Contact play

The contact play is a base running play in the sport of baseball. It usually refers to a runner on third base breaking for home (but occasionally refers to a runner at second base breaking for third). Similar to the safety-squeeze play, the runner at third breaks for home as soon as he sees that the batted ball is on a downward plane for a ground ball. If there is a runner at second base, he will also break for third if the batted ball is on the first base side of second. The play can backfire if the ball is hit directly at the third baseman or the pitcher as a putout will naturally be made at home plate to prevent the run from scoring. In this situation, the baserunner may freeze and return to third. At this point the runner at third's objective changes from scoring to getting in a rundown in order to provide an opportunity for the batter to end up at second base. The main advantage to breaking for home on contact is that it reduces the amount of time an infielder will have to make a play at home and, thus, increases the likelihood of the runner scoring. A secondary advantage is that the possibility of a contact play will often cause the defensive infielders to "play in," meaning closer to home plate, giving them less time to react to a hit ball and a greater likelihood of not being able to field it cleanly.

The contact play is normally used when there is one out. With no outs, it is generally considered best not to risk being thrown out at home, since there will still be two more opportunities for later batters to drive in the runner. The only exception is when there is also a runner at first, since any ball fielded quickly enough to throw out the runner trying to score is also likely to be an easy double play ball, and the team has a much higher run expectation that inning if the result of the play is an out at home and runners on first and second than if the result is two outs and a runner at third. With two outs, all runners on base automatically break on contact, since there is no point in staying at their base while the fielder gets the final out of the inning by throwing to first base.

Most students of Sabermetrics believe the contact play is proper strategy whenever there is a man on third and one out, since the loss from failure is tiny. Using standard tables of run expectation based on the number of outs and runners on base (such as Sabremetrics 101: Run Expectancy Matrix, 1999–2002), the difference between having a runner on third with two outs (the usual result of not using the contact play on a typical ground ball out) and having a runner on second with two outs (the usual result of using the contact play and having the breaking runner caught in a rundown) is only 0.043 runs. When the contact play scores a runner who otherwise would still be at third while an out is recorded at first, the net gain is 0.730. Put another way, even if the contact play failed 16 times for every one time it succeeded, it would improve a team's run scoring overall. Even that understates the advantage, since the need for the defense to play in often results in both the runner scoring and the batter reaching base safely, in which case the net benefit is 1.186 runs, which means that it could fail 27 times as often as it helped and still benefit the team overall.

2016 Minnesota Vikings season

The 2016 season was the Minnesota Vikings' 56th in the National Football League and their third under head coach Mike Zimmer. After starting the season with five consecutive wins prior to their bye week, the Vikings managed just three victories after the bye and were eliminated from playoff contention in Week 16 with a 38–25 road loss to the Packers. They joined the 1978 Redskins, 1993 Saints, 2003 Vikings, 2009 Broncos, 2009 Giants and 2015 Falcons in missing the playoffs after starting 5–0 or better. The Vikings are the only team in NFL history to start 5–0 or better more than once and on both occasions miss the playoffs.

The team's new stadium, U.S. Bank Stadium in Minneapolis, opened at the start of the season, with a regular season debut victory on September 18 against division rival Green Bay on NBC Sunday Night Football. It was built on the site of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, the team's home from 1982 through 2013. The Vikings played at the outdoor TCF Bank Stadium at the University of Minnesota in 2014 and 2015.

On August 30, starting quarterback Teddy Bridgewater suffered a season-ending ACL tear and dislocated knee on a non-contact play during team practice. Originally, it was reported that Bridgewater's injury would keep him out for around a year-and-a-half, and on January 27, 2017, it was reported that it was possible he could also miss the entire 2017 season. The extent of Bridgewater's injury prompted the Vikings to make a trade with the Philadelphia Eagles for former number 1 draft pick Sam Bradford, giving up a first-round pick in the 2017 NFL Draft and a conditional fourth-round pick in the 2018 Draft in exchange. Adrian Peterson's season was also hit by injury after he tore the meniscus in his right knee in the home opener against the Packers. On September 22, Peterson underwent successful surgery to repair the meniscus. It was also revealed that the knee had a mild LCL sprain, but it did not need surgery. He was placed on injured reserve on September 23, 2016, and reactivated on December 17, but only made six rushing attempts before leaving the game, ending his season. Peterson left the team at the end of the season, ending his 10-year tenure with the Vikings.

