Contemporary philosophy

Contemporary philosophy is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the early 20th century with the increasing professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy.[1]

The phrase "contemporary philosophy" is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that refers to a specific period in the history of Western philosophy (namely the philosophy of the 20th and 21st centuries).[2] However, the phrase is often confused with modern philosophy (which refers to an earlier period in Western philosophy), postmodern philosophy (which refers to continental philosophers' criticisms of modern philosophy), and with a non-technical use of the phrase referring to any recent philosophic work.

Professionalization

...the day of the philosopher as isolated thinker – the talented amateur with an idiosyncratic message – is effectively gone.
— Nicholas Rescher, "American Philosophy Today," Review of Metaphysics 46 (4)

Process

Professionalization is the social process by which any trade or occupation establishes the group norms of conduct, acceptable qualifications for membership of the profession, a professional body or association to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, and some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs.[3] The transformation into a profession brings about many subtle changes to a field of inquiry, but one more readily identifiable component of professionalization is the increasing irrelevance of "the book" to the field: "research communiqués will begin to change in ways [...] whose modern end products are obvious to all and oppressive to many. No longer will [a member's] researches usually be embodied in books addressed [...] to anyone who might be interested in the subject matter of the field. Instead they will usually appear as brief articles addressed only to professional colleagues, the men whose knowledge of a shared paradigm can be assumed and who prove to be the only one able to read the papers addressed to them."[4] Philosophy underwent this process toward the end of the 19th century, and it is one of the key distinguishing features of the contemporary philosophy era in Western philosophy.

Germany was the first country to professionalize philosophy.[5] At the end of 1817, Hegel was the first philosopher to be appointed professor by the State, namely by the Prussian Minister of Education, as an effect of Napoleonic reform in Prussia. In the United States, the professionalisation grew out of reforms to the American higher-education system largely based on the German model.[6] James Campbell describes the professionalisation of philosophy in America as follows:

The list of specific changes [during the late 19th-century professionalization of philosophy] is fairly brief, but the resultant shift is almost total. [...] No longer could the [philosophy] professor function as a defender of the faith or an expounder of Truth. The new philosopher had to be a leader of inquires and a publicizer of results. This shift was made obvious when certified (often German-certified) philosophy Ph.D.'s replaced theology graduates and ministers in the philosophy classroom. The period between the time when almost no one had a Ph.D. to when almost everyone did was very brief. [...] The doctorate, moreover, was more than a license to teach: it was a certificate that the prospective philosophy instructor was well, if narrowly, trained and ready to undertake independent work in the now specializing and restricted field of academic philosophy. These new philosophers functioned in independent departments of philosophy [...] They were making real gains in their research, creating a body of philosophic work that remains central to our study even now. These new philosophers also set their own standards for success, publishing in the recognized organs of philosophy that were being founded at the time: The Monist (1890), The International Journal of Ethics (1890), The Philosophical Review (1892), and The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods (1904). And, of course, these philosophers were banding together into societies – the American Psychological Association (1892), the Western Philosophical Association (1900), and the American Philosophical Association (1900) – to consolidate their academic positions and advance their philosophic work.[7]

Professionalization in England was similarly tied to developments in higher-education. In his work on T.H. Green, Denys Leighton discusses these changes in British philosophy and Green's claim to the title of Britain's first professional academic philosopher:

Henry Sidgwick, in a generous gesture, identified [T.H.] Green as Britain's first professional academic philosopher. Sidgwick's opinion can certainly be questioned: William Hamilton, J.F. Ferrier and Sidgwick himself are among the contenders for that honour. [...] Yet there can be no doubt that between the death of Mill (1873) and the publication of G.E.Moore's Principia Ethica (1903), the British philosophical profession was transformed, and that Green was partly responsible for the transformation. [...] Bentham, the Mills, Carlyle, Coleridge, Spencer, as well as many other serious philosophical thinkers of the nineteenth century were men of letters, administrators, active politicians, clergy with livings, but not academics. [...] Green helped separate the study of philosophical from that of literary and historical texts; and by creating a philosophy curriculum at Oxford he also established a rationale for trained teachers of philosophy. When Green began his academic career much of the serious writing on philosophical topic was published in journals of opinion devoted to a broad range of [topics] (rarely to 'pure' philosophy). He helped professionalize philosophical writing by encouraging specialized periodicals, such as 'Academy' and 'Mind', which were to serve as venues for the results of scholarly research.[8]

The end result of professionalization for philosophy has meant that work being done in the field is now almost exclusively done by university professors holding a doctorate in the field publishing in highly technical, peer-reviewed journals. While it remains common among the population at large for a person to have a set of religious, political or philosophical views that they consider their "philosophy", these views are rarely informed or connected to the work being done in professional philosophy today. Furthermore, unlike many of the sciences for which there has come to be a healthy industry of books, magazines, and television shows meant to popularize science and communicate the technical results of a scientific field to the general populace, works by professional philosophers directed at an audience outside the profession remain rare. Philosopher Michael Sandel's book "Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do?" and Harry Frankfurt's "On Bullshit" are examples of works that hold the uncommon distinction of having been written by professional philosophers but directed at and ultimately popular among a broader audience of non-philosophers. Both works became New York Times best sellers.

Professional philosophy today

Not long after their formation, the Western Philosophical Association and portions of the American Psychological Association merged with the American Philosophical Association to create what is today the main professional organization for philosophers in the United States: the American Philosophical Association. The association has three divisions: Pacific, Central and Eastern. Each division organises a large annual conference. The biggest of these is the Eastern Division Meeting, which usually attracts around 2,000 philosophers and takes place in a different east coast city each December. The Eastern Division Meeting is also the USA's largest recruitment event for philosophy jobs, with numerous universities sending teams to interview candidates for academic posts. Among its many other tasks, the association is responsible for administering many of the profession's top honors. For example, the Presidency of a Division of the American Philosophical Association is considered to be a professional honor and the American Philosophical Association Book Prize is one of the oldest prizes in philosophy. The largest academic organization devoted to specifically furthering the study of continental philosophy is the Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy.

