-French prisoners by Qing officials. Because doing so would jeopardize the treaty signing, the plan shifted to burning the Old Summer Palace and Summer Palace instead.[2] The treaties with France and Britain were signed in the Ministry of Rites building immediately south of the Forbidden City on 24 October 1860.[3]

Terms

Prince Gong
Prince Gong, photographed by Felice Beato, 2 November 1860, just days after he signed the treaty on the 24 Oct 1860.[2]

In the Convention, the Xianfeng Emperor ratified the Treaty of Tientsin (1858).

The area known as Kowloon was originally leased in March 1860. The Convention of Peking ended the lease, and ceded the land formally to the British on 24 October 1860.[4]

Article 6 of the Convention between China and the United Kingdom stipulated that China was to cede the part of Kowloon Peninsula south of present-day Boundary Street, Kowloon, and Hong Kong (including Stonecutters Island) in perpetuity to Britain.

Article 6 of the Convention between China and France stipulated that "the religious and charitable establishments which were confiscated from Christians during the persecutions of which they were victims shall be returned to their owners through the French Minister in China".[5]

The treaty also ceded parts of Outer Manchuria to the Russian Empire. It granted Russia the right to the Ussuri krai, a part of the modern day Primorye, the territory that corresponded with the ancient Manchu province of East Tartary. See Treaty of Aigun (1858), Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) and Sino-Russian border conflicts.

Aftermath

The governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China (PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong in 1984, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island, ceded under the Treaty of Nanjing (1842), and Kowloon Peninsula (south of Boundary Street), was transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997.

However, the parts of Outer Manchuria ceded to Russia were never returned and remain as a part of Russia today.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh100/diplomatic/page_en02.html Republic of China's Diplomatic Archives (English)
  2. ^ a b c Harris, David. Van Slyke, Lyman P. [2000] (2000). Of Battle and Beauty: Felice Beato's Photographs of China. University of California Press. ISBN 0-89951-100-7
  3. ^ Naquin, Susan. [2000] (2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21991-0
  4. ^ Endacott, G. B.; Carroll, John M. (2005) [1962]. A biographical sketch-book of early Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-742-1.
  5. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "The Church in China" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

External links

1860 in France

Events from the year 1860 in France.

1861 in China

Events from the year 1861 in China.

Amur Acquisition

The Amur Annexation was the incorporation of the southeast corner of Siberia into Russia in 1858–1860. The two areas involved are the Priamurye between the Amur River and the Stanovoy Range to the north and the Primorye which runs down the coast from the Amur mouth to the Korean border, and does not include the island of Sakhalin. The territory of Outer Manchuria was formerly under the control of the Qing dynasty.

In the modern-day geography of Russia, Priamurye ("the Amur Lands") roughly corresponds to the Amur Oblast and the southern half of the Khabarovsk Krai, while Primorye ("the Maritime Lands") corresponds to the Primorsky Krai (and, possibly, adjacent sections of Khabarovsk Krai).

Beijing Treaty

The Beijing Treaty may refer to:

Convention of Peking, three treaties concluded between Qing China and each of Great Britain, France and Russia in 1860.

Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking of 1887 between Qing China and Portugal.

Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, also known as the "Second Convention of Peking", a treaty concluded between Qing China and Great Britain in 1898.

Beijing Convention, a 2010 multilateral aviation treaty

Beijing Protocol, a 2010 protocol supplement to the 1970 Hague Hijacking Convention

Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances, a 2012 multilateral copyright treaty

Boundary Street

Boundary Street is a three-lane one-way street in Kowloon, Hong Kong. It runs in an easterly direction from its start at the intersection with Tung Chau Street in the west, and ends at its intersection with Prince Edward Road West in the east, near the former Kai Tak Airport.

British Hong Kong

British Hong Kong denotes the period during which Hong Kong was governed as a colony and British Dependent Territory of the United Kingdom. Excluding the Japanese occupation during the Second World War, Hong Kong was under British rule from 1841 to 1997. The colonial period began with the occupation of Hong Kong Island in 1841 during the First Opium War. The island was ceded by Qing China in the aftermath of the war in 1842 and established as a Crown colony in 1843. The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. Although Hong Kong Island and Kowloon were ceded in perpetuity, the leased area, which comprised 92 per cent of the territory, was vital to the integrity of Hong Kong that Britain agreed to transfer the entire colony to China upon the expiration of that lease in 1997. The transfer has been considered by many as marking the end of the British Empire.

Chung Ying Street

Chung Ying Street (Chinese: 中英街) is a street on the border between Hong Kong and Shenzhen, within the border town of Sha Tau Kok (Hong Kong) and Shatoujiao (Shenzhen). One side of the street belongs to Hong Kong and the other belongs to Mainland China.

In Cantonese, Chung means China and Ying England or the United Kingdom. The name is a mark of history of the Second Convention of Peking, a treaty that China under the Qing dynasty was forced to lease New Territories to Britain in 1899.