Animal communication

Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers. Information may be sent intentionally, as in a courtship display, or unintentionally, as in the transfer of scent from predator to prey. Information may be transferred to an "audience" of several receivers. Animal communication is a rapidly growing area of study in disciplines including animal behavior, sociology, neurology and animal cognition. Many aspects of animal behavior, such as symbolic name use, emotional expression, learning and sexual behavior, are being understood in new ways.

When the information from the sender changes the behavior of a receiver, the information is referred to as a "signal". Signalling theory predicts that for a signal to be maintained in the population, both the sender and receiver should usually receive some benefit from the interaction. Signal production by senders and the perception and subsequent response of receivers are thought to coevolve. Signals often involve multiple mechanisms, e.g. both visual and auditory, and for a signal to be understood the coordinated behaviour of both sender and receiver require careful study.

Australian rules football injuries

Australian rules football is a sport known for its high level of physical body contact compared to other sports such as soccer and basketball. High impact collisions can occur from any direction, although deliberate collisions from front-on (known specifically as a shirtfront when the contact is body-on-body). In addition, players typically wear no protective padding of any kind except for a mouthguard (unlike the full-body gear in gridiron football codes or the shinguards in soccer). As such, injury rates tend to be high.

Soft tissue injuries are the most frequent, including injuries to the thighs and calf muscles. Osteitis pubis is a condition which particularly affects Australian rules footballers. Injuries to the knee, ankle and shoulders are also common. Hospital treated injuries account for 40 percent of all injuries.Knee reconstructions are among the career threatening injuries for professional and amateur players. Full contact play with the potential to be tackled or bumped from any angle means that the risk of a knee being twisted or caught on a dangerous angle is high.

While many players choose not to wear protective padding, players do occasionally suffer head injury resulting in loss of consciousness however spinal injury is extremely uncommon and comparatively much lower than rugby football.In recent years the AFL has commissioned official studies as well as introduced new rules and precautions aimed at reducing the number and severity of injuries in the sport.

The high levels of injuries that take place during games of football are so much that not only during a players' career are they susceptible to injuries, but the effects afterwards are detrimental to their health. One example of a current player (as of 2005) that has suffered a large share of injuries is Essendon champion James Hird, who has suffered virtually every injury imaginable.

In a study conducted recently of 413 retired VFL/AFL footballers, common problems amongst the group in old age included arthritis, hip replacements (including Kevin Sheedy, who has had two operations on his hip within a short period of time), and low ability to perform sport-based activities.

Steven Febey recently spoke out in Good Weekend (the magazine of the Fairfax newspaper network) detailing that his emphasis on fitness during his career had been cancelled out after his retirement, when the onset of injuries during his football career began to take their toll.

The AFL Players' Association is working on initiatives to set up a player welfare fund for after footballers' retirements.


"Beanball" is a colloquialism used in baseball, for a ball thrown at an opposing player with the intention of striking them such as to cause harm, often connoting a throw at the player's head (or "bean" in old-fashioned slang). A pitcher who throws beanballs often is known as a "headhunter". The term may be applied to any sport in which a player on one team regularly attempts to throw a ball toward the general vicinity of a player of the opposite team, but is typically expected not to hit that player with the ball. In cricket, the equivalent term is "beamer". Some people use the term, beaner, though that usage is discouraged because of the negative connotations associated with that usage.

Cat play and toys

Cat play and toys incorporates predatory games of "play aggression". Cats' behaviors when playing are similar to hunting behaviors. These activities allow kittens and younger cats to grow and acquire cognitive and motor skills, and to socialize with other cats. Cat play behavior can be either solitary (with toys or other objects) or social (with animals and people). They can play with a multitude of toys ranging from strings, to small furry toys resembling what would be prey (e.g. mice), to plastic bags.