Concerning professional journals today, a 2018 survey of professional philosophers asked them to rank the highest quality "general" philosophy journals in English, yielding the following top 20:

Table of prominent professional journals in contemporary philosophy[9]
1. Philosophical Review 6. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 11. Synthese 16. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society
2. Mind 7. Philosophers' Imprint 12. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17. The Monist
3. Nous 8. Philosophical Studies 13. Erkenntnis 18. European Journal of Philosophy
4. Journal of Philosophy 9. Philosophical Quarterly 14. American Philosophical Quarterly 19. Journal of the American Philosophical Association
5. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research 10. Analysis 15. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 20. Thought

Concerning continental philosophy specifically, a 2012 survey of mostly professional philosophers asked them to rank the highest quality "continental tradition" philosophy journals in English. Listing the survey's top 6 results:

Table of prominent professional journals in continental philosophy[10]
1. European Journal of Philosophy 4. Inquiry
2. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research 5. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie
3. Journal of the History of Philosophy 6. British Journal for the History of Philosophy

The Philosophy Documentation Center publishes a well-known "Directory of American Philosophers" which is the standard reference work for information about philosophical activity in the United States and Canada.[11] The directory is published every two years, alternating with its companion volume, the "International Directory of Philosophy and Philosophers" (the only edited source for extensive information on philosophical activity in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, and Latin America).

Since the start of the 21st century, philosophers have also seen the growing utilization of blogs as a means of professional exchange. A few notable milestones in this development include an informal listing of philosophy blogs begun by philosopher David Chalmers which has since become a widely used resource by the profession,[12] the establishment of a partnership between ethics blog PEA Soup and the prominent journal Ethics to post featured articles for online discussion on the blog,[13] and the role of blogs like What is it Like to be a Woman in Philosophy? in bringing attention to the experience of women in the profession.[14][15][16]

The analytic–continental divide

The beginning of the divide

Contemporary continental philosophy began with the work of Franz Brentano, Edmund Husserl, Adolf Reinach, and Martin Heidegger and the development of the philosophical method of phenomenology. This development was roughly contemporaneous with work by Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell inaugurating a new philosophical method based on the analysis of language via modern logic (hence the term "analytic philosophy").[17]

Analytic philosophy dominates in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, and, indeed, most of Europe. Continental philosophy prevails in France, Italy, Spain, Brazil and parts of the United States.

Some philosophers, such as Richard Rorty and Simon Glendinning, argue that this "analytic–continental" divide is inimical to the discipline as a whole. Others, such as John Searle, claim that continental philosophy, especially post-structuralist continental philosophy, should be expunged, on grounds that it is obscurantist and nebulous.

Analytic and continental philosophy share a common Western philosophical tradition up to Immanuel Kant. Afterwards, analytic and continental philosophers differ on the importance and influence of subsequent philosophers on their respective traditions. For instance, the German idealism school developed out of the work of Kant in the 1780s and 1790s and culminated in Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who is viewed highly by many continental philosophers. Conversely, Hegel is viewed as a relatively minor figure for the work of analytic philosophers.

Analytic philosophy

The analytic program in philosophy is ordinarily dated to the work of English philosophers Bertrand Russell and G.E. Moore in the early 20th century, building on the work of the German philosopher and mathematician Gottlob Frege. They turned away from then-dominant forms of Hegelianism (objecting in particular to its idealism and purported obscurity)[18][19] and began to develop a new sort of conceptual analysis based on recent developments in logic. The most prominent example of this new method of conceptual analysis is Russell's 1905 paper "On Denoting", a paper that is widely seen to be the exemplar of the analytic program in philosophy.[20]

Although contemporary philosophers who self-identify as "analytic" have widely divergent interests, assumptions, and methods—and have often rejected the fundamental premises that defined the analytic movement between 1900 and 1960—analytic philosophy, in its contemporary state, is usually taken to be defined by a particular style[21] characterized by precision and thoroughness about a narrow topic, and resistance to "imprecise or cavalier discussions of broad topics."[22]

Some analytic philosophers at the end of the 20th century, such as Richard Rorty, have called for a major overhaul of the analytic philosophic tradition. In particular, Rorty has argued that analytic philosophers must learn important lessons from the work of continental philosophers.[23] Some authors, such as Paul M. Livingston[24] and Shaun Gallagher contend that there exist valuable insights common to both traditions while others, such as Timothy Williamson, have called for even stricter adherence to the methodological ideals of analytic philosophy:

We who classify ourselves as "analytic" philosophers tend to fall into the assumption that our allegiance automatically grants us methodological virtue. According to the crude stereotypes, analytic philosophers use arguments while "continental" philosophers do not. But within the analytic tradition many philosophers use arguments only to the extent that most "continental" philosophers do [...] How can we do better? We can make a useful start by getting the simple things right. Much even of analytic philosophy moves too fast in its haste to reach the sexy bits. Details are not given the care they deserve: crucial claims are vaguely stated, significant different formulations are treated as though they were equivalent, examples are under-described, arguments are gestured at rather than properly made, their form is left unexplained, and so on. [...] Philosophy has never been done for an extended period according to standards as high as those that are now already available, if only the profession will take them seriously to heart.[25]

The "crude stereotypes" that Williamson refers to in the above passage are these: that analytic philosophers produce carefully argued and rigorous analyses of trivially small philosophic puzzles, while continental philosophers produce profound and substantial results but only by deducing them from broad philosophical systems which themselves lack supporting arguments or clarity in their expression. Williamson himself seems to here distance himself from these stereotypes, but does accuse analytic philosophers of too often fitting the critical stereotype of continental philosophers by moving "too fast" to reach substantial results via poor arguments.

