Contributing property

In the law regulating historic districts in the United States, a contributing property or contributing resource is any building, object, or structure which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Government agencies, at the state, national, and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts. The first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931.[1]

Properties within a historic district fall into one of two types of property: contributing and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th-century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a modern medical clinic, does not. The contributing properties are key to a historic district's historic associations, historic architectural qualities, or archaeological qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place.

History

According to the National Park Service, the first instance of law dealing with contributing properties in local historic districts occurred in 1931 when the city of Charleston, South Carolina, enacted an ordinance that designated the "Old and Historic District."[1] The ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street. By the mid-1930s, other U.S. cities followed Charleston's lead. An amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission,[1] which was charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans. The city then passed a local ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter.[1] Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, indicate differing dates for the preservation ordinances in both Charleston and New Orleans. The Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for the New Orleans laws and 1924 for Charleston.[2] The same publication claimed that these two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946.[2] The National Park Service appears to refute this.[1]

In 1939, the city of San Antonio, Texas, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, which was the city's original Mexican village marketplace.[1] In 1941 the authority of local design controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court.[3] In City of New Orleans vs Pergament (198 La. 852, 5 So. 2d 129 (1941)) Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design and demolition controls were valid within defined historic districts. Beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures.[3] The United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, D.C. protected in 1950.[1] By 1965, 51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances. By 1998, more than 2,300 U.S. towns, cities and villages had enacted historic preservation ordinances.[1]

Definition

Newberry Hist Dist School plaque01
Plaque acknowledging Little Red Schoolhouse as a contributing property to Newberry Historic District in Newberry, Florida

Contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws, usually at the local level.[4] Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a district's historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties.[5] In historic preservation law, a contributing property is any building, structure, object or site within the boundaries of the district that contributes to its historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological qualities of a historic district.[6] It can be any property, structure or object that adds to the historic integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal, significant.[6] Definitions vary but, in general, they maintain the same characteristics.[6][7] Another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can sever its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.[8] Contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district.[9] A property listed as a contributing member of a historic district meets National Register criteria and qualifies for all benefits afforded a property or site listed individually on the National Register.[10]

Contributing building

A building within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Building property type of NRHP listing.

Contributing object

An object within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Object property type of NRHP listing.

Contributing structure

A structure within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Structure property type of NRHP listing.

Contributing site

A site within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Site property type of NRHP listing.

Contributing versus non-contributing

Bloomington Il EGHD1 noncontributing
This medical clinic building in the East Grove Street Historic District in Bloomington, Illinois is an example of a non-contributing property.

The line between contributing and non-contributing can be fuzzy.[8] In particular, American historic districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places before 1980 have few records of the non-contributing structures.[8] State Historic Preservation Offices conduct surveys to determine the historical character of structures in historic districts. Districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places after 1980, usually list those structures considered non-contributing.[8]

As a general rule, a contributing property helps make a historic district historic. A 19th-century Queen Anne mansion, such as the David Syme House, is a contributing property, while a modern gas station or medical clinic within the boundaries of historic district is a non-contributing property.[11][12]

Historic buildings identified as contributing properties can become non-contributing properties within historic districts if major alterations have taken place. Sometimes, an act as simple as re-siding a historic home can damage its historic integrity and render it non-contributing. In some cases, damage to the historic integrity of a structure is reversible, while other times the historic nature of a building has been so "severely compromised" as to be irreversible.[11]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Early Models," Working on the Past in Local Historic Districts, National Park Service. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  2. ^ a b "The Police Power, Eminent Domain, and the Preservation of Historic Property (in Notes)," (JSTOR), Columbia Law Review, Vol. 63, No. 4. (Apr., 1963), pp. 708-732. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  3. ^ a b Pyke, John S. Jr. "Architectural Controls and the Individual Landmark," (JSTOR), Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 36, No. 3, Historic Preservation. (Summer, 1971), pp. 398-405. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  4. ^ For a catalog of early historic district zoning ordinances, see "Further reading" number one, Morrison, J. Historic Preservation Law, pp. 6-9, 12-15, 126, 1965 ed.
  5. ^ Hughes, L. Keith. "Use of Zoning Restrictions to Restrain Property Owners from Altering or Destroying Historic Landmarks (in Notes)," (JSTOR), Duke Law Journal, Vol. 1975, No. 4. (Sep., 1975), pp. 999-1019. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  6. ^ a b c Historic and Scenic Preservation Local Option Property Tax Reimbursement, Maine Historic Preservation Commission. Retrieved 19 February 2007.
  7. ^ ORDINANCE NO. 2001-02, (PDF), Danville, California ordinance, California Office of Historic Preservation. Retrieved 19 February 2007.
  8. ^ a b c d National Register Historic Districts Q&A, South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 19 February 2007.
  9. ^ Iowa City Historic Preservation Handbook Archived 2006-12-23 at the Wayback Machine, (PDF), Iowa City Urban Planning Division. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  10. ^ Historic Districts Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine, Town of Wake Forest, North Carolina, Official site. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
  11. ^ a b East Grove Street District, (PDF), National Register Nomination Form, HAARGIS Database, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  12. ^ "Sycamore Historic District," (PDF), National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, HAARGIS Database, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved 23 April 2007.