Chicago Bulls

The Chicago Bulls are an American professional basketball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Bulls compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA) as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Central Division. The team was founded on January 16, 1966. The team plays its home games at the United Center, an arena shared with the Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League (NHL).

The Bulls saw their greatest success during the 1990s when they were responsible for popularizing the NBA worldwide. They are known for having one of the NBA's greatest dynasties, winning six NBA championships between 1991 and 1998 with two three-peats. All six of their championship teams were led by Hall of Famers Michael Jordan, Scottie Pippen and coach Phil Jackson. The Bulls are the only NBA franchise to win multiple championships while never losing an NBA Finals series in their history.

The Bulls won 72 games during the 1995–96 NBA season, setting an NBA record that stood until the Golden State Warriors won 73 games during the 2015–16 NBA season. The Bulls were the first team in NBA history to win 70 games or more in a single season, and the only NBA franchise to do so until the 2015–16 Warriors. Many experts and analysts consider the 1996 Bulls to be one of the greatest teams in NBA history.

Michael Jordan and Derrick Rose have both won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award while playing for the Bulls, for a total of six MVP awards.

The Bulls share rivalries with the Cleveland Cavaliers, Detroit Pistons, Miami Heat and the New York Knicks. The Bulls' rivalry with the Pistons was highlighted heavily during the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Dennis Pitta

Dennis Gregory Pitta Jr. (born June 29, 1985) is a former American football tight end. He played college football at BYU, where he was a consensus All-American. He was drafted by the Baltimore Ravens in the fourth round of the 2010 NFL Draft. After two strong seasons in the NFL, Pitta suffered a hip injury in 2013 and played only occasionally until 2016, when he had his best NFL season. A further injury in 2017 ended his career.

Deshaun Watson

Derrick Deshaun Watson (born September 14, 1995) is an American football quarterback for the Houston Texans of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Clemson and led the team to a CFP championship game appearance in 2015 and a national championship win in 2016. He was selected by the Texans 12th overall in the 2017 NFL Draft. In 2018, his second year, Watson was named to his first career Pro Bowl.

Façon Sex

"Façon Sex" is a 2006 song recorded by the French duet Tribal King. This R&B and dancehall song was released in August, 2006, as the first single from their debut album, Welcome. Charted in francophone countries, "Façon Sex" achieved a great success, particularly in France and Belgium where it topped the singles chart, thus being a summer hit.

Hitting for the cycle

In baseball, hitting for the cycle is the accomplishment of one batter hitting a single, a double, a triple, and a home run in the same game. Collecting the hits in that order is known as a "natural cycle". Cycles are semi-rare in Major League Baseball (MLB), having occurred only 327 times, starting with Curry Foley in 1882. The most recent example was accomplished by Jake Bauers of the Cleveland Indians on June 14, 2019, against the Detroit Tigers. The Miami Marlins are the only current MLB franchise who have never had a player hit for the cycle.

Keanu Neal

Keanu Neal (born July 26, 1995) is an American football safety for the Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at the University of Florida.

Michael Beasley

Michael Paul Beasley Jr. (born January 9, 1989) is an American professional basketball player who plays for the Guangdong Southern Tigers of the Chinese Basketball Association. He played college basketball for Kansas State University for one year before declaring for the NBA draft in 2008. He is regarded as one of the best freshman college basketball players of the 2000s. Though he is ambidextrous, he shoots left-handed.

Mirror go

Mirror go is a type of elementary Go opening strategy. It refers to all go openings in which one player plays moves that are diagonally opposite those of this opponent, making positions that have a rotational symmetry through 180° about the central 10-10 point (tengen in Japanese). The Japanese term for mirror go is manego.

There are actually two types of strategy of this kind, and several ways the symmetry can or should be broken for tactical or strategic reasons.

In games without komidashi compensation points given, Black starts at 10-10 and imitates White subsequently. Black hopes that the possession of the central point will give an edge in an otherwise symmetrical position.