Continental philosophy

FourExistentialPrecursors
Existentialism is an important school in the continental philosophical tradition. Four key existentialists pictured from top-left clockwise: Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Kafka, Dostoevsky[26]

The history of continental philosophy is taken to begin in the early 1900s because its institutional roots descend directly from those of phenomenology.[27] As a result, Edmund Husserl has often been credited as the founding figure in continental philosophy. Although, since analytic and continental philosophy have such starkly different views of philosophy after Kant, continental philosophy is also often understood in an extended sense to include any post-Kant philosophers or movements important to continental philosophy but not analytic philosophy.

The term "continental philosophy", like "analytic philosophy", marks a broad range of philosophical views and approaches not easily captured in a definition. It has even been suggested that the term may be more pejorative than descriptive, functioning as a label for types of western philosophy rejected or disliked by analytic philosophers.[28] Indeed, continental philosophy is often characterized by its critics as philosophy that lacks the rigor of analytic philosophy. Nonetheless, certain descriptive rather than merely pejorative features have been seen to typically characterize continental philosophy:[29]

  • First, continental philosophers generally reject scientism, the view that the natural sciences are the best or most accurate way of understanding all phenomena.[30]
  • Second, continental philosophy usually considers experience as determined at least partly by factors such as context, space and time, language, culture, or history. Thus continental philosophy tends toward historicism, where analytic philosophy tends to treat philosophy in terms of discrete problems, capable of being analyzed apart from their historical origins.[31]
  • Third, continental philosophers tend to take a strong interest in the unity of theory and practice, and tend to see their philosophical inquiries as closely related to personal, moral, or political transformation.
  • Fourth, continental philosophy has an emphasis on metaphilosophy (i.e. the study of the nature, aims, and methods of philosophy). This emphasis can also be found in analytic philosophy, but with starkly different results.

Another approach to approximating a definition of continental philosophy is by listing some of the philosophical movements that are or have been central in continental philosophy: German idealism, phenomenology, existentialism (and its antecedents, such as the thought of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche), hermeneutics, structuralism, post-structuralism, French feminism, and the critical theory of the Frankfurt School and some other branches of Western Marxism.[32]

Outside the profession

Ayn Rand is perhaps the foremost example of an intellectual working contemporaneously with contemporary philosophy but whose contributions were not made within the professional philosophical discipline: "For all her Ayn Rand's popularity, however, only a few professional philosophers have taken her work seriously. As a result, most of the serious philosophical work on Rand has appeared in non-academic, non-peer-reviewed journals, or in books, and the bibliography reflects this fact."[33]

Also working from outside the profession were philosophers such as Gerd B. Achenbach (Die reine und die praktische Philosophie. Drei Vorträge zur philosophischen Praxis, 1983) and Michel Weber (see his Épreuve de la philosophie, 2008)[34] who have proposed since the 1980s various forms of philosophical counseling claiming to bring Socratic dialogues back to life in a quasi-psychotherapeutic framework.

See also

  • 20th-century philosophy
  • Analytic philosophy
    • Experimental philosophy – An emerging field of philosophical inquiry that makes use of empirical data—often gathered through surveys which probe the intuitions of ordinary people—in order to inform research on long-standing and unsettled philosophical questions.
    • Logical positivism – The first and dominant school in analytic philosophy for the first half of the 20th century.
    • Naturalism – The view that the scientific method (hypothesize, predict, test, repeat) is the only effective way to investigate reality.
    • Ordinary language philosophy – The dominant school in analytic philosophy in the middle of 20th century.
    • Quietism – In metaphilosophy, the view that the role of philosophy is therapeutic or remedial.
    • Postanalytic philosophy – Postanalytic philosophy describes a detachment and challenge to mainstream analytic philosophy by philosophers like Richard Rorty.
  • Continental philosophy
    • Deconstruction – An approach (whether in philosophy, literary analysis, or in other fields) where one conducts textual readings with a view to demonstrate that the text is not a discrete whole, instead containing several irreconcilable, contradictory meanings.
    • Existentialism – Existential philosophy is the "explicit conceptual manifestation of an existential attitude"[35] that begins with a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world.[36][37]
    • Phenomenology – Phenomenology is primarily concerned with making the structures of consciousness, and the phenomena which appear in acts of consciousness, objects of systematic reflection and analysis.
    • Poststructuralism – Structuralism was a fashionable movement in France in the 1950s and 1960s, that studied the underlying structures inherent in cultural products (such as texts), post-structuralism derive from critique of structuralist premises. Specifically, post-structuralism holds that the study of underlying structures is itself culturally conditioned and therefore subject to myriad biases and misinterpretations.
    • Postmodern philosophy – Postmodern philosophy is skeptical or nihilistic toward many of the values and assumptions of philosophy that derive from modernity, such as humanity having an essence which distinguishes humans from animals, or the assumption that one form of government is demonstrably better than another.
    • Social constructionism – A central concept in continental philosophy, a social construction is a concept or practice that is the creation (or artifact) of a particular group.
    • Critical theory – Critical theory is the examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities.
    • Frankfurt School – The term "Frankfurt School" is an informal term used to designate the thinkers affiliated with the Institute for Social Research or who were influenced by it.
  • Western philosophy