References

  • Morrison, Jacob H. Historic Preservation Law, New Orleans: Pelican Pub. Co., 1957. Further editions published in 1965, 1972 and 1974. (ISBN 9780891330196), (ISBN 0891330194).
Dallas Scottish Rite Temple

The Dallas Scottish Rite Temple is a monumental structure in the Farmers Market District of downtown Dallas, Texas. Constructed in 1913 as an official headquarters for use by the Scottish Rite Masons and other local Masonic lodges, it is a fine example of early 20th century Beaux Arts Classical architecture in Texas. The structure, a Dallas Landmark and Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a contributing property in the Harwood Street Historic District.

Davenport Register of Historic Properties

This is a list of the Davenport Register of Historic Properties in Davenport, Iowa, United States.

The historic preservation movement began in the city of Davenport in the mid-1970s with the renovation of several historic structures. A comprehensive study of the city's neighborhoods, districts and architecture was begun in 1978. The study was conducted in three phases. The first two phases were carried out from 1979 to 1982 and the third phase from 1982 to 1983. The results were published in two volumes. Davenport—Where the Mississippi Runs West reported on the first two phases and Davenport Architecture—Tradition and Transition reported on the third phase. A Multiple Resource nomination was submitted to the National Register of Historic Places that included 12 districts, more than 1,650 buildings on 350 parcels. By March 1985 all the districts and 249 properties were listed on the national register.The Historic Preservation Commission was established in 1992, and the historic preservation ordinance was passed the same year. Davenport became a Certified Local Government in the state of Iowa. It was now responsible to review local projects participating in state and national preservation programs. It was also able to exercise some control over the modification and/or demolition of historic buildings in the city. The historic preservation ordinance also allowed the establishment of a local register of historic properties. The first four properties were added in 1992. As of 2016, there are 56 properties listed, of which 26 are individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places and 14 are contributing properties in a national historic district on the National Register.

Ebenezer Maxwell House

The Ebenezer Maxwell House, operated today as the Ebenezer Maxwell Mansion, is an historic house located in the West Germantown neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The house was built in 1859 by Ebenezer Maxwell (1827–1870), a wealthy cloth merchant, for $10,000. The masonry building is two-and-a-half stories, with a three-story tower. The main roof is mansard, with slate covering. The house features three porches and four stone chimneys. The original architecture has been attributed variously to Joseph C. Hoxie (1814–1870) and Samuel Sloan. In 1965, the house was restored by the Germantown Historical Society. In 1970, a porch was removed, and in 1979–1980, a cast-iron sidewalk was moved from 1907 N. 7th St. and installed in the rear porch of the house.

The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971; it is a contributing property of the Tulpehocken Station Historic District.

Four Mounds Site

The Four Mounds Site is a historic site located in Dubuque, Iowa, United States. It is made up of a row of four conical burial mounds on a blufftop that overlooks the Mississippi River. They are prehistoric in their origin. The site was individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. It was included as a contributing property in the Four Mounds Estate Historic District in 2002.

General Crook House

The General George Crook House Museum is located at 5730 North 30th Street in Fort Omaha. The Fort is located in the Miller Park neighborhood of North Omaha, Nebraska, United States. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969, and is a contributing property to the Fort Omaha Historic District.

George W. Smith House (Oak Park, Illinois)

The George W. Smith House is a home in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, United States designed by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1895. It was constructed in 1898 and occupied by a Marshall Field and Company salesman. The design elements were employed a decade later when Wright designed the Unity Temple in Oak Park. The house is listed as a contributing property to the Ridgeland-Oak Park Historic District which joined the National Register of Historic Places in December 1983.

