Contemporary Latin is the form of the Latin language used from the end of the 19th century through the present. Various kinds of contemporary Latin can be distinguished, including the use of single words in taxonomy, and the fuller ecclesiastical use in the Catholic church - but Living or Spoken Latin (the use of Latin as a language in its own right as a full-fledged means of expression) is the primary subject of this article.
|Era||Developed from Neo Latin between 19th and 20th centuries|
As a relic of the great importance of New Latin as the formerly dominant international lingua franca down to the 19th century in a great number of fields, Latin is still present in words or phrases used in many languages around the world, and some minor communities use Latin in their speech.
The official use of Latin in previous eras has survived at a symbolic level in many mottos that are still being used and even coined in Latin to this day. Old mottos like E pluribus unum, found in 1776 on the Seal of the United States, along with Annuit cœptis and Novus ordo seclorum, and adopted by an Act of Congress in 1782, are still in use. Similarly, current pound sterling coins are minted with the Latin inscription ELIZABETH·II·D·G·REG·F·D (Dei Gratia Regina, Fidei Defensor, i.e. Queen by the Grace of God, Defender of the Faith). The official motto of the multilingual European Union, adopted as recently as 2000, is the Latin In varietate concordia. Similarly, the motto on the Canadian Victoria Cross is in Latin, perhaps due to Canada's bilingual status.
In fields as varied as mathematics, physics, astronomy, medicine, pharmacy, and biology, Latin still provides internationally accepted names of concepts, forces, objects, and organisms in the natural world.
The most prominent retention of Latin occurs in the classification of living organisms and the binomial nomenclature devised by Carolus Linnæus, although the rules of nomenclature used today allow the construction of names which may deviate considerably from historical norms.
Another continuation is the use of Latin names for the constellations and celestial objects (used in the Bayer designations of stars), as well as planets and satellites, whose surface features have been given Latin selenographic toponyms since the 17th century.
Latin has also contributed a vocabulary for specialised fields such as anatomy and law which has become part of the normal, non-technical vocabulary of various European languages. Latin continues to be used to form international scientific vocabulary and classical compounds. Separately, more than 56% of the vocabulary used in English today derives ultimately from Latin, either directly (28.24%) or through French (28.30%).
The Catholic Church has continued to use Latin. Two main areas can be distinguished. One is its use for the official version of all documents issued by Vatican City, which has remained intact to the present. Although documents are first drafted in various vernaculars (mostly Italian), the official version is written in Latin by the Latin Letters Office. The other is its use for the liturgy, which has diminished after the Second Vatican Council of 1962–65, but to some degree resurged half a century later when Pope Benedict XVI encouraged the Latin Mass.
After the Church of England published the Book of Common Prayer in English in 1559, a 1560 Latin edition was published for use at universities such as Oxford and the leading public schools, where the liturgy was still permitted to be conducted in Latin, and there have been several Latin translations since. Most recently a Latin edition of the 1979 USA Anglican Book of Common Prayer has appeared.
Latin has also survived to some extent in the context of classical scholarship. Some classical periodicals, like Mnemosyne and the German Hermes, to this day accept articles in Latin for publication.
Latin is used in most of the introductions to the critical editions of ancient authors in the Oxford Classical Texts series, and it is also nearly always used for the apparatus criticus of Ancient Greek and Latin texts.
The University Orator at the University of Cambridge makes a speech in Latin marking the achievements of each of the honorands at the annual Honorary Degree Congregations, as does the Public Orator at the Encaenia ceremony at the University of Oxford. Harvard and Princeton also have Latin Salutatory commencement addresses every year.
The Charles University in Prague and many other universities around the world conduct the awarding of their doctoral degrees in Latin. Other universities and other schools issue diplomas written in Latin.
The famous song Gaudeamus igitur is acknowledged as the anthem of academia and is sung at university opening or graduation ceremonies throughout Europe.
Living Latin (Latinitas viva in Latin itself), also known as Spoken Latin, is an effort to revive Latin as a spoken language and as the vehicle for contemporary communication and publication. Involvement in this Latin revival can be a mere hobby or extend to more serious projects for restoring its former role as an international auxiliary language.
After the decline of Latin at the end of the New Latin era started to be perceived, there were attempts to counteract the decline and to revitalize the use of Latin for international communication.