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ The publication of Husserl's Logical Investigations (1900–01) and Russell's The Principles of Mathematics (1903) is considered to mark the beginning of 20th-century philosophy (see Spindel Conference 2002–100 Years of Metaethics. The Legacy of G.E. Moore, University of Memphis, 2003, p. 165).
  2. ^ M.E. Waithe (ed.), A History of Women Philosophers: Volume IV: Contemporary Women Philosophers, 1900–Today, Springer, 1995.
  3. ^ Sciaraffa, Stefan (9 October 2005). "Review of Norms in a Wired World". Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2014. Steven Hetcher, Norms in a Wired World, Cambridge University Press, 2004, 432pp, Reviewed by Stefan Sciaraffa, University of Arizona
  4. ^ Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The University of Chicago Press (1962), pp. 19–20.
  5. ^ Peter Simons "Open and Cloded Culture" in Phenomenology and analysis: essays on Central European philosophy. Edited by Arkadiusz Chrudzimski and Wolfgang Huemer. Page 18.
  6. ^ Campbell, James (2006) A Thoughtful Profession, Open Court Publishing
  7. ^ Campbell, James (2006) A Thoughtful Profession, Open Court Publishing pp. 35–37
  8. ^ Leighton, Denys (2004) 'The Greenian moment' pp. 70–71
  9. ^ Leiter, Brian (2018) "Best 'general' journals of philosophy, 2018" Leiter Reports, "Best 'general' journals of philosophy, 2018". Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  10. ^ Leiter, Brain (2012) "Best English-Language Journals for Scholarship on the Continental traditions in post-Kantian Philosophy" Leiter Reports, "Best English-Language Journals for Scholarship on the Continental traditions in post-Kantian Philosophy". Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Philosophical Weblogs – David Chalmers". consc.net. Archived from the original on 29 October 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  13. ^ "PEA Soup: The Next Chapter: Ethics Discussions at PEA Soup". peasoup.typepad.com. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  14. ^ "What is it like to be a woman in philosophy?". What is it like to be a woman in philosophy?. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  15. ^ "Philosophy Departments Are Full of Sexual Harassment". Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  16. ^ "A Call to Shun". insidehighered.com. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  17. ^ See, e.g., Michael Dummett, The Origins of Analytical Philosophy (Harvard University Press, 1994), or C. Prado, A House Divided: Comparing Analytic and Continental Philosophy (Prometheus/Humanity Books, 2003).
  18. ^ See for example Moore's A Defence of Common Sense and Russell's critique of the Doctrine of internal relations,
  19. ^ "...analytic philosophy opposed right from its beginning English neo-Hegelianism of Bradley's sort and similar ones. It did not only criticize the latter's denial of the existence of an external world (anyway an unjust criticism), but also the bombastic, obscure style of Hegel's writings." Peter Jonkers, "Perspectives on twentieth century philosophy: A Reply to Tom Rockmore," "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ Ludlow, Peter, "Descriptions", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL=http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2005/entries/descriptions/
  21. ^ See, e.g., Brian Leiter. [1] "'Analytic' philosophy today names a style of doing philosophy, not a philosophical program or a set of substantive views. Analytic philosophers, crudely speaking, aim for argumentative clarity and precision; draw freely on the tools of logic; and often identify, professionally and intellectually, more closely with the sciences and mathematics, than with the humanities."
  22. ^ "Analytic Philosophy" Archived 3 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  23. ^ Rorty, Richard. (1979) Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature.
  24. ^ Bryant, Levi R. (13 April 2012). "Review of The Politics of Logic: Badiou, Wittgenstein, and the Consequences of Formalism". Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2012. Paul M. Livingston, The Politics of Logic: Badiou, Wittgenstein, and the Consequences of Formalism, Routledge, 2012
  25. ^ Williamson, Timothy "The Philosophy of Philosophy"
  26. ^ Hubben, William. (1952) Four Prophets of Our Destiny.
  27. ^ E.g., the largest academic organization devoted to furthering the study of continental philosophy is the Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy.
  28. ^ Glendinning 2006, p. 12.
  29. ^ The following list of four traits is adapted from Michael Rosen, "Continental Philosophy from Hegel", in A. C. Grayling (ed.), Philosophy 2: Further through the Subject, Oxford University Press (1998), p. 665.
  30. ^ Critchley 2001, p. 115.
  31. ^ Critchley 2001, p. 57.
  32. ^ The above list includes only those movements common to both lists compiled by Critchley 2001, p. 13 and Glendinning 2006, pp. 58–65.
  33. ^ Badhwar, Neera K.; Long, Roderick T. (20 March 2018). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 20 March 2018 – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  34. ^ Weber, Michel. "L'Épreuve de la philosophie". academia.edu. Archived from the original on 22 July 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  35. ^ Solomon, Robert C. (1987). From Hegel to Existentialism. Oxford University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-19-506182-6.
  36. ^ Robert C. Solomon, Existentialism (McGraw-Hill, 1974, pp. 1–2)
  37. ^ D.E. Cooper Existentialism: A Reconstruction (Basil Blackwell, 1999, p. 8).

Works cited

  • Critchley, Simon (2001). Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285359-2.
  • Glendinning, Simon (2006). The Idea of Continental Philosophy. Edinburgh University Press.

Further reading

The professionalization of philosophy

  • Campbell, James, A Thoughtful Profession: The Early Years of the American Philosophical Association. Open Court Publishing (2006)

The Analytic / Continental divide

Analytic Philosophy

  • Dummett, Michael Origins of Analytical Philosophy. Harvard University Press (1996)
  • Floyd, Juliet Future Pasts: The Analytic Tradition in Twentieth-Century Philosoph Oxford University Press (2001)
  • Glock, Hans-Johann What is Analytic Philosophy?. Cambridge University Press (2008)
  • Martinich, A.P. Analytic Philosophy: An Anthology (Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies). Wiley-Blackwell (2001)
  • Martinich, A.P. A Companion to Analytic Philosophy (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy). Wiley-Blackwell (2005)
  • Soames, Scott, Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Volume 1: The Dawn of Analysis. Princeton University Press (2005)
  • Soames, Scott, Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Volume 2: The Age of Meaning. Princeton University Press (2005)
  • Stroll, Avrum Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy. Columbia University Press (2001)
  • Williamson, Timothy The Philosophy of Philosophy (The Blackwell / Brown Lectures in Philosophy). Wiley-Blackwell (2008)

Continental Philosophy

  • Cutrofello, Andrew Continental Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge (2005)

External links

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20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism. In terms of the eras of philosophy, it is usually labelled as contemporary philosophy (succeeding modern philosophy, which runs roughly from the time of René Descartes until the late 19th to early 20th centuries).