In games with komidashi, White imitates Black from the start. Black can eventually occupy the central point, but White will then hope to show that the game can be made close enough on the board so that the compensation points give a win.In itself, mirror go is a deeply flawed strategy. It may be refuted in a number of ways: using ladder tactics, using ko fights, or most convincingly for a novice by using contact plays to demonstrate that possession of the central point can just as well lead to shortage of liberties. This has not prevented the circulation of folklore stories about mirror go as some kind of sure-win strategy, eagerly taken up by novice players. Hikaru No Go episode 8 featured a naive attempt to trick Akira Toya using mirror go, which Toya easily rebuffed using the contact play strategy.

Mirror go can be refuted in boards of odd size rather more easily than those of even size. This is a probable explanation of why odd sizes are always used. (On even-sized boards ladders and kos still can be used.)

After sporadic use down the years, mirror go was brought back into some fashion by the shinfuseki period, in which the tengen opening was explored. Subsequently Fujisawa Kuranosuke used it often as White, aiming for large-scale battles.

Short Dick Man

"Short Dick Man" is a song by American hip house group 20 Fingers featuring rapper Gillette. It was released in August 1994 on Zoo Entertainment/SOS Records as their debut single from their album On the Attack and More. It also appears on 20 Fingers' second self-titled studio album and on Gillette's debut solo album On the Attack. The tune was a global success, particularly in France and Italy where it was a number-one hit. It also reached number three in Germany, number four in Australia, number six in Austria and the Wallonia region of Belgium, and number seven in the Netherlands and New Zealand.

Small ball (baseball)

In the sport of baseball, small ball is an informal term for an offensive strategy in which the batting team emphasizes placing runners on base and then advancing them into scoring position for a run in a deliberate, methodical way. This strategy places a high value on individual runs and attempts to score them without requiring extra base hits, or sometimes without base hits at all, instead using bases on balls, stolen bases, sacrifice bunt or sacrifice fly balls, the hit-and-run play, and aggressive baserunning with such plays as the contact play. A commonly used term for a run produced playing small ball is a "manufactured run". This style of play is more often found in National League game situations than in the American League due in large part to the absence of the designated hitter in the National League.

However, the 2014-2015 Kansas City Royals are the most recent example of a team with a small ball orientation.

A team may incorporate a small-ball strategy for a variety of reasons, including:

The team is confident that their pitching staff will allow very few runs, thus one or two runs may win the game.

The opposing pitching staff allows few hits, especially extra-base hits, and small ball may be the best way to score runs at all.

The team lacks consistent hitters and must find a way to score runs with few base hits.

The team has several members who are very quick and are likely to steal bases, or go from first base to third base on a single.

The team is in the late innings of a close game and a single run will tie the game, break a tie, or extend a narrow lead.Most commonly, managers will switch to small-ball tactics while a game is in progress, doing so upon the convergence of a variety of factors including having appropriate hitters coming up next in the batting order and, often, having fast runners already on base. A team could also start the game with the intention of playing small ball but then change from this strategy at some point during a game, depending on circumstances, such as when the opposing pitcher is struggling or has left the game or when the team is ahead or behind by several runs.

Switch hitter

In baseball, a switch hitter is a player who bats both right-handed and left-handed, usually right-handed against left-handed pitchers and left-handed against right-handed pitchers.

Vernon Davis

Vernon Davis (born January 31, 1984) is an American football tight end for the Washington Redskins of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Maryland. He was drafted by the San Francisco 49ers sixth overall in the 2006 NFL Draft. Upon entering the league, Davis signed a five-year, US$23 million deal that made him the highest paid tight end at the time. In 2009, Davis co-led the NFL in touchdown receptions.

In the 2011–12 NFL playoffs with the 49ers, Davis caught the game-winning touchdown pass from Alex Smith against the New Orleans Saints, referred to by fans and the media as "The Catch III". In 2015, Davis was traded to the Denver Broncos, where he won Super Bowl 50 with the team over the Carolina Panthers. The following season, he signed with the Washington Redskins.

Baseball concepts
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Base running

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