In 1815, Miguel Olmo wrote a booklet proposing Latin as the common language for Europe, with the title Otia Villaudricensia ad octo magnos principes qui Vindobonæ anno MDCCCXV pacem orbis sanxerunt, de lingua Latina et civitate Latina fundanda liber singularis ("Leisure of Villaudric to the eight great princes who ordained world peace at Vienna in 1815, an extraordinary book about the Latin language and a Latin state to be founded").
In the late 19th century, Latin periodicals advocating the revived use of Latin as an international language started to appear. Between 1889 and 1895, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published in Italy his Alaudæ. This publication was followed by the Vox Urbis: de litteris et bonis artibus commentarius, published by the architect and engineer Aristide Leonori from 1898, twice a month, until 1913, one year before the outbreak of World War I.
The early 20th century, marked by warfare and by drastic social and technological changes, saw few advances in the use of Latin outside academia. Following the beginnings of the re-integration of postwar Europe, however, Latin revivalism gained some strength.
One of its main promoters was the former dean of the University of Nancy (France), Prof. Jean Capelle, who in 1952 published a cornerstone article called "Latin or Babel" in which he proposed Latin as an international spoken language.
Capelle was called "the soul of the movement" when in 1956 the first International Conference for Living Latin (Congrès international pour le Latin vivant) took place in Avignon, marking the beginning of a new era of the active use of Latin. About 200 participants from 22 different countries took part in that foundational conference.
The essentials of the classical pronunciation had been defined since the early 19th century (e.g. in K.L. Schneider's Elementarlehre der Lateinischen Sprache, 1819), but in many countries there was strong resistance to adopting it in instruction. In English-speaking countries, where the traditional academic pronunciation diverged most markedly from the restored classical model, the struggle between the two pronunciations lasted for the entire 19th century. The transition between Latin pronunciations was long drawn out; in 1907 the "new pronunciation" was officially recommended by the Board of Education for adoption in schools in England.
Although the older pronunciation, as found in the nomenclature and terminology of various professions, continued to be used for several decades, and in some spheres prevails to the present day, contemporary Latin as used by the living Latin community has generally adopted the classical pronunciation of Latin as restored by specialists in Latin historical phonology.
A similar shift occurred in German-speaking areas: the traditional pronunciation is discussed in Deutsche Aussprache des Lateinischen ‹See Tfd›(in German), while the reconstructed classical pronunciation, which took hold around 1900, is discussed at Schulaussprache des Lateinischen.
Many users of contemporary Latin promote its use as a spoken language, a movement that dubs itself "Living Latin". Two main aims can be distinguished in this movement:
Among the proponents of spoken Latin, some promote the active use of the language to make learning Latin both more enjoyable and more efficient, drawing upon the methodologies of instructors of modern languages.
In the United Kingdom, the Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching (ARLT, still existing as the Association for Latin Teaching), was founded in 1913 by the distinguished classical scholar W. H. D. Rouse. It arose from summer schools which Rouse organised to train Latin teachers in the direct method of language teaching, which entailed using the language in everyday situations rather than merely learning grammar and syntax by rote. The Classical Association also encourages this approach. The Cambridge University Press has now published a series of school textbooks based on the adventures of a mouse called Minimus, designed to help children of primary school age to learn the language, as well as its well-known Cambridge Latin Course (CLC) to teach the language to secondary school students, all of which include extensive use of dialogue and an approach to language teaching mirroring that now used for most modern languages, which have brought many of the principles espoused by Rouse and the ARLT into the mainstream of Latin teaching.
Outside Great Britain, one of the most accomplished handbooks that fully adopts the direct method for Latin is the well-known Lingua Latina per se illustrata by the Dane Hans Henning Ørberg, first published in 1955 and improved in 1990. It is composed fully in Latin, and requires no other language of instruction, and it can be used to teach pupils whatever their mother tongue.
Others support the revival of Latin as a language of international communication, in the academic, and perhaps even the scientific and diplomatic, spheres (as it was in Europe and European colonies through Middle Ages until the mid-18th century), or as an international auxiliary language to be used by anyone. However, as a language native to no people, this movement has not received support from any government, national or supranational.
A substantial group of institutions (particularly in Europe, but also in North and South America) has emerged to support the use of Latin as a spoken language.