As with other academic disciplines, philosophy increasingly became professionalized in the twentieth century, and a split emerged between philosophers who considered themselves part of either the "analytic" or "Continental" traditions. However, there have been disputes regarding both the terminology and the reasons behind the divide, as well as philosophers who see themselves as bridging the divide, such as process philosophy advocates and neopragmatists. In addition, philosophy in the twentieth century became increasingly technical and harder for lay people to read.

The publication of Edmund Husserl's Logical Investigations (1900–1) and Bertrand Russell's The Principles of Mathematics (1903) is considered to mark the beginning of 20th-century philosophy.

Index of contemporary philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in contemporary philosophy.

1926 in philosophy

1962 in philosophy

20th-century philosophy

A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity

A New Refutation of Time

A. C. Grayling

A.P. Martinich

Abandonment (existentialism)

Abraham Edel

Abstract expressionism

Abstract labour and concrete labour

Accumulation by dispossession

Against His-Story, Against Leviathan

Alain Badiou

Alain de Benoist

Alain Etchegoyen

Alan Ross Anderson

Alan Soble

Alan Stout (philosopher)

Albert Camus

Albert Chernenko

Alberto Jori

Alberto Toscano

Albrecht Wellmer

Aldo Gargani

Alejandro Deustua

Alejandro Rozitchner

Alexander Bard

Alexandre Koyré

Alexandru Dragomir

Alexis Kagame

Alf Ross

Alfred Adler

Alfred I. Tauber

Alfred Jules Ayer

Alfred Jules Émile Fouillée

Alfred North Whitehead

Allan Bloom

Alvin Plantinga

Anarchism

Anarchism and anarcho-capitalism

Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche

Anarchism in Israel

Anarchism in Russia

Anarchism in Spain

Anarchism in Sweden

Anarchism in the United States

Anarchism in Turkey

Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas

Anarchist Studies

Anarcho-capitalism and minarchism

Anatoly Lunacharsky

Anders Nygren

André Malet (philosopher)

Andreas Speiser

Andrew Chignell

Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

Anomalous monism

Anthony Gottlieb

Anti-consumerism

Anti-Dühring

Anti-Semite and Jew

Anti-statism

Antonio Caso Andrade

Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Negri

Arborescent

Arda Denkel

Aretaic turn

Armin Mohler

Arthur Danto

Artificial consciousness

Arvi Grotenfelt

Asa Kasher

Asiatic mode of production

Association for Logic, Language and Information

Attitude polarization

Aurel Kolnai

Australasian Journal of Philosophy

Avrum Stroll

Barrows Dunham

Bas van Fraassen

Base and superstructure

Being and Nothingness

Being in itself

Benedetto Croce

Berlin Circle

Bernard Bosanquet (philosopher)

Bernard Williams

Bert Mosselmans

Bertrand de Jouvenel

Between Past and Future

Black swan theory

Bob Hale (philosopher)

Boris Furlan

Boris Grushin

Bracha L. Ettinger

Bracketing (phenomenology)

Bronius Kuzmickas

Bryan Magee

Bureaucracy

C. D. Broad

C. S. Lewis

C. Stephen Evans

Capital accumulation

Capital, Volume I

Capitalist mode of production

Carl Gustav Hempel

Carlos Castrodeza

Ramsey sentence

Carveth Read

Categories (Peirce)

Charles Morris, Baron Morris of Grasmere

Charles Parsons (philosopher)

Charles Taylor (philosopher)

Chicago school (mathematical analysis)

Chinese room

Christine Buci-Glucksmann

Christoph Schrempf

Clarence Irving Lewis

Claude Lefort

Claude Lévi-Strauss

Claudio Canaparo

Clive Bell

Cognitive map

Colin Howson

Colin McGinn

Commodification

Commodity (Marxism)

Confirmation holism

Connexive logic

Consensual living

Constant capital

Constantin Noica

Consumption of fixed capital

Contemporary philosophy

Contemporary Political Theory

Contemporary Pragmatism

Contingency, irony, and solidarity

Contrast theory of meaning

Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning)

Cora Diamond

Cornel West

Cornelius Castoriadis

Critical pedagogy

Criticism of capitalism

Criticism of postmodernism

Criticisms of electoralism

Critique of Cynical Reason

Critique of Dialectical Reason

Critiques of Slavoj Žižek

Curt John Ducasse

Czesław Znamierowski

Daniel Dennett

Daniel Rynhold

Dariush Shayegan

Das Argument (journal)

Dasein

David Benatar

David Braine (philosopher)

David Chalmers

David Cockburn

David Kellogg Lewis

David Oswald Thomas

David Pearce (philosopher)

David Prall

David S. Oderberg

David Schmidtz

David Wong (philosopher)

Dean Zimmerman

Degenerated workers' state

Deleuze and Guattari

Delfim Santos

Democracy in Marxism

Democratic Rationalization

Denis Dutton

Dermot Moran

Dewitt H. Parker

Dialectica

Dieter Henrich

Differential and Absolute Ground Rent

Dimitrije Mitrinović

Dimitris Dimitrakos

Diogenes (journal)

Doctrine of internal relations

Dominant ideology

Dominik Gross

Donald Burt

Donald Davidson (philosopher)