Hiller Building

The Hiller Building also known as the Schick Apartments, is located on the edge of downtown Davenport, Iowa, United States. The Federal style building is a row house. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1974. In 1983 it was included as a contributing property in the West Third Street Historic District.

Judge Charles P. McCarthy House

The Judge Charles P. McCarthy House is a two-story Prairie school duplex which was constructed in Boise, Idaho in 1913. It was adapted from a Frank Lloyd Wright design published in the April 1907 edition of Ladies Home Journal Magazine, where readers could purchase plans for a flat rate, or have them customized by Wright's office for a 10% premium. It appears as a classic prairie-style design with horizontal design elements, including a low-pitch roof with deep hipped roof overhangs.The house was individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. It was included as a contributing property in the Hays Street Historic District in 1982.

List of University of Pittsburgh buildings

The lists of University of Pittsburgh (Pitt) and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) buildings catalog only the currently-existing Pitt- and UPMC-owned buildings and structures that reside within the City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the home of the university's and medical center's main campuses. Although the University and the closely affiliated University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) are tightly intertwined both institutionally and geographically, including the sharing and leasing arrangements of resources and facilities (such as Forbes Tower, Thomas Detre Hall, the Carrillo Street Steam Plant, Hillman Cancer Center, etc), buildings primarily owned by UPMC are listed separately because the University and UPMC are technically separate legal entities.

Mahaska County Courthouse

The Mahaska County Courthouse located in Oskaloosa, Iowa, United States, was built in 1886. It was individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981 as a part of the County Courthouses in Iowa Thematic Resource. In 1986 it was included as a contributing property in the Oskaloosa City Square Commercial Historic District. The courthouse is the second building the county has used for court functions and county administration.

Middletown South Green Historic District

Located in Middletown, Connecticut, the Middletown South Green Historic District was created to preserved the historic character of the city's South Green and the historic buildings that surround it. It is a 90-acre (36 ha) historic district that includes a concentration of predominantly residential high-quality architecture from the late 19th century. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Caddo Parish, Louisiana

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Caddo Parish, Louisiana.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Caddo Parish, Louisiana, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 69 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the parish, including 2 National Historic Landmarks. Three properties were once listed, but have since been removed.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted May 10, 2019.

Outing Club

The Outing Club is located in the central part of Davenport, Iowa, United States. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1977. In 1985 it was included as a contributing property in the Vander Veer Park Historic District.

Penobscot Building Annex

The Penobscot Building Annex is a 23-story, 94.49 m (310.0 ft) office skyscraper located at 144 West Congress Street in Downtown Detroit, Michigan. This portion of the Penobscot Block is now physically connected to the newer Penobscot Building Tower.

The Penobscot Building Annex is a contributing property in the Detroit Financial Historic District, and on the National Register of Historic Places.

Peter A. Beachy House

The Peter A. Beachy House is a home in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois that was entirely remodeled by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1906. The house that stands today is almost entirely different from the site's original home, a Gothic cottage. The home is listed as a contributing property to the Frank Lloyd Wright-Prairie School of Architecture Historic District, which was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.

Poweshiek County Courthouse

The Poweshiek County Courthouse in Montezuma, Iowa, United States, was built in 1859. It was individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981 as a part of the County Courthouses in Iowa Thematic Resource. In 2012 it was listed as a contributing property in the Montezuma Downtown Historic District. The courthouse is the second building the county has used for court functions and county administration.

Selma Schricker House

The Selma Schricker House is a historic building located in a residential neighborhood in the West End of Davenport, Iowa, United States. At one time the house served as the official residence of Davenport's Catholic bishop. It is a contributing property in the Riverview Terrace Historic District. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.

St. Francis Xavier College Church

St. Francis Xavier College Church is a Catholic church in the Midtown neighborhood of St. Louis, Missouri, United States. The church was founded by the Society of Jesus and serves as a parish church in the Archdiocese of St. Louis and for the Saint Louis University community. It is a contributing property in the Midtown Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places and it is listed as a City Landmark in St. Louis.

Tower Petroleum Building

The Tower Petroleum Building (also known as The Tower Building) is a historic Art Deco Skyscraper located at 1907 Elm Street in the City Center District of Downtown Dallas. The tower, a contributing property in the Dallas Downtown Historic District and the Harwood Street Historic District, features Zig-zag Moderne styling and was designed by architect Mark Lemmon.

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