The foundational first International Conference for living Latin (Congrès international pour le Latin vivant) that took place in Avignon was followed by at least five others. As a result of those first conferences, the Academia Latinitati Fovendae was then created in Rome. Among its most prominent members are well-known classicists from all over the world, like Prof. Michael von Albrecht or Prof. Kurt Smolak. The ALF held its first international conference in Rome in 1966 bringing together about 500 participants. From then on conferences have taken place every four or five years, in Bucharest, Malta, Dakar, Erfurt, Berlin, Madrid, and many other places. The official language of the ALF is Latin and all acts and proceedings take place in Latin.
Also in the year 1966 Clément Desessard published a method with tapes within the series sans peine of the French company Assimil. Desessard's work aimed at teaching contemporary Latin for use in an everyday context, although the audio was often criticized for being recorded with a thick French accent. Assimil took this out of print at the end of 2007 and published another Latin method which focused on the classical idiom only. However, in 2015 Assimil re-published Desessard's edition with new audio CDs in restored classical Latin pronunciation. Desessard's method is still used for living Latin instruction at the Schola Latina Universalis.
In 1986 the Belgian radiologist Gaius Licoppe, who had discovered the contemporary use of Latin and learnt how to speak it thanks to Desessard's method, founded in Brussels the Fundatio Melissa for the promotion of Latin teaching and use for communication.
In Germany, Marius Alexa and Inga Pessarra-Grimm founded in September 1987 the Latinitati Vivæ Provehendæ Associatio (LVPA, or Association for the Promotion of Living Latin).
The first Septimana Latina Amoeneburgensis (Amöneburg Latin Week) was organized in 1989 at Amöneburg, near Marburg in Germany, by Mechtild Hofmann and Robert Maier. Since then the Latin Weeks were offered every year. In addition, members of the supporting association Septimanae Latinae Europaeae (European Latin Weeks) published a text book named Piper Salve that contains dialogues in modern everyday Latin.
At the Accademia Vivarium Novum located in Rome, Italy, all classes are taught by faculty fluent in Latin or Ancient Greek, and resident students speak in Latin or Greek at all times outside class. Most students are supported by scholarships from the Mnemosyne foundation and spend one or two years in residence to acquire fluency in Latin. The living Latin movement eventually crossed the Atlantic, where it continues to grow. In the summer of 1996, at the University of Kentucky, Prof. Terence Tunberg established the first Conventiculum, an immersion conference in which participants from all over the world meet annually to exercise the active use of Latin to discuss books and literature, and topics related to everyday life. The success of the Conventiculum Lexintoniense has inspired similar conferences throughout the United States.
In October 1996 the Septentrionale Americanum Latinitatis Vivæ Institutum (SALVI, or North American Institute for Living Latin Studies) was founded in Los Angeles, by a group of professors and students of Latin literature concerned about the long-term future of classical studies in the US.
In the University of Kentucky, Prof. Terence Tunberg founded the Institutum Studiis Latinis Provehendis (known in English as the Institute of Latin Studies), which awards Graduate Certificates in Latin Studies addressed at those with a special interest gaining "a thorough command of the Latin language in reading, writing and speaking, along with a wide exposure to the cultural riches of the Latin tradition in its totality". This is the only degree-conferring program in the world with courses taught entirely in Latin.
There is also a proliferation of Latin-speaking institutions, groups and conferences in the Iberian Peninsula and in Latin America. Some prominent examples of this tendency towards the active use of Latin within Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries are the annual conferences called Jornadas de Culturaclasica.com, held in different cities of southern Spain, as well as the CAELVM (Cursus Aestivus Latinitatis Vivae Matritensis), a Latin summer program in Madrid. In 2012, the Studium Angelopolitanum was founded in Puebla, Mexico, by Prof. Alexis Hellmer, in order to promote the study of Latin in that country, where only one university grants a degree in Classics.
Most of these groups and institutions organise seminars and conferences where Latin is used as a spoken language, both throughout the year and over the summer, in Europe and in America.
Less academic summer encounters wholly carried out in Latin are the ones known as Septimanæ Latinæ Europææ (European Latin Weeks), celebrated in Germany and attracting people of various ages from all over Europe.