Dorothy Emmet

Doxastic logic

Dual power

Dudley Knowles

Eckart Schütrumpf

Edith Wyschogrod

Edmund Gettier

Edward Bullough

Elaine Scarry

Eleutherius Winance

Elliott Sober

Émile Durkheim

Émile Meyerson

Emotivism

Epistemological anarchism

Eric Higgs (philosopher)

Erich Fromm

Erkenntnis

Ernest Gellner

Ernesto Garzón Valdés

Ernst Cassirer

Ernst Ehrlich

Ernst Gombrich

Ernst Nolte

Erwin Panofsky

Erwin Schrödinger

Esperanza Guisán

Ethical problems using children in clinical trials

Ethics Bowl

Étienne Balibar

Étienne Borne

Étienne Souriau

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy

Exchange value

Exploitation

Exploitation theory

F. C. S. Schiller

F. H. Bradley

Fact, Fiction, and Forecast

False consciousness

Falsifiability

Faux frais of production

Feng Youlan

Ferdinand Ebner

Fi Zilal al-Qur'an

Finance capitalism

Form of life (philosophy)

Francis Fukuyama

Frank R. Wallace

Frantz Fanon

Franz Rosenzweig

Fred Miller (philosopher)

Frederick C. Beiser

Frederick Copleston

Frederick Ferré

Frederick Suppe

Fredric Jameson

Freudo-Marxism

Friedrich Waismann

From Bakunin to Lacan

Future Primitive and Other Essays

G. E. M. Anscombe

Gabriel Nuchelmans

Gani Bobi

Gary Drescher

General intellect

Geneviève Fraisse

Geoffrey Hellman

Geoffrey Hunter (logician)

Georg Klaus

George Caffentzis

George Dickie (philosopher)

George Edward Moore

George H. Smith

George Santayana

Gettier problem

Gila Sher

Gilbert Harman

Giles Fraser

Gilles Deleuze

Giorgio Agamben

Giovanni Gentile

Giuseppe Peano

Gödel's ontological proof

Gopal Balakrishnan

Gordon Park Baker

Gottlob Frege

Graham Priest

Gray Dorsey

Gricean maxims

Günter Abel

Gustav Bergmann

Guy Debord

György Lukács

György Márkus

Hajime Tanabe

Han Yong-un

Hans-Georg Gadamer

Hans Hahn

Hans Lipps

Hans Reichenbach

Hans Sluga

Hao Wang (academic)

Harald K. Schjelderup

Hassan Kobeissi

Hegemony

Helen Longino

Hélène Cixous

Helene von Druskowitz

Henri Berr

Henri Lefebvre

Henry Corbin

Herbert Feigl

Herbert Marcuse

Heterophenomenology

Hilary Putnam

Historicity (philosophy)

History and Future of Justice

History of the Church–Turing thesis

Honorio Delgado

Hossein Ziai

Howard Adelman

Howison Lectures in Philosophy

Hubert Damisch

Hubert Dreyfus

Hugh Mellor

Humana.Mente – Journal of Philosophical Studies

Huston Smith

Hypothetico-deductive model

I Heart Huckabees

I. A. Richards

Ideal observer theory

Idealistic Studies

Ideology

Igor Pribac

Illtyd Trethowan

Imperialism

In Defense of Anarchism

Indeterminacy of translation

Indexicality

Individualist anarchism

Information processing

Institutional cruelty

Instrumental rationality

Integral (spirituality)

Integral ecology

International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy

International Journal of Žižek Studies

International Philosophical Quarterly

Interpellation (philosophy)

Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy

Irving Copi

Irving Singer

Is God Dead?

Isaiah Berlin

Ivan Aguéli

Ivan Sviták

Jaap Kruithof

Jack Copeland

Jack Russell Weinstein

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Lacan

Jacques Maritain

Jacques Rancière

James DiGiovanna

James E. Faulconer

James Franklin (philosopher)

James G. Lennox

James Griffin (philosopher)

James Gustafson

James M. Edie

Jamie Whyte

Janet Coleman

Jason Walter Brown

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-Luc Nancy

Jean-Marc Ferry

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean Baudrillard

Jean Clam

Jean Grenier

Jeff Malpas

Jens Staubrand

Jerry Fodor

Jerzy Perzanowski

Jesse Prinz

Jesús Mosterín

Joel J. Kupperman

Johannes Agnoli

John Corcoran (logician)

John Finnis

John Foster (philosopher)

John Greco (philosopher)

John Hospers

John Kekes

John L. Pollock

John McDowell

John N. Gray

John P. Burgess

John Rawls

John Searle

John von Neumann

John Weckert

John Wisdom

Jon Barwise

Jordi Pigem

José Ortega y Gasset

Josefina Ayerza

Joseph Beuys

Joseph de Torre

Joseph Henry Woodger

Joseph Hilbe

Joseph J. Spengler

Joseph Margolis

Joseph Runzo

Josiah Royce

Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism

Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics

Journal of Logic, Language and Information

Journal of Philosophical Logic

Juan Manuel Guillén

Judith Butler

Juha Varto

Julia Kristeva

Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Mittelstraß

Kancha Ilaiah

Kang Youwei

Karen J. Warren

Karl Ameriks

Karl Jaspers

Karl Loewenstein

Karl Menger

Karl Popper

Katarzyna Jaszczolt

Keiji Nishitani

Kit Fine

Konstantin Chkheidze

Konstanty Michalski

Krastyo Krastev

Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya

Kurt Almqvist

Kurt Baier

Kurt Gödel

Kurt Grelling

Kyle Stanford

L'existentialisme est un humanisme

Labor aristocracy

Lacan at the Scene

Larry Sanger

Latitudinarianism (philosophy)

Laughter (Bergson)

Laurence BonJour

Law of accumulation

Law of value

Lawrence Jarach

Leo Mikhailovich Lopatin

Leo Strauss

Leonardo Moledo

Leonidas Donskis

Les jeux sont faits

Lev Chernyi

Lewis Call

Lewis White Beck

Lila: An Inquiry into Morals

Linguistics and Philosophy

List of contributors to Marxist theory

Listen, Anarchist!