The street was a river in 1899. British use the high water mark as the border. The river was too shallow at the section of Sha Tau Kok. It dried before the coming of World War II. The residents on both dried river sides then erected their shops to trade. The dried river then renamed to Chung Hing Street (traditional Chinese: 中興街; simplified Chinese: 中兴街), and later renamed to Chung Ying Street. The town of Sha Tau Kok flourished for that period of time. After World War II, with large influx of refugees from China, the British colonial government decided to close the border and the town fell within the Frontier Closed Area. The border town declined since then.

Chung Ying Street was once a famous place for shopping. In the 1990s, when China was still closed to the world, Chinese tourists visited to buy foreign goods, mostly watches, clothing and jewellery. However, the prosperity has declined in the early 21st century, due to a policy allowing most people from Mainland China to apply to visit Hong Kong directly, causing Chung Ying Street to transform into a place for historical sight-seeing. The PRC government has built a museum about the history of Chung Ying Street to attract tourists again.

Commemorative medal of the 1860 China Expedition

The Commemorative medal of the 1860 China Expedition (French: Médaille commémorative de l'expédition de Chine de 1860) was a military award of the Second French Empire to reward soldiers and sailors who participated in the Anglo-French expedition to China during the Second Opium War. It was created by imperial decree on 23 January 1861, by Napoleon III.The British Empire had been engaged in an ongoing conflict with the Qing Dynasty since 1856 over legalizing the opium trade, expanding coolie trade, opening all of China to British merchants, and exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties. Following the 1857 general election in the United Kingdom, the new parliament decided to seek redress from China based on the report about the Arrow Incident submitted by Harry Parkes, British Consul to Guangzhou. The French Empire, the United States, and the Russian Empire received requests from Britain to form an alliance. France joined the British action against China, prompted by the execution of a French missionary, Father August Chapdelaine ("Father Chapdelaine Incident"), by Chinese local authorities in Guangxi province. The conflict concluded with the 1858 Treaty of Tianjin finally ratified by the emperor's brother, Yixin, the Prince Gong, in the Convention of Peking on 18 October 1860.

Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory

The Convention between the United Kingdom and China, Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory, commonly known as the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory or the Second Convention of Peking, was a lease signed between Qing China and the United Kingdom on 9 June 1898. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China now keeps the original copy of the Convention in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan.

James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin

James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, (; 20 July 1811 – 20 November 1863) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat. He served as Governor of Jamaica (1842–1846), Governor General of the Province of Canada (1847–1854), and Viceroy of India (1862–1863). In 1857, he was appointed High Commissioner and Plenipotentiary in China and the Far East to assist in the process of opening up China and Japan to Western trade. In 1860, during the Second Opium War in China, in the retaliation of the torture and execution of almost twenty European and Indian prisoners, he ordered the destruction of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, an architectural wonder with immeasurable collections of artworks and historic antiques, inflicting invaluable loss of cultural heritage.

Subsequently, he submitted the Qing dynasty to the unequal treaty of the Convention of Peking, adding Kowloon Peninsula to the British crown colony of Hong Kong.

Kowloon City District

Kowloon City District (Chinese: 九龍城區; Cantonese Yale: Gáulùhng sìhng kēui) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in the city of Kowloon. It had a population of 381,352 in 2001, and increased to 418,732 in 2016. The district has the third most educated residents while its residents enjoy the highest income in Kowloon.

Kowloon City district covers approximately area of 1,000 hectares, and is mainly a residential area with the majority of its population living in private sector housing, including old tenement buildings, private residential developments and low-rise villas, while the rest of them mainly live in public rental housing and the Home Ownership Scheme estates. It is the only district that incorporated into the land of Hong Kong in different stages (Convention of Peking, Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory and the demolition of the Kowloon Walled City)

Kowloon City District is a relatively low density residential area.

Areas include: Ho Man Tin, Hung Hom, Kai Tak Airport, Kowloon Tong, Ma Tau Wai, To Kwa Wan, and Whampoa Garden, and the proper Kowloon City.

New Kowloon

New Kowloon is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong, bounded in the south by Boundary Street, and in the north by the ranges of the Lion Rock, Beacon Hill, Tate's Cairn and Kowloon Peak. It covers the present-day Kwun Tong District and Wong Tai Sin District, and part of the Sham Shui Po District and Kowloon City District.

New Territories

The New Territories (Chinese: 新界; Cantonese Yale: Sān'gaai) is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory, and contains around half of the population of Hong Kong. Historically, it is the region described in the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. According to that treaty, the territories comprise the mainland area north of the Boundary Street of Kowloon Peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River (which is the border between Hong Kong and Mainland China), as well as over 200 outlying islands, including Lantau Island, Lamma Island, Cheung Chau, and Peng Chau in the territory of Hong Kong.

Later, after New Kowloon was defined from the area between the Boundary Street and the Kowloon Ranges spanned from Lai Chi Kok to Lei Yue Mun, and the extension of the urban areas of Kowloon, New Kowloon was gradually urbanised and absorbed into Kowloon.