At the present time, several periodicals and social networking web sites are published in Latin. In France, immediately after the conference at Avignon, the publisher Théodore Aubanel launched the magazine Vita Latina, which still exists, associated to the CERCAM (Centre d'Étude et de Recherche sur les Civilisations Antiques de la Méditerranée) of the Paul Valéry University, Montpellier III. Until very recently, it was published in Latin in its entirety. In Germany, the magazine Vox Latina was founded in 1965 by Caelestis Eichenseer (1924–2008) and is to this day published wholly in Latin four times a year in the University of Saarbrücken. In Belgium, the magazine Melissa created in 1984 by Gaius Licoppe is still published six times a year completely in Latin.
Hebdomada aenigmatum is a free online magazine of crosswords, quizzes, and other games in Latin language. It is published by the Italian cultural Association Leonardo in collaboration with the online Latin news magazine Ephemeris and with ELI publishing house.
The Finnish radio station YLE Radio 1 has for many years broadcast a now famous weekly review of world news called Nuntii Latini completely in Latin. The German Radio Bremen also had regular broadcasts in Latin (till December 2017). Other attempts have been less successful. Beginning from July 2015 Radio F.R.E.I. from Erfurt (Germany) broadcasts in Latin once a week on Wednesdays for 15 minutes; the broadcast is called Erfordia Latina.
In 2016 ACEM (Enel executives' cultural association) organized with Luca Desiata and Daniel Gallagher the first Business Latin course for managers (Congressus studiorum – Lingua Latina mercatoria).
The emergence of the Internet on a global scale in the 1990s provided a great tool for the flourishing of communication in Latin, and in February 1996 a Polish Latinist from Warsaw (Poland), Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz, founded what is still today the most populated and successful Latin-only email list on the Internet, the Grex Latine Loquentium. Subsequently, the Nuntii Latini of YLE Radio 1 would also create a discussion list called YLE Colloquia Latina. The Circulus Latinus Panormitanus of Palermo (Italy) went a step further creating the first online chat in Latin called the Locutorium.
In February 2003 Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz published an on-line glossary with his proposals for some computer terms in Latin under the title of Vocabula computatralia. The Internet also allows for the preservation of other contemporary Latin dictionaries that have fallen out of print or have never been printed, like the Latinitas Recens (Speculum) or the Adumbratio Lexici Angli et Latini.
Some websites, such as Google and Facebook, provide Latin as a language option. The HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (NASA) has Latin language version of their main side,
https://uahirise.org/la, as well as a Latin Twitter account,
There is a MUD text game in Latin called Labyrinthus Latinus aimed at uniting people interested in the language. The website is shut down but the game is still available at
labyrinthus.latinus.imp.ch:3333. In addition, the video games Minecraft, OpenTTD, and The Battle for Wesnoth provide Latin as a language option.
There is even a Latin Wikipedia, although discussions are held not only in Latin but in German, English, and other languages as well. Nearly 200 active editors work on the project. There are nearly 100,000 articles on topics ranging from ancient Rome to mathematics, Tolkien's fiction, and geography. Those in particularly good Latin, currently about 10% of the whole, are marked.
Although less so than in previous eras, contemporary Latin has also been used for public notices in public spaces:
Some contemporary works have been produced originally in Latin, most overwhelmingly poetry, but also prose, as well as music or cinema. They include:
A T-shirt with the rhyming motto Multi Frigent, Pauci Rigent, "Many are Cold but Few are Frozen" for the fictional University of Antarctica, with a penguin seal, by artist Janice Bender. The motto's translation puns the Christian motto, "Many are Called but Few are Chosen."