Ljubomir Cuculovski

Logic of information

Logica Universalis

Logical holism

Logical positivism

Logicomix

Logocentrism

Lorenzo Peña

Louis Althusser

Louis Pojman

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer

Luxemburgism

Lwow-Warsaw School of Logic

Lynn Pasquerella

Mao Zedong

Marek Siemek

Mario Bunge

Mark Addis

Mark de Bretton Platts

Mark Philp

Mark Sacks

Mark Vernon

Mark Wrathall

Marshall McLuhan

Martha Nussbaum

Martin Buber

Martin Heidegger

Martin Hollis (philosopher)

Marvin Minsky

Marx W. Wartofsky

Masakazu Nakai

Maurice Blanchot

Maurice De Wulf

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Mauricio Suarez

Maxence Caron

Meera Nanda

Mental representation

Mereological nihilism

Michael Oakeshott

Michael Tye (philosopher)

Michel Foucault

Michel Foucault bibliography

Michel Onfray

Michel Serres

Milan Damnjanović (philosopher)

Minimum programme

Mirror stage

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Monroe Beardsley

Moritz Geiger

Moritz Schlick

Morris Weitz

Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei

Murray Rothbard

Myth of Progress

Narhar Ambadas Kurundkar

Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Nathan Salmon

National-Anarchism

Nationalism and Culture

Ned Block

Nelson Goodman

Neocolonial Dependence

Neurophilosophy

New Foundations

New Libertarian Manifesto

New Sincerity

New Times (politics)

Nicholas Rescher

Nick Bostrom

Nicola Abbagnano

Nietzsche and Philosophy

Nina Karin Monsen

Noël Carroll

Non-politics

Non-voting

Norbert Bolz

Norbert Leser

Norman Malcolm

Norman Swartz

Norwood Russell Hanson

Notes on "Camp"

Now and After

Objet petit a

Oets Kolk Bouwsma

Okishio's theorem

Olaf Helmer

Olavo de Carvalho

Olga Hahn-Neurath

On Certainty

On Contradiction (Mao Zedong)

On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems

OntoClean

Organic composition of capital

Oriental despotism

Original proof of Gödel's completeness theorem

Orlando J. Smith

Orthodox Trotskyism

Osvaldo Lira

Otto Bauer

Otto Neurath

Outline of anarchism

Overproduction

Oxford Literary Review

P. F. Strawson

Panait Cerna

Parametric determinism

Patricia Churchland

Paul Churchland

Paul de Man

Paul Grice

Paul Guyer

Paul Häberlin

Paul R. Patton

Paul Ricœur

Paul Virilio

Paulo Freire

Penelope Maddy

Per Bauhn

Per Martin-Löf

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy

Permanent war economy

Peter Caws

Peter Geach

Peter Hacker

Peter Millican

Peter Simons

Peter Singer

Peter Steinberger

Peter Stillman (academic)

Philip Hallie

Philipp Frank

Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe

Philippe Nys

Phillip Cary

Philosophical interpretation of classical physics

Philosophical Investigations

Philosophical Investigations (journal)

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Philosophy and Real Politics

Philosophy and Social Hope

Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

Philosophy in a New Key

Philosophy of artificial intelligence

Philosophy of dialogue

Philosophy of engineering

Philosophy of information

Philosophy of technology

Philotheus Boehner

Pieranna Garavaso

Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Boutang

Piotr Chmielowski

Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer

Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality

Plato and a Platypus Walk Into a Bar

Polish Logic

Popper's experiment

Post-anarchism

Post-colonial anarchism

Post-industrial society

Post-left anarchy

Post-Scarcity Anarchism

Post-structuralism

Postanalytic philosophy

Postmodern Christianity

Postmodern social construction of nature

Postmodernism

Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

Pragmatic maxim

Praxis School

Prefigurative politics

Preintuitionism

Prices of production

Principia Ethica

Principia Mathematica

Productive forces

Proletarian internationalism

Proletarianization

Psychical distance

Psychoanalysis and Religion

R. G. Collingwood

Rabindranath Tagore

Rachida Triki

Radical interpretation

Radical translation

Rado Riha

Ralph Johnson (philosopher)

Ralph Tyler Flewelling

Ramón Xirau

Randolph Clarke

Ranjana Khanna

Raphaël Enthoven

Rate of profit

Raymond Aron

Raymond Smullyan

Re.press

Reading Capital

Received view of theories

Recuperation (sociology)

Reflective disclosure

Reformism

Religion & Ethics Newsweekly

Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory

Ren Jiyu

Rentier capitalism

Repressive hypothesis

Reproduction (economics)