The New Territories now comprises only the mainland north of the Kowloon Ranges and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as the Outlying Islands. It comprises an area of 952 km2 (368 sq mi). Nevertheless, New Kowloon has remained statutorily part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon.

The New Territories were leased from Qing China to the United Kingdom in 1898 for 99 years in the Second Convention of Peking (The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory). Upon the expiry of the lease, sovereignty was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997, together with the Qing-ceded territories of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula.

In 2011, the population of the New Territories was recorded at 3,691,093. with a population density of 3,801 per square kilometer (9,845 per square mile).

Noktundo

Noktundo is a former island (currently a peninsula) in the delta of the Tumen River on the border between Primorsky Krai, Russia and North Korea. The area of the island was 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi).In the 15th century, Noktundo belonged to the Jurchen. In 1587 there was a battle fought on this island between the local Jurchen and the invading army from Yi Sun-sin, a general of Korea.

At the time of the shallowing of the northern branch of the Tumen, the course of the river changed from time to time. As a result, the island of Noktundo was sometimes joined with the mainland of Primorsky Krai. Regardless, the island remained under Korean jurisdiction.

The island was under Qing control until 1860 Convention of Peking, the Qing Dynasty ceded the island to the Russian Empire. This became a matter of protest to the Koreans, who claimed that the Qing had no authority to do so. In 1990, the former Soviet Union and North Korea signed a border treaty which made the border run through the center of the river leaving territory of the former island on Russian side. South Korea refused to acknowledge the treaty and demanded that Russia return the territory to Korea.

Sham Chun River

The Sham Chun River or Shenzhen River serves as the natural border between Hong Kong and Mainland China, together with the Sha Tau Kok River and Deep Bay.

It formed part of the limit of the lease of the New Territories in 1898 in the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory (also Second Convention of Peking).

It separates Yuen Long District, North District of Hong Kong and the city of Shenzhen, Guangdong. Its source is at Wutong Mountain, Shenzhen. Its tributaries includes Ping Yuen River, Shek Sheung River, Sheung Yue River, Ng Tung River, Buji River and Tan Shan River. The Shenzhen Reservoir also flows into the river when it is full.

The river flows into Deep Bay (also known as Hau Hoi Wan and Shenzhen Bay). The Mai Po Marshes is at its estuary.

Efforts have been made to alleviate flooding and pollution problems through river training, which produced the Lok Ma Chau Loop.

Timeline of Hong Kong history

The following is a timeline of the history of Hong Kong.

Treaty of Tientsin

The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin (then romanized as Tientsin) in June 1858. They ended the first phase of the Second Opium War, which had begun in 1856. The Qing, Russian, and Second French Empires, the United Kingdom, and the United States were the parties involved. These treaties, counted by the Chinese among the so-called unequal treaties, opened more Chinese ports to foreign trade, permitted foreign legations in the Chinese capital Beijing, allowed Christian missionary activity, and legalized the import of opium.

They were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Convention of Peking in 1860, after the end of the war.

Ussuri River

The Ussuri River or Wusuli River (Russian: река Уссури; Chinese: 乌苏里江; pinyin: Wūsūlǐ Jiāng), runs through Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais, Russia, and the southeast region of Northeast China. It rises in the Sikhote-Alin mountain range, flowing north and forming part of the Sino-Russian border (which is based on the Sino-Russian Convention of Peking of 1860) until it joins the Amur River as a tributary to it at Khabarovsk (48°26′N 134°59′E). It is approximately 897 kilometers (557 mi) long. The Ussuri River drains the Ussuri basin, which covers 193,000 square kilometers (75,000 sq mi). Its waters come from rain (60%), snow (30–35%) and subterranean springs. The average discharge is 1,150 cubic metres per second (41,000 cu ft/s) and the average elevation is 1,682 metres (5,518 ft).

Yangzhou riot

The Yangzhou riot of August 22–23, 1868 was a brief crisis in Anglo-Chinese relations during the late Qing dynasty. The crisis was fomented by the gentry of Yangzhou who opposed the presence of foreign Christian missionaries in the city, who claimed that they were legally residing under the provisions of the Convention of Peking. Threats against the missionaries were circulated by large character posters placed around the city. Rumors followed that the foreigners were stealing babies and killing them to make medicine.

The riot that resulted was an angry crowd of Chinese estimated at eight to ten thousand who assaulted the premises of the British China Inland Mission in Yangzhou by looting, burning and attacking the missionaries led by Hudson Taylor. No one was killed, however several of the missionaries were injured as they were forced to flee for their lives.

As a result of the report of the riot, the British consul in Shanghai, Sir Walter Henry Medhurst took seventy Royal marines in a man-of-war and steamed up the Yangtze to Nanjing in a controversial show of force that eventually resulted in an official apology from the Chinese government under Viceroy Zeng Guofan and financial restitution was offered to the C.I.M. but not accepted, to create goodwill among the Chinese. The house that they had purchased in the city was however restored to the mission. Hudson Taylor and other Christian missionaries in China at that time were often accused of using gunboats to spread the gospel. However, none of the missionaries had requested or desired the military intervention.

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