Various texts—usually children's books—have been translated into Latin since the beginning of the living Latin movement in the early fifties for various purposes, including use as a teaching tool or simply to demonstrate the capability of Latin as a means of expression in a popular context. They include:
The 1st annual Billboard Latin Music Awards which honor the most popular albums, songs, and performers in Latin music took place in Miami.1996 Latin Billboard Music Awards
The 3rd annual Billboard Latin Music Awards which honor the most popular albums, songs, and performers in Latin music took place in Miami.1997 Latin Billboard Music Awards
The 4th annual Billboard Latin Music Awards which honor the most popular albums, songs, and performers in Latin music took place in Miami.1998 Latin Billboard Music Awards
The 5th annual Billboard Latin Music Awards which honor the most popular albums, songs, and performers in Latin music took place in Miami.1999 Latin Billboard Music Awards
The 6th annual Billboard Latin Music Awards which honor the most popular albums, songs, and performers in Latin music took place in Miami.2000 Latin Billboard Music Awards
The 7th annual Billboard Latin Music Awards which honor the most popular albums, songs, and performers in Latin music took place in Miami.Anaphora of the Apostolic Tradition
The Anaphora of the Apostolic Tradition, also known as the Anaphora of Hippolytus, is an ancient Christian Anaphora (also known in the contemporary Latin Rite as a Eucharistic Prayer) which is found in chapter four of the Apostolic Tradition. It should not be confused with the Syriac Orthodox Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles, which is similar, and may be one of several liturgies derived from this Anaphora, yet is considerably longer and more ornate.It was used extensively by Gregory Dix in his research for his book The Shape of the Liturgy published in 1945 and subsequently by theologians such as Dr. Charles (Ted) Hackett and Dr. Don Saliers among others in preparing reforms for the Book of Common Prayer and the United Methodist Liturgies found in the current United Methodist Hymnal. This anaphora is also the inspiration for the Eucharistic Prayer II of the Catholic Mass of Paul VI.Arcángel (singer)
Austin Agustín Santos (born December 23, 1985), better known by his stage name Arcángel, is an American singer and songwriter. He was born in New York City to Dominican parents. He and his family moved to Puerto Rico and after turning 12, he began moving back and forth between New York City and Puerto Rico. He returned to Puerto Rico in 2002, interested in becoming a performer of reggaeton, a contemporary Latin American urban music genre. While living in Puerto Rico, he would eventually form part of a popular then-underground reggaeton act, Arcángel & De La Ghetto. The duo went on to make songs that became popular among reggaeton fans in the United States and Puerto Rico, including "Agresivo", "Sorpresa" and "Mi Fanática" during the mid-2000s.Arcángel went on to release his debut studio album, El Fenómeno, in late 2008. The album included songs that were produced in 2008, as well as the DJ Nelson produced "Chica Virtual", which was produced in 2007. Half of the album also included newly produced tracks, ones including "Pa' Que la Pases Bien" and "Por Amar a Ciegas", which went on to become successful airplay songs on American Latin Urban radio stations across the United States.Billboard Latin Music Hall of Fame
The Billboard Latin Music Hall of Fame is a rarely presented honor presented by American magazine Billboard at the Billboard Latin Music Awards. The accolade was established in 1994 to recognize musical personalities who have commercially and critically impacted the Latin music industry. This includes artists who laid the "artistic foundation" for contemporary Latin music. Potential recipients are nominated by Billboard's editorial committee, which decides the merit of each nominee with regards to their contribution to Latin music. Artists chosen to be inducted into the Latin Music Hall of Fame include individuals who exemplify Latin music, are pivotal or iconic pioneers, and whose works are a developmental milestone in the Latin music industry.Cuban musicians Celia Cruz and Cachao were the first artists to be inducted into the Latin Music Hall of Fame at the inaugural Billboard Latin Music Awards in 1994. Selena and Raúl Alarcón, Sr. are the only recipients to have been inducted posthumously in 1995 and 2009, respectively. Selena was named "Hot Latin Track Artist of the Year" in the same year she was inducted. Alarcón, Sr. is the first non-recording artist to have been inducted into the Latin Music Hall of Fame. José José and Marco Antonio Solís have also been recipients of the Lifetime Achievement Award. José José received the Lifetime Achievement in 2013 while Solís was given the award twice, in 2005 and 2016.Hegemonius
Hegemonius or Pseudo-Hegemonius was a 4th-century Christian who is known only from his presumed authorship of the Acta Archelai, a work on Manichaeism preserved only in Latin.
"Traditionally attributed to Hegemonius, the Acta Archelai is the oldest and most significant anti-Manichaean polemical text. Originally composed in Greek in the fourth century, it has survived mainly in a near contemporary Latin translation - substantial section of the Greek version has however survived in the Panarion of Epiphanius. The Acta gives a fictional account of a debate between Mani and Archelaus, the Christian bishop of the city of Carchar in Roman Mesopotamia as well as an important summary of his teaching on cosmogony and a highly polemical version of Mani's life. The work would later exercise enormous influence on anti-Manichaean writings in both Late Antiquity and Middle Ages."