Richard A. Macksey

Richard Rorty

Richard Schacht

Richard Tarnas

Richard von Mises

Richard Wollheim

Robert Audi

Robert Brandom

Robert Nozick

Robert Rowland Smith

Robert Stalnaker

Roberto Refinetti

Rodolfo Mondolfo

Roger Caillois

Roger Scruton

Roland Barthes

Rolf Sattler

Romanas Plečkaitis

Ronald Dworkin

Rosa Luxemburg

Rose Rand

Rüdiger Safranski

Rudolf Carnap

Rudolf Schottlaender

Ruling class

Rupert Read

Ruth Barcan Marcus

Ryle's regress

Saint Genet

Sakae Osugi

Samuel Maximilian Rieser

Sanjaya Belatthaputta

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Sathya Sai Baba

Saul Kripke

Sayyid al-Qimni

Scientific essentialism

Search for a Method

Semantic view of theories

Semeiotic

Sergio Panunzio

Simon Blackburn

Simple commodity production

Six Myths about the Good Life

Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions

Slavoj Žižek

Social conflict theory

Social ecology

Socially necessary labour time

South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today

Spomenka Hribar

Sri Aurobindo

Stanisław Leśniewski

Stanley Sfekas

State monopoly capitalism

Stefan Pawlicki

Stephen David Ross

Stephen Laurence

Stephen Mulhall

Stephen Pepper

Stephen Toulmin

Steven Tainer

Stewart Shapiro

Subject of labor

Sun Yat-sen

Superprofit

Surplus product

Surplus value

Susan Haack

Susan Oyama

Susan Sontag

Susan Stebbing

Syed Ali Abbas Jallapuri

Tadeusz Kotarbiński

Taha Abdurrahman

Takiyyetin Mengüşoğlu

Tasos Zembylas

Technological determinism

Technological Somnambulism

Temporal single-system interpretation

Tendency of the rate of profit to fall

The Absence of the Book

The Birth of the Clinic

The Bounds of Sense

The Case for God

The Imaginary (Sartre)

The Logic of Scientific Discovery

The Myth of Sisyphus

The Philosophical Forum

The Royal Way

The Seminars of Jacques Lacan

The Sublime Object of Ideology

The Transcendence of the Ego

Theodor Lipps

Thierry de Duve

Third camp

Thomas Munro

Thomas Nagel

Thomas Samuel Kuhn

Thoralf Skolem

Three Worlds Theory

Tim Dean

Tom Polger

Tomonubu Imamichi

Tore Nordenstam

Toronto School of communication theory

Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Transformation problem

Transitional demand

Two Dogmas of Empiricism

Type physicalism

Ugo Spirito

Ultra-imperialism

Underconsumption

Unequal exchange

Universal class

Uri Gordon

Ursula Wolf

Use value

Vale (author)

Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus

Valorisation

Value added

Value product

Vanja Sutlić

Varadaraja V. Raman

Verification theory

Verificationism

Vianney Décarie

Victor Kraft

Vienna Circle

Vincent F. Hendricks

Vittorio Hösle

Vojin Rakic

W. D. Ross

Wage labour

Walter Berns

Walter Terence Stace

Warren Shibles

Wendell Berry

Werner Hamacher

Werner Heisenberg

Werner Krieglstein

What Is Literature?

What Is Your Dangerous Idea?

Whitny Braun

Why I Am Not a Christian

Wilfrid Sellars

Willard Van Orman Quine

Willem B. Drees

William Craig (philosopher)

William Fontaine

William Irwin Thompson

William James Lectures

William Kneale

William L. Rowe

William McNeill (philosopher)

William W. Tait

Władysław Mieczysław Kozłowski

Władysław Weryho

Wolfgang Smith

Wolfgang Stegmüller

Word and Object

Workerism

World communism

Xu Liangying

Yujian Zheng

Yves Brunsvick

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

Zeno Vendler

Zofia Zdybicka

Zollikon Seminars

Linguistic turn

The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.

Very different intellectual movements were associated with the "linguistic turn", although the term itself is commonly thought popularised by Richard Rorty's 1967 anthology The Linguistic Turn, in which it means the turn towards linguistic philosophy. According to Rorty, who later dissociated himself from linguistic philosophy and analytic philosophy generally, the phrase "the linguistic turn" originated with philosopher Gustav Bergmann.

Mental representation

A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science, is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this".Mental representation is the mental imagery of things that are not actually present to the senses. In contemporary philosophy, specifically in fields of metaphysics such as philosophy of mind and ontology, a mental representation is one of the prevailing ways of explaining and describing the nature of ideas and concepts.

Mental representations (or mental imagery) enable representing things that have never been experienced as well as things that do not exist. Think of yourself traveling to a place you have never visited before, or having a third arm. These things have either never happened or are impossible and do not exist, yet our brain and mental imagery allows us to imagine them. Although visual imagery is more likely to be recalled, mental imagery may involve representations in any of the sensory modalities, such as hearing, smell, or taste. Stephen Kosslyn proposes that images are used to help solve certain types of problems. We are able to visualize the objects in question and mentally represent the images to solve it.Mental representations also allow people to experience things right in front of them—though the process of how the brain interprets the representational content is debated.

Postanalytic philosophy

Postanalytic philosophy describes a detachment from the mainstream philosophical movement of analytic philosophy, which is the predominant school of thought in English-speaking countries. Postanalytic philosophy derives mainly from contemporary American thought, especially from the works of philosophers Richard Rorty, Donald Davidson, Hilary Putnam, W. V. O. Quine, and Stanley Cavell. The term is closely associated with the much broader movement of contemporary American pragmatism, which, loosely defined, advocates a detachment from the definition of 'objective truth' given by modern philosophers such as Descartes. Postanalytic philosophers emphasize the contingency of human thought, convention, utility, and social progress.

Quality (philosophy)

In philosophy, a quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object. In contemporary philosophy the idea of qualities, and especially how to distinguish certain kinds of qualities from one another, remains controversial.

Scientific essentialism

Scientific essentialism, a view espoused by Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam, maintains that there exist essential properties that objects possess (or instantiate) necessarily. In other words, having such and such essential properties is a necessary condition for membership in a given natural kind. For example, tigers are tigers in virtue of possessing a particular set of genetic properties, but identifying (or appearance-based) properties are nonessential properties. If a tiger lost a leg, or didn't possess stripes, we would still call it a tiger. They are not necessary for being a member of the class of tigers.

It is important, however, that the set of essential properties of an object not be used to identify or be identified with that object because they are not necessary and sufficient, but only necessary. Having such and such a genetic code does not suffice for being a tiger. We wouldn't call a piece of tiger tail a tiger, even though a piece of tiger tail contains the genetic information essential to being a tiger.

Other advocates of scientific essentialism include Brian Ellis, Caroline Lierse, John Bigelow, and Alexander Bird.

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