A Latin edition Acta Disputationis Archelai, Episcopi Mesopotamia et Manetis Haresiarch was published by Lorenzo Alessandro Zaccagni, librarian of the Vatican Library, in Collectanea monumentorum veterum Ecclesiae graecae et latinae. Rome, 1698. Charles H. Beeson's edition appeared in 1906. An improved critical edition of the text of Breeson was published by Brepols Publishers (Turnhout, Belgium) in 2001. An English translation of Zaccagni's edition by S. D. F. Salmond appeared in 1871. A new translation by Mark Vermes of Breeson's edition appeared in 2001.José Emilio Pacheco
José Emilio Pacheco Berny audio (June 30, 1939 – January 26, 2014) was a Mexican poet, essayist, novelist and short story writer. He is regarded as one of the major Mexican poets of the second half of the 20th century. The Berlin International Literature Festival has praised him as "one of the most significant contemporary Latin American poets". In 2009 he was awarded the Cervantes Prize for his literary oeuvre.He taught at UNAM, as well as the University of Maryland, College Park, the University of Essex, and many others in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.
He died aged 74 in 2014 after suffering a cardiac arrest.Kartouwe
A kartouwe is a siege gun used in European warfare during the 16th and 17th centuries. The name is a corruption of Latin quartana (quarter cannon). Kartouwe is of Dutch origin, in the Holy Roman Empire the gun was called Kartaune in German or cartouwe in contemporary Latin, in the Swedish Empire Kartow, spelling variants include kartouw, kartouve, cartow, cartaun, courtaun and others.Latin
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.
Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language. In particular, Latin (and Ancient Greek) roots are used in English descriptions of theology, the sciences, medicine, and law.
By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence and author Petronius. Late Latin is the written language from the 3rd century and Medieval Latin was used from the 9th century to the Renaissance which used Renaissance Latin. Later, Early Modern Latin and New Latin evolved. Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the official language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church.
Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, up to seven noun cases, five declensions, four verb conjugations, three tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two or three aspects and two numbers.McOndo
McOndo is a Latin American literary movement that breaks with the magical realism mode of narration, and counters it with languages borrowed from mass media. The literature of McOndo presents urban Latin American life, in opposition to the rural Latin America of Macondo.Initiated by Chilean writers Alberto Fuguet and Sergio Gómez in the 1990s, the movement serves as an antidote to the Macondo-ism that demanded of all aspiring Latin American writers that they set their tales in steamy tropical jungles in which the fantastic and the real happily coexisted.
The realistic narratives of McOndo literature refer and allude to popular culture as lived in the cities and suburbs of contemporary Latin American cities—thus the gritty, hard-boiled depictions of poverty and crime, of the local economic consequences of globalization, and of social class and identity differences. Despite McOndo literature often depicting the social consequences of political economy, the narrative mode is usually less political than that of magical realism.Museum of Latin American Art
The Museum of Latin American Art (MOLAA) was founded by Dr. Robert Gumbiner in 1996 in Long Beach, California, United States and serves the greater Los Angeles area. MOLAA is the only museum in the United States dedicated to modern and contemporary Latin American and Latino art.New Latin
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin)
was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use, New Latin is subject to new word formation. As a language for full expression in prose or poetry, however, it is often distinguished from its successor, Contemporary Latin.Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard (, Modern French: [ɡiskaʁ]; c. 1015 – 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become Count of Apulia and Calabria (1057–1059), and then Duke of Apulia and Calabria and Duke of Sicily (1059–1085), and briefly Prince of Benevento (1078–1081) before returning the title to the Pope.
His sobriquet, in contemporary Latin Viscardus and Old French Viscart, is often rendered "the Resourceful", "the Cunning", "the Wily", "the Fox", or "the Weasel". In Italian sources he is often Roberto II Guiscardo or Roberto d'Altavilla (from Robert de Hauteville).Sicarii
The Sicarii (Modern Hebrew: סיקריים siqari'im) were a splinter group of the Jewish Zealots who, in the decades preceding Jerusalem's destruction in 70 CE, strongly opposed the Roman occupation of Judea and attempted to expel them and their sympathizers from the area. The Sicarii carried sicae, or small daggers, concealed in their cloaks. At public gatherings, they pulled out these daggers to attack Romans and Hebrew Roman sympathizers alike, blending into the crowd after the deed to escape detection.
The Sicarii are regarded as one of the earliest known organized assassination units of cloak and daggers, predating the Islamic Hashishin and Japanese ninja by centuries. The Spanish term "sicario" used in contemporary Latin America is synonymous with a hitman working for one of the various drug cartels, derives from sicarii. This is also explained in the opening of the 2015 film Sicario.
Ages